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(No Summer Number) 

Manual Arts ^rrsa 



[N'ames of contributors of articles are set in small capitals. (E) indicates an editorial. 

Associations — Chicago Teachers' 
Manual and Art Association, 448; 
Cleveland Manual Training Club, 
157; Eastern Manual Training As- 
sociation, 356; Hampden County 
(Mass.) Teachers' Convention, 155; 
High School Conference, University 
of Illinois, 254; The Illinois Man- 
ual Arts Association, 73, 348; Illi- 
nois State Teachers' Assocation, 158; 
Iowa State Teachers' Assocation, 
355; Missouri State Association of 
Applied Arts and Sciences, 447 ; Na- 
tional Education Association, 68 , 
256, 438; National Society for the 
Promotion of Industrial Education, 
343 ; Ohio Art and Manual Train- 
ing Teachers' Association, 257 ; 
School Crafts Club, 357; The Soci- 
ety for the Promotion of Engineering 
Education, 71 ; Texas Society of 
Manual Training Teachers, 259; 
Western Drawing and Manual 
Training Association, 73, 259, 357, 

Bailey, Charles H. — A Grammar 
Grade Equipment for Woodworking 
and Drawing, 138; A High School 
Equipment for Bench Work, Wood- 
Turning and Mechanical Drawing, 

Bailev, Henry Turner — The Influ- 
ence of Graphic Art in the Train- 
ing of Men and Women, 185. 

Ballou, Frank W. — The Present 

Status of Manual Training in the 

Public Schools of the United States, 

Bawden, William T. — Fourth Annual 
High School Conference, University 
of Illinois, 254; The Illinois Man- 
ual Arts Association, 348 ; The Na- 
tional Society for the Promotion of 
Industrial Education, 343 ; Western 
Drawing and Manual Training As- 
sociation (Indianapolis meeting), 

Bennett, Charles A. — As Others See 
Us (E), 435; College Credits in the 
Manual Arts (E), 251; Experiments 
in Industrial Education (E), 64; 
The Founder of Bradley Institute, 
(E), 340; Mr. Larsson Honored 
(E), 66; The London Congress (E), 

153, 342; xMilwaukee's Public Trade 
School (E), 153; Outline of a High 
School Course in Metalworking, 
335; Herr Salomon Dead (E), 340. 

Books, Some Decorative (111.) — Ger- 
trude Stiles, 41. 

Boone, Cheshire L. — A Course of 
Studv in Manual Training (III.), I, 
134;"ll, 234; III, 324; IV, 385. 

Brace, George M. — Minnesota Educa- 
titonal Association (Manual Arts 
Section), 357. 

Brodhead, John C. — An Appreciation 
of Cardboard Construction, 412. 

Butler, Louis C. — Interest Aids in 
Grade Joinery (111.), 417. 

Cardboard Construction, An Appre- 
ciation of — John C. Brodhead, 412. 

Coping Saw Work (111.)— B. W. 
Johnson, 379. 

Crawshavv, Fred D. — Rooms and 
Equipments for Manual Training 
High School Buildings (111.), 422. 

Current Items — Clinton S. Van Deu- 
sen, 83, 173, 270, 366, 464. 

Davis, Solon P. — The International 
Federation for the Teaching of 
Drawing and the Promotion of Art 
Education, 146. 

Design, A College Course in Construc- 
tive (111.)— Charles R. Richards, I, 
114; II, 222. 

Embroiderv (III.) — Gertrude Roberts 
Smith, i; 33; II, 128. 

Frederick, Frank Forrest — The Wash 
Method of Handling Water Colour 

(111.), 285. 

Grammar CJrade Equipment for 
Woodworking and Drawing, A — 
Charles H. Bailey, 138. 

Graphic Art in the Training of Men 
and Women, The Influence of — 
Henry Turner Bailey, 185. 

Hetzel, Henry W. — Simple Chair 
Making, 242. 

High School Equipment for Bench 
Work, Wood-Turning and Mechan- 

I N D E X 


ical Drawing, A — Charles H. Bai- 
ley, 246. 

Industrial Education in the Elementary 
Schools — Frank M. Leavitt, 377. 

Industrial Education, The Relation 
of Art to — Charles R. Richards, 1. 

Interest Aids in Grade Joinery (111.) 
— Louis C. Butler, 417. 

International Federation for the 
Teaching of Drawing and the Pro- 
motion of Art Education, The — So- 
lon P. Davis, 146. 

Jinks, Johnt H. — Manual Training at 
Hampton Institute and Its Relation 
to the Trades (111.), 200. 

Johnson, B. W. — Coping Saw Work 
(111.), 379. 

Joints, The Common (111.) — William 
Noyes, 51. 

Leavitt, Frank M. — Industrial Edu- 
cation in the Elementary Schools, 377 

Manny, Frank A. — Participation and 
Productive Labor in German and 
American Schools, 142. 

Manual Training, A Course of Study 
in (111.)— Cheshire L. Boone, I, 134'; 

II, 235; III, 324; IV, 385. 

Manual Training at Hampton Insti- 
tute and Its Relation to the Trades 
(111.)— John H. Jinks, 200. 

Manual Training in the Elementary 
School, The Place of — Edwin L. 
Taylor, 190. 

Manual Training in the Public 
Schools of the United States, The 
Present Status of — Frank W. Ballou, 

Manual Training, Some Experiments 
in Elementary (111.) — Harris W. 
Moore, 296. 

Metalworking, Outline of a High 
School Course in — Charles A. Ben- 
nett, 335. 

Miller, James Collins — National Edu- 
cation Association, 68. 

Morrison, Gilbert B. — The Organiz- 
ation of Manual Training in the 
High School (111.), I, 24; II, 103; 

III, 211; IV', 311. 

Moore, Harris W. — Some experiments 
in Elementary Manual Training 
(III.), 296. 

Murray, Michael W. — The Study of 
Printing, 329. 

Noyes, William — The Common Joints 
(III.), 51. 


Organization of Manual Training in 
the High School, The (111.)— Gil- 
bert B. Morrison, I, 24; II, 103; III, 
211 ; IV, 311. 

Participation and Productive Labor in 
German and American Schools — 
Frank A. Manny, 142. 

Pioneers, For — William Hawley Smith, 

Printing, The Study of (111.)— Mich- 
ael W. Murray, 329. 

Reviews — Boxall's The Woodwork 
Scholar's Guide in the Use of 
Tools, 94; Browning's A Course in 
Structural Drafting, 183; Course of 
Study for the Common Schools of 
Illinois, 96; Draper's Trade Schools, 
470 ; Fisher's An Elementary Labo- 
ratory, 372; Follows'-Universal Dic- 
tionary of Mechanical Drawing, 
277; Hough's Handbook of The 
Trees of the Northern States and 
Canada, 182; Johnson's Education 
by Plays and Games, 278 ; Koch's 
Paper Toys and How to Make 
Them, 471; Larsson's Sloyd for the 
Three Upper Grammar Grades, 93 ; 
Major's First Steps in Mental 
Growth, 95 ; Mathewson's A Brief 
Course in Machine Drawing, 279 ; 
Mayer's Lehrgang fur Modellieren, 
94; McGlauflin's Sewing Manual, 
374; Monroe's History of the Pesta- 
lozzian Movement in the United 
States, 93 ; Noyes' Syllabus on Wood 
and Woodworking, 278 ; Pabst's Die 
Knabenhandarbeit in der Heutigen 
Erziehung, 471; Pier's Mathematics 
for the Machine Shop, 279 ; Prang's 
Art Education Drawing Book 
Course, 95; Richards' Selected Bibli- 
ography on Industrial Education, 
96; Selden's Elementary Turning, 
277; Steiger's Textile Studies, 374; 
Yearbook of the Council, 373. 



Richards, R. — A College 
Course in Constructive Design 
(111.), I, 114; II, 122\ The Relation 
of Manual Training to Industrial 
Education, 1 ; Skillful Expression in 
School Arts (E), 152. 

Roberts, Helen E. — The Society for the 
Promotion of Engineering Educa- 
tion, 71. 

Roberts, William E. — Industrial Edu- 
cation in Cleveland (E), 252; Na- 
tional Education Association (E), 
436; The Summer School (E), 437. 

Rooms and Equipments for Manual 
Training High School Buildings 
(III.)— Fred D. Crawshavv, 422. 

Seaton, George A. — Shop Problems, 
74, 162, 263, 358, 450. 

Selvidge, R. W.— The National Edu- 
cation Association (Washington 
Meeting), 438. 

Shop Problems — Bird House, 168; 
Cast Washer, 168; Cutting Board, 
74; Doll's Bed, 263; Electric Motor, 
450; The Electrophorus, 76; Fold- 
ing Candlesticks, 268; Frame and 
Plate Rail, 268; Induction Coil, 
166; Ink Bottle Holder, 269; Letter 
Rack, 76; Oil Cup, 457; Padded 
Stool, 74; Pattern Making, 362; 
Pencil Holder, 462; A Pewter Can- 
dlestick, 457; Plate Rack, 456; 
Plumb Bob, 263 ; Simple Bridge, 358; 
Simple Hinge, 462; Simple Stool, 
162; Small Wall Cabinet, 162; 
Square Candlestick, 358; Small Ta- 
ble, 358; Tabouret, 76; Water Mo- 
tor, 452, 456. 

Siepert, Albert F. — Iowa State Teach- 
ers' Association, 355. 

Si Ike, Lucy S. — Chicago Teachers' 
Manual and Art Association, 448. 

Simple Chair Making — Henry W. 
Hetzel, 242. 

S.VHTH, Gertrude Roberts — Embroid- 
ery (111.), I, 33; II, 128. 

Smith, Wim.iam Hawley — For Pio- 
neers, 97. 

Stiles, Gertrude — Some Decorative 
Books, 41. 

Tavi.or, Ed\vi\ L. — The Place of 
Manual Training in the Elementary 
School, 190. 

Taylor, Graham— The Effect ,of 
Trade Schools on the Social Inter- 
ests of the People, 281. 

Trade Schools on the Social Interests 
of the People, The Effect of — Gra- 
ham Taylor, 281. 

Transportation, A Studv in the Devel- 
opment of (111.)— William R. Ward, 

Van Deusen, Clinton S. — Current 
Items, 83, 173, 270, 366, 463. 

Ward William R. — A Study in the 
Development of Transportation 
(111.), 392. 

Water Colour, The Wash Method of 
Handling (111.) — Frank Forrest 
Frederick, 285. 

Whitcomb, Fred C. — Ohio Art and 
Manual Training Teachers' Asso- 
ciation, 257. 

Woodworking, Illinois State Course 
in, 158. 

Worth, William A. — School Crafts 

Club, 357. 

Copyright, 1908, Charles A. Bennett 


Manual Training Magazine 

OCTOBER, 1907 


Charles R. Richards 

IN that remarkable book, "Democracy and Social Ethics," Miss 
Addams says: "The schools do so little really to interest the child 
in the life of production, or to excite his ambition in the line of in- 
dustrial occupation, that the ideal of life, almost from the beginning, 
becomes not an absorbing interest in one's work and consciousness of its 
value and social relations but a desire for money with which unmeaning 
purchases may be made and an unmeaning social standing obtained." 

Later on, speaking of the worker in the industries, she says: "It is 
doubtless true that dexterity of hand becomes less and less imperative as 
the invention of machinery and subdivision of labor proceeds ; but it 
becomes all the more necessary, if the workman is to save his life at all, 
that he should get a sense of his individual relation to the system. Feed- 
ing a machine with a material of which he has no knowledge, producing 
a product, totally unrelated to the rest of his life, without in the least 
knowing what becomes of it, or its connection with the community, is, 
of course, unquestionably deadening to his intellectual and moral lif?. 
To make the moral connection it would be necessary to give him a social 
consciousness of the value of his work, and at least a sense of participa- 
tion and a certain joy in its ultimate use; to make the intellectual 
connection it would be essential to create in him some historic con- 
ception of the development of industry and the relation of his individual 
work to it". 

When Miss Addams spoke before the Western Drawing and Man- 

^Read before the Western Drawing and Manual Training Association, 
Cleveland, Ohio, May 10, 1907. 



ual Training Association at Chicago two years ago she said, in effect, to 
us, "It is upon you teachers of art and manual training that we must 
depend for help in this problem. It is you, and you only, that can 
develop influences that will bring to this army of wage-earners something 
of true social consciousness, something of joy and satisfaction in their 
work, something of stimulation toward a larger intellectual life." It 
seems to me that in these words of Miss Addams is "to be found the key 
to the most significant relation of art and manual training to industry. 
Yes, further than that, it seems to me that in these same words it to be 
found much of the deepest meaning of art and manual training for 
education in general. 

During the last twenty years we have made great advances in 
teaching the manual arts. We have advanced from the abstract exercise 
where accurate manipulation and tool control w^as the one consideration, 
to the model designed to fulfill a useful purpose. We have given in- 
creasing play to individual expression in working out the problem of 
ways and means, and finally we have recognized the inherent demand for 
beauty in all created things and are bringing design into a natural rela- 
tion to construction. 

This is indeed great progress but it is progress mainly on the side of 
method of teaching. When we look over our practice today, can we say 
that in these twenty years any similar advance has been made in the 
variety of experiences gained or in the scope of ideas presented ? 

Do we not still select our material of instruction largely upon the 
single consideration of what children can most easily do with their hands 
and what will momentarily attract them, with little regard to whether 
the thing done has any special industrial significance or any large social 
meaning? And is not the practical test that we continue to apply to our 
constructive work that of skill rather than that of ideas gained or out- 
look broadened? 

We say that skill apart from the expression of motive and ideas is an 
unworthy educational ideal and yet can it be claimed that w^e have given 
anything like the same attention to the organization of ideas in any broad 
sense that we have to developing power of manipulation? 

But w'hether we consider the future industrial worker or the boy 
who enters other occupations, is it not precisely in the extent and quality 
of ideas gained from manual training that its greatest value resides? 
In both of these cases is it not in mental quickening and broadening of 
outlook that we must look for the highest fruits of our subject? 


When we are actually engaged in teaching constructive work even in 
the higher grades of the elementary school, is not the conviction con- 
stantly forced upon us that this is not a period when much accuracy of 
manipulation or fine muscular control are natural qualities of boy and 
girl life? And, on the other hand, are we not constantly reminded that 
it is a period of great sensitiveness of feeling, of much self assertiveness, 
of great interest in the doings of the real world and of eagerness to par- 
ticipate in the achievements of this world ? Can we expect to meet and 
satisfy this eager craving for information and achievement by anything 
except the broadest opening up of the real world outside of school and 
the reflection in the school of facts bigger with meaning than the mere 
handcraft result? 

Skill by itself in the few lines and limited extent possible in the 
elementary school amounts to very little in industrial value. Even could 
we develop skill in any one channel to a much larger extent, the lines of 
modern industry are too diversified to allow of its application. 

And on the other hand what is needed more than skill in the indus- 
tries, the Massachusetts Report tells us, is industrial intelligence — "the 
power to see bej^ond the task which occupies the hands for the moment 
to the operations which have preceded and to those which will follow it, 
power to take in the whole process, knowledge of materials, ideas of cost, 
ideas of organization, business sense and a conscience which recognizes 

On the other hand when we turn to the general problem of education 
is it not this same appreciation and understanding of industry that is 
most to be desired? 

These considerations bring forward the question of the content or 
subject matter of the manual arts as a distinct problem. As a matter of 
fact we have been very slow to admit that our field possesses any subject 
matter at all and the argument is sometimes made that manual training 
is a form of expression, a phase of child life, and that the subject matter, 
if it has any, is to be sought in the natural activities of children. This 
point of view would seem to be a very accurate statement of just half of 
the problem and to confuse end and means. It ignores the fact that 
while the nature of the child gives the clue to method of teaching, the 
subject matter of education is of necessity found in the demands of social 
life by which the pupil is surrounded and in which he is taking an in- 
creasing part. To know how to present our material it is indeed neces- 
sary to study the capacities and native instincts of children. In no other 


way can education be made a live process, but the selection of subject 
matter must needs be found in the world outside of the child in the 
understanding;; and control of which he is constantly enlarging. 

Another point of view regards manual training as an opportunity to 
bring out a better understanding of the other subjects in the curriculum, 
such as history, geography and science. It is indeed true that there are 
generous opportunities in this direction and surely we have the right to 
feel that art and manual training have done much during the last ten 
years to enrich and vitalize the methods of teaching in the elementary 

But is it enough that art and manual training should serve merely 
to visualize and enliven the other elements in the course of study? Is it 
enough to accept these other studies as our subject matter and to regard 
art and manual training as but methods of instruction — as but a study 
of form and not of content — as indeed but a handmaid in the service of 
instruction ? 

Is it not a serious question whether work that means so much of dif- 
ficulty and expense will long be tolerated by the tax payer unless it serves 
in itself to present a content rich in ideas — ideas that in themselves will 
make possible a better understanding of and more effective participation 
in our social order? And why, in this age, when industrial problems 
constitute the gravest problems in our social life and when the dominant 
forces forming and reforming our society are the industrial, have we the 
right to hesitate before this question? 

Starting with the simplest means of obtaining food, clothing and 
shelter, the industrial arts have gradually reared the fabric of modern 
civilization. Is it not at once our opportunity and responsibility to iden- 
tify ourselves as the representatives in the school of this great field of 
human activity and to take for our task as teachers the interpretation of 
the arts and industries of modern life? 

This proposition should not be construed in any sense as an argument 
towards isolation of our subjects from the rest of the school work. On 
the contrary, the more truly and broadly we connect with real life the 
more broadly and effectively we should be able to connect with all the 
other work of the school that is making for an understanding of real life. 
Nor is such a program utilitarian in its essence. The arts are social in 
their significance. They make for "human progress and betterment. 
The practice of the arts means social relations and social relations are 
moral relations. And no study of the arts, when they are approached 
in their social setting, can be void of the moral element. 


To work out such a program, many years would be needed. We 
should meet many failures and many half successes and our ideal would 
lie always beyond us, but in the long run should we not develop an edu- 
cational instrument of tremendous significance to the day and generation; 
an instrument that would tend to bring greater meaning, broader outlook 
and increased social consciousness into the lives not only of those who 
enter the industries but of those who go forward into other activities? 

To move toward such an end as this, the manual training instructor 
must become more than a teacher of tool processes. Yes, he must be- 
come even more than a craft teacher. As the interpreter for the school 
of the arts and industries, he would work not only through the making 
of constructive projects, but through the presentation in other ways of 
many relations and aspects that cannot be embodied in school productions. 
He would make liberal use of discussion, of drawing and illustrative 
material, and would not fail to develop some notion of the organization 
of modern industry, with the significance of its machinery and division 
of labor and the economic principles involved. 

All of this would, of course, have to be done in proper balance. I 
am far from suggesting that this study of the industries should be largely 
a matter of talking or of book study. There should always be a just 
relation between impression and expression. The constructive instinct 
would always be the key to the situation, and the ideas presented should 
always focus and find typical expression in constructive form. 

We have of late years come to rely almost wholly in our school 
practice in manual training upon the motive of possession, or as it is put, 
making something for a useful purpose. We all know that this is a 
powerful incentive, but is it not a great mistake to conclude that individ- 
ual possession is the only motive that leads children naturally to con- 
structive effort? As Dr. Dewey has pointed out, the real principle of 
interest "lies in the recognized identity of the fact or proposed line of 
action with the self. That it lies in the direction of the agent's own 
growth, and is therefore imperiously demanded if the agent is to be him- 

With boys and girls in the upper grades of the elementary school 
this interest may be appealed to by projects of far larger suggestiveness 
than the individual useful model. If the achievement is felt to mean 
something of progress toward the understanding and control of things 
in the real world that are recognized as worth while, there will be no 
question of interest, and individual or co-operative projects that repre- 


sent the study and working out of industrial types in a purely illustra- 
tive way may be made to arouse fully as much enthusiasm and spontane- 
ous effort as the model intended for use in the home. 

All those who have worked with children at such projects where the 
problems were well adjusted and where liberal opportunities were given 
for initiative and expression have, I venture to say, been struck by the 
wide range of suggestion, the interest in discussion and the rather sur- 
prising store of information displayed. Again and again have students 
been impressed with the intellectual activity and spontaneity and self- 
direction displayed by a class working upon the varied details of an 
industrial project — an activity often far greater than that displayed upon 
an individual useful model where the demand for mental activity is 
sometimes limited to the control of a few familiar tool processes. 

But many of you will say, "What is the use of attempting all this 
when so little can be accomplished?" The same question has been asked 
concerning every innovation in the work of the elementary school. It 
was asked concerning the introduction of nature study, of drawing, of 
history, and of literature. 

In one sense the result from any study taken up in the elementary 
school is necessarily very meager viewed from the standpoint of the full 
development of the subject. We can teach very little mathematics in the 
elementary school, and yet we are very far from giving up the task. We 
realize that this instruction is all that over nine-tenths of the boj^s and 
girls in the country will ever have the chance to obtain, and furthermore 
that it is quite possible in this amount of time to give enough appreciation 
of the subject to meet their practical needs in life. And so it is with 
this matter of the industries. We can not expect to approach the sub- 
ject from the standpoint of the engineer, or the expert, or to develop a 
mathematical and scientific appreciation of industrial methods, but may 
we not do a great deal to illuminate and expand the point of view of the 
boy and girl and give them a vastly greater appreciation of this industrial 
fabric with which we are surrounded ? 

Let us consider for a moment the concrete case of a mill town where 
the boys and girls who stop their education with the elementary school 
go to a very large extent into the mills as operatives. These become 
the typical factory workers to whom Miss Addams refers. "They 
handle the machinery day by day, without any notion of its gradual evo- 
lution and growth. Few of the men who perform the mechanical work 
in the great factories have any comprehension of the fact that the in- 


ventions upon which the factory depends, the instruments which they 
use, have been slowly worked out, each generation using the gifts of the 
last and transmitting the inheritance until it has become a social possess- 
ion. This can only be understood by a man who has obtained some idea 
of social progress." 

Let us suppose that during the elementary school experiences of these 
boys and girls they were brought into contact with different textile 
materials and allowed to find out something of their character ; were 
shown from actual experiment the different steps necessary to make cloth 
from the raw material in the simplest possible way; were required to 
study the problem of improving the first crude methods to the stage of 
the developed hand spinning wheel and hand loom, and were afterwards 
taught the meaning of the more important developments in the power 
machinery of the present day; suppose that they practiced the different 
fundamental weaves and anah^zed the different ways in which the dif- 
ferent kinds of cloth are made; that they learned the sources of the 
world's supply of raw material, the names and positions of the great 
manufacturing centers and the prices of raw material and of finished 
product; that they made simple designs for the pieces which they wove 
and were shown various methods of applying designs to cloth, and exam- 
ples of beautiful fabrics. Would not these children carry into their 
future work some appreciation of the meaning of their single tasks that 
would do something to lift them above the dull routine of their labor, 
and give them more of the feeling of connection and unity with the 
world about them? And furthermore, would not sucti an experience 
lead to a mental quickening sure to bear fruit here ^md there in im- 
provements and inventions among these workers ? 

Does this sound visionary and chimerical? Yet a leading textile 
manufacturer of New England has said that he believed such training 
would accomplish more than any other influence that can be brought to 
bear in broadening the outlook and stimulating the ambition of young 
mill workers. 

Again, many of you wall say that this broad program is impractica- 
ble under the conditions of the public schools, that while certain things 
can be accomplished with small classes under favorable conditions, large 
classes and limitations of space and resources would prevent much of 
anything being done under ordinary conditions. 

There are two points of reply that I would make to these objections. 
First, that the history of the manual training movement shows nothing 


more clearly than that what is impracticable today is accomplished to- 
morrow. And, second, that this question of interpreting the industries 
in the school means more a change of attitude in our teaching than the 
addition of large projects or expensive materials. Furthermore, much 
is being accomplished today in this very direction. Highly developed 
work in the study of textiles, in pottery, in printing, in book-making, and 
in the study of simple industrial types is already being carried on in 
typical public schools in several large cities. 

The problem is very largely one of selection and organization of ma- 
terial. It is evident that not a great amount in a quantitative sense can 
be covered in the small time available and that only a study of those in- 
dustries most fundamental to the existence of society, such as per- 
tain to food, clothing, shelter and those representative of transporta- 
tion and communication, fall within the possibilities. But it is precisely 
these industries which represent the material foundations of modern 
civilization and which are typical in their character of the entire indus- 
trial situation of today. 

There is another point of view from which this question has a very 
important bearing upon industrial education and upon education in gen- 
eral. The report of the Massachusetts Commission on Industrial Edu- 
cation brought to the attention of the educational world more forcibly 
than any other utterance of recent years the tremendous proportion of 
children who leave the elementary school before graduation. And, it 
also brought out the comparatively unappreciated fact that the years 
spent by such children in industrial work before the age of sixteen are 
for the most part wasted as far as developing future opportunity is con- 
cerned. The report also developed the point that the greater proportion 
of these children, at least in Massachusetts, leave school not because of 
pecuniary need, but because the work of the school is not sufficiently at- 
tractive to hold them, and because they are ambitious to engage in the 
activities of the real world. To hold these children in school is conse- 
quently a grave problem of industrial as well as of general education. 

Among all the agencies that can be called upon to make school life 
more an epitome of real life and to make it a place where this adolescent 
craving for real achievement will be satisfied is there anything compara- 
ble to the opportunities presented by a constructive study of the indus- 
tries? Is it not pretty nearly true that in the chance of making our 
constructive work more a reflection of the actual industrial world lies 
th? sole hope of increasing the holding power of the school in these 


upper grades? Such a result is not likely to be accomplished by mere 
increase of the usual manual training work. It is rather upon a change 
of spirit and character that we must build to make this instruction more 
significant in its practical bearings and more powerful in its appeal to 
boys and girls of fourteen. Is it not, in short, instruction that is based 
primarily upon the stimulating power of ideas rather than upon the 
development of skill that we must rely? 

This country today is waking far and wide to the importance of in- 
dustrial education and is evidencing a tremendous interest in the prob- 
lems of ways and means. It is without question that many plans and 
institutions for vocational training will be brought into being in the next 
few years and yet whatever comes to pass in this direction, it will still 
be true that the primary and fundamental influences in industrial educa- 
tion, whether it be a question of developing S3'mpathy for industrial 
careers, of stimulating industrial intelligence or of broadening the social 
outlook, rest in the hands of us who are concerned with the art and 
manual training of the public schools. 

And if we read our opportunities aright and can make these sub- 
jects a reflection of what is of truest and of largest meaning in indus- 
trial life, shall we not contribute a real share towards the realization — 
to again use the words of Miss Addams — of "the democratic ideal (that) 
demands of the school that it shall give the child's own experience a 
social value; that it shall teach him to direct his own activities and ad- 
just them to those of his fellows". 





Frank W. Ballou 

HOW to adjust the education of the rising generation more com- 
pletely to the needs of society is one of the educational prob- 
lems which has always received careful consideration. Inter- 
est in manual training for city and village schools during the past 
fifteen or twenty years, and the more recent interest in agricultural 
education for rural communities, are the forms of expression which 
this consideration has taken. These two lines of activity are component 
parts of the same movement toward providing a more practical educa- 
tion for certain classes of society. This article is the result of an inves- 
tigation to determine in general the extent to which the demand for a 
more efficient education through manual training has been heeded by 
those who prescribe the course of study in our educational system. 
Only cities of over eight thousand inhabitants have been considered 
although the fact has been revealed that a surprisingly large number of 
smaller cities and villages have manual training in the public schools. 
Of course, only relative conditions can be shown in such an investigation, 
yet in view of the fact that over seventy per cent of all the cities fur- 
nished data, and that in most cases the results were decisive, the conclu- 
sions drawn may be considered as at least approaching exactness. No 
attempt was made to determine the nature of the work given in the 
schools of the different cities, nor are any figures available to show the 
number of schools in which manual training is taught in the various 
cities; but rather, this article will present a panoramic view of the extent 
to which manual training is taught, and its place in general in the 
public school systems of our cities. All statistics from which conclusions 
are here drawn were furnished by superintendents in reply to questions 
asked them in a circular letter. 


One of the questions asked of each superintendent was, "In what 
grade was manual training first introduced?" By the statistics it is 
shown that the custom is to introduce this work for the first time in the 
eighth grade. There is practically a uniformity in introducing it into 



the first four grades, which represent the primary department. The 
work in these grades is in most cases "busy work" and by many is not 
called manual training work. There is a decided advance over the 
primary grades in the number of cities introducing manual training first 
in the fifth grade, followed by a gradual increase to the eighth grade. 
To make this more concrete, it may be stated that sixty-two cities 
reporting have introduced manual training first in the first grade, while 
one hundred and sixty-three have thus introduced it into the eighth 
grade. Not more than half as many cities have introduced it for the 
first time in the high school. 

Those schools which introduce manual training in more than the 
first year of high school usually introduce it in all four years. There 
is the greatest difference between the first and second years, because it is 
customary to introduce it into the first year to give it a trial, and then 
to extend it into the other grades of the high school. In general, the 
history of the introduction and extension of manual training is as fol- 
lows: In most cases it is begun in the eighth grade and gradually ex- 
tended over the preceding grades; where it is begun in the primary, it 
is introduced throughout the four grades; in the high school it is intro- 
duced for the first time in the first year, and then gradually extended to 
the later years. 

Economic and utilitarian reasons iustifv the introduction ot manual 
training first in the eighth grade. We will all agree, probably, that 
manual training consisting of elementary benchwork is not only the 
most interesting part of manual training work that is to be found in the 
elementary school, but it is also the most valuable work in manual train- 
ing offered there. It is to be expected, therefore, that this work would 
be the first to be introduced where it is not possible, for economic 
reasons, to put it in all grades. Further, it i§ placed in the last grade 
of the elementary schools in order that it may be of service to those boys 
and girls who will not go beyond the elementary school. From its in- 
troduction at this point in the school curriculum, it has been developed 
and extended until it covers today the whole field of elementary and sec- 
ondary education. 


Uniformity is the word to characterize the extent of manual training 
in the primary grades in those cities having manual training as only a 
few cities have it in the fourth grade that do not have it in the first 


three. In fact, the status of manual training, as to number of cities 
having it in the various grades, is clearly in accord with the facts pre- 
sented concerning its introduction. In the intermediate school there is 
more difference between anj- two grades than is found in the primary. 
By far the larger number of cities have manual training in the seventh 
and eighth grades. In comparing the first with the eighth grade, for 
example, we find that there are more than twice as many cities which 
have manual training in the eighth grade as there are of those that have 
it in the first. 

The number of cities giving manual training in the first year of the 
high school outnumbers by thirty-five per cent those giving it in either 
of the last two years. Many cities have it in the first two years only. 
There are in the United States twenty-four cities that have special 
manual training high schools known as "technical", "mechanic arts", or 
"manual training high schools." Sixty-six per cent of them are to be 
found in cities of the first class\ where, of course, the amount of money 
to expend for such schools exceeds proportionally the amount appropri- 
ated in smaller cities. The North Atlantic Section^ surpasses any other 
in this respect, having nine cities of the first class with special manual 
training high schools. There are also two cities of the second class' 
and three cities of the, third class^ that have similar schools. 

There are eighty-three regular high schools in cities of the third class 
alone, in the North Central Section, in which manual training has been 
introduced, this section surpassing every other section by an overwhelm- 
ing number. In this same section there is a total of ninety-eight regular 
high schools in which manual training forms a part of the regular 
instruction. This is almost double the number of such schools found in 
the North Atlantic Division, the only section with which the North 
Central Section should be compared. 


The course of study in the elementary school has been quite definite- 
ly determined. After the time is allotted to the fixed studies there is 
very little unoccupied time which can be devoted to the subject of man- 

^ Cities with 100,000 population or over. 

" "Sections" or "Divisions" are those used in Report of Commissioner of Edu- 

"Cities with population of 50,000 — 100,000 
'Cities with population of 8,000 — 50,000 


ual training. This condition makes it impossible to expect that as much 
time would be given to the subject of manual training in the elementary 
school as would be given it in the high school where the course of study 
does not occupy so completely the time of the student. 

The time usually allowed this subject is from one to two hours. 
The time allotted in most cases is determined not so much by the re- 
quirements of the subject as bj^ the peculiar conditions in each school and 
the unoccupied time which can be utilized for this purpose. One hun- 
dred and six cities give an hour and a half per week ; sixty-eight give one 
hour per week, and forty-eight allow two hours. These three groups 
of cities comprise about eighty-two per cent of all the cities reporting. 
There are cities that give the subject as little time as twenty-five min- 
utes per week. There are four cities that devote four hours per week to 
the subject; one which devotes five hours, and one, seven hours each 
week during the year. 

The course of study in the high schools throughout the country has 
been undergoing a great change during the past several years. This 
change has resulted in the introduction of many commercial and indus- 
trial subjects. The course of study in the high school is more unsettled 
than the course of study found either in the elementary school or in the 
college. This unsettledness gives rise to the question as to what sub- 
jects are of most worth in the high school course. Just what the an- 
swer to this question will be is a matter which can be determined only 
after the careful consideration which the subject is now receiving. In 
connection with this paper it is pertinent only to say that this elasticity of 
the course of study in the high school has made possible a great variety 
of conditions relative to manual training in all classes of cities in every 
section of the country. 

As to the time required for the subject of manual training in the 
high school, there is no such uniformity as is found in the elementary 
school. The elasticity of the course has resulted in many differences as 
to the time given this subject. There are thirty-three cities which give 
the subject of manual training one and a half hours per week. There 
are thirty-three cities which give three hours to this subject, twenty-five 
cities devote two hours to the subject, and twenty cities give four hours 
a week. Those that allot to the subject two and a half hours are eleven 
in number. Those that give, the subject twice as much time, or five 
hours per week, are twelve in number. The number of cities that give 
five hours per week to the subject is twelve. The number of cities that 


give seven hours per week is twenty-five, or five times as much time as 
the thirty-three cities that give it one and a half hours. There are eight 
cities not classified above as follows: Two giving thirty minutes per 
week, three giving forty-five minutes per week, three giving about twelve 
hours per week. 

In general, of course, more time should be given manual training 
work in the high school than is given to it in the elementary school. 
The nature of the work, as compared with that of the elementary school, 
requires more time. The periods of work should be, and in most cases 
are, longer. Students should have sufficient opportunity to prepare 
themselves for their work, and some time has to be allowed for the care 
of the machinery after the work is accomplished. Then, too, the 
students are better able to apply themselves to the work for a longer 
time than are those in the elementary school. 

The average time given to manual training in the different "sections" 
of the country varies materially; in the North Central Section among 
cities of the third class it is about three hours. The average time given 
to the subject by the same class of cities in the North Atlantic Section is 
less than two hours. Similarly, in the Western Section the time is al- 
most four hours. In the South Central Division it is less than three 
hours per week, while in the South Atlantic it is just two hours. In 
general what is true of the third class cities is almost true of the larger 

When manual training shall have earned an unquestioned place in 
the high school course, then it will be dtermined more definitely what 
amount of time should be given to the subject. That time, of course, 
will not be the same for all cities, but surely the variety shown by these 
figures does not represent the peculiarities of those citieSj^but rather the 
unsettled condition of this subject in our public high schools. These 
unsettled conditions are not to be taken as evidence that we are not 
making progress, but they show results which are always brought about 
by any change such as has come over the public high school in our coun- 
try through the introduction of manual training and allied subjects. 


Of the many significant facts brought out in this investigation, the 
number of cities that require manual training in the elementary school, 
is one of the most striking. Statistics show that 89.9 per cent of the 


cities in the country giving manual training in the elementary schools 
require it of all students. 

First, it should be noted that the school authorities feel that the 
subject of manual training is of too great importance to the elementary 
school pupil to be made optional. Of course it is to be conceded that 
students at that age are not as well qualified to determine what is best 
for them as are the school authorities. Further, these statistics show 
very conclusively that the course in all subjects, including manual train- 
ing, is pretty clearly defined in the elementary school and that the school 
authorities are not willing to sacrifice its equilibrium by haphazard elec- 
tion of studies. 

Turning from the elementary school to the high school, we find al- 
most exactly the opposite situation. Out of two hundred and seven 
cities reporting, that offer manual training in the high school, one hun- 
dred and fifty nine of them permit the students to elect such a course. 
In other words, seventy-seven per cent of the cities permit the students 
to elect or reject manual training. Whether or not the leaving of this 
choice to them is a wise arrangement in every case is an open question. 
I am of the opinion, however, that manual training is of as much benefit 
educationally to one student as to another, whether that student is to 
enter the technical course of a university, or whether he is to enter the 
profession of law or medicine or to go into business. If manual training 
has the educational value which it should have if properly conducted, 
and if the present tendency to make it "a trade" is not heeded, I am 
fully persuaded that all students should be required to take at least the 
first two years in the high school. The last two years must necessarily 
take up work of a more technical character, and, therefore, might not be 
of as much value to the high school student as some other line of work, 
depending in a large measure upon the future career of the student. 


The statistics in table A are tabulated from the answers made to the 
question, "Was Manual Training introduced into your schools because 
the people demanded it, or because the school authorities or some local 
organization urged its introduction?" It is quite a common opinion 
that manual training has been introduced into our schools largely because 
the people demanded it. A glance at this table will certainly disprove 
any such contention. Nearly every superintendent reported upon this 





CLi O 

ni a 


o <u 


«■= a 







North Atlantic 
First Class 
Second Class 
Third Class 

South Atlantic 





















Third Class 





North Central 





Third Class 
South Central 
First Class 




Second Class 

Third Class 



Third Class 











question, so that relatively the statistics may be considered as authorita- 

Under the column headed "Pedagogical" is to be found the number 
of answers containing the statement that manual training was intro- 
duced because the superintendent or principal or the school board desired 
it. Under "Popular Demand" is given the number of answers which 
stated that the people demanded it. Under "Local Organizations" is 
given the number of cities where organizations other than the school 
board caused the introduction of manual training. Under such have 
come W'Omen's clubs, business men's clubs, and various other similar 
organizations. In Massachusetts the law^ requires the introduction of 
manual training in cities of over twenty thousand inhabitants, and some 
superintendents gave that as the reason why manual training was to be 
found in their schools. It is to be noticed that such cities are few in 
number. The law has had little effect relative to manual training be- 
cause no penalty is attached for its non-inforcement. In the next 
column headed "Rivalry" are noted three cities introduced manual train- 
ing because other cities near them had manual training. A good illus- 
tration of a case of this kind is Erie, Pennsylvania, where manual train- 


ing was introduced in order to "keep up with the times" ; but it hardly 
does that, as will be plainly seen when we consider the fact that only 
thirty minutes per week is given to the subject. 

It is an interesting fact to note that there are many cities where a 
"Private Citizen" has made possible the introduction of manual training 
into the high school. In this respect the North Central Division sur- 
passes all others, for there are fourteen cities out of a total of twenty- 
three that have had some person who was willing to divide his fortvme 
with the city in order that the boys and girls might receive the benefit 
which comes from manual training. 

In looking over this table it should be noted (under "Pedagogical") 
that there are two hundred and fifteen cities in which the school author- 
ities introduced manual training. This number is sixty-five per cent of 
the total number of answers which we have received. Fifteen per cent 
of the answers received are credited to the column headed "Popular De- 
mand." "Local Organizations" come in for eight and seven tenths per 
cent of the answers, and "Private Citizens" are credited with seven per 
cent. If we combine all of the answers, aside from those found in the 
"Pedagogical" column, we find that the "Pedagogical" reasons for the 
introduction of manual training, over and above the other considerations 
combined, are fifteen per cent. 

If we believe that the school authorities, school superintendents, prin- 
cipals, and school boards, are the proper guardians of the educational 
work of our cities, and if we are content to allow to remain in their 
hands the present welfare as well as the future success of our city school 
systems, then we ought to have the highest respect for their judgment 
which prompted the introduction of manual training. In other words, 
we shall have to conclude that they think that manual training is a val- 
uable addition to the educational work of our public schools, for this 
table leaves no doubt as to just who is responsible for the introduction 
and extension of this work. Let it be conceded that in most cases the 
school board of the city, or the superintendent, or the principal, probably 
had the passive support of the people in the introduction of manual train- 
ing. Yet even though we admit this, the fact still remains that the 
party which takes the initiative is the one to which the credit for the in- 
troduction is due, and that is certainly the school authorities. There- 
fore, instead of manual training being in the school as the result of 
sociological or popular demands, it has found a place in the school be- 
cause of a pedagogical belief in its educational value. 




In seventy-seven per cent of all the cities answering there have been 
no objections to manual training work. Many superintendents of these 
same cities have gone out of their way to state that manual training is 
enthusiastically supported, and in some cities an extension is even de- 
manded by the people, after the work has been inaugurated. 

The largest number of objections that have been raised to manual 
training are those which relate to the expense of the introduction of the 
subject into the schools. It will be noted that the question of expense 
is really only a question of the administration of manual training, and 
not a question raised against the educational value of the subject as such 
in the course of study. Without doubt, many of the cities that object to 
it on the ground of expense would be heartily in favor of it if it could be 
introduced with as little expense as a subject like history or geography. 
The objection of expense might be raised against any particular subject 
which would demand an increase in the pay roll of the school by the 
addition of teachers. In other words, the economic conditions prevail- 
ing in the school which give rise to this objection to manual training, 
would probably prevent the extension or further development of any 
subject in the school. 

Three per cent of the cities reporting on this question, still consider 
the subject of manual training to be a "fad", as it was very often called 
when it was first given a place in the course of study. The small per- 
centage of cities which now look upon manual training as a "fad" speaks 
well for the change of attitude toward the subject. In most cases, even 
where it has been considered a "fad", the people, after having learned 
the value of the subject through experience, have come to demand more 
of it. In no case has it been discontinued for this reason. 

The question of room for carrying on the work was raised by some 
cities in the North Atlantic Division, but not to any great extent, only 
three cities having reported that it was a question of room for the intro- 
duction of the work. This, of course, is really a question of expense, 
although it is given as a separate objection. 

In Louisville, Kentucky, and in Detroit, Michigan, particularly, 
labor unions have objected to the subject of manual training in the pub- 
lic schools. This objection of course, has been raised in some other 
cities, and seems to arise from the ignorance of the laboring classes as to 
the actual value of manual training, and what it proposes to do. On 


the other hand, it is to be noted in this connection that in the city of 
Reading, Pennsylvania, it was the labor unions that asked for the intro- 
duction of this subject. From this fact, it is evident that they had come 
to the conclusion that it not only would not interfere with labor, but 
that it would be for the benefit of the laboring classes of the city to have 
manual training become a part of the course of study. 

The superintendent at San Francisco says, "The work should be 
concentrated, that is, there should be two or three grammar schools 
which should be manual training grammar schools, with the proper 
course of study" ; that "under the system of 'local centers' the work is 
too scattered to make it of the greatest possible value." This objection 
comes about from the administration of the work of manual training. 
It is not to be expected that the subject of manual training will find no 
friction until some definite course has been worked out for it in the 
curriculum of every city where it is introduced. The establishment of 
"local centers" in well located schools is a good way, and the common 
way to introduce the subject. The natural growth and extension of the 
work in San Francisco will doubtless put manual training into all 
schools, or at least into enough of them so that this objection of having 
to send the children too far to these "centers" will be entirely dismissed. 

One of the objections to manual training, and one which is perhaps 
the most legitimate of those which we have to consider, is the fact that 
it takes time from the other subjects in the school curriculum. The su- 
perintendent of schools of Milwaukee, Wisconsin, raises the objection 
that "there is not time enough for all work required", and also, "it is 
too far to send seventh or eighth grades to the 'centers' ". The superin- 
tendent at Savannah says, "We have no time for it in regular school 
hours from nine to twelve o'clock; we have it in the afternoon". Sever- 
al other cities have expressed the same objections. If manual training 
seriously interferes with the other work of the school, of course this 
question of time to carry on the work is a serious matter, provided al- 
ways that this work in manual training is not of equal value with the 
work which it displaces in the school. However, if manual training is 
equal in educational value with the subjects which it limits in the course 
of study, then this objection is not valid. A discussion of this question 
will have to be deferred until some later time. 











North Atlantic 

First Class 
Second Class 
Third Class 

South Atlantic 

First Class 

















Third Class 

North Central 



Third Class 


South Central 






Third Class 



Third Class 








Attention is called to the fact that cities in the Western group 
of states, consisting roughly of those states west of and including 
the Rocky Mountains, with but one exception, report no objection to the 
subject. This illustrates the fact that the western section of the country 
stands ready to take advantage of every opportunity which promises im- 
provement. This attitude of "open mindedness" is characteristic of the 
people of the West, and much of their success in every line of activity 
is due to this fact. Conservatism should not be allowed to prevail 
against newly established practices which have received favorable consid- 
eration in other sections of the country. 

The objections in the North Atlantic Division come largelv from the 
cities of the first and third class. A consideration of the objections 
found here as compared with the lack of objections found in the West, 
presents the corollary of the situation stated in the previous paragraph ; 
namely, that the people of the East hesitate to introduce any subject into 
the course of study the value of which has not been fully proven. This 
well illustrates the conservatism of the 'people of the East. This con- 
servatism of the East relative to school matters is the result of a strong 
sentiment which it will take many jears to overcome, regardless of how 


many or how strong may be the arguments used against it. In the East, 
therefore, it is not surprising that we find every objection raised to 
manual training that has ever been raised to this subject in any part of 
the country. Classical training, born of English aristocratic ideals 
though it was, has long been the standard of all education in the New 
England and Middle Atlantic states from the elementary school through 
the universit^^ The fact that manual training has round any place 
whatever in the cities of the Atlantic Divisions speaks volumes in its 


Each superintendent was asked to state what per cent manual train- 
ing had increased the attendance in his city among the boys and among 
the girls, in the elementary school as well as in the high school. The 
answers to these questions are not as comprehensive as one might desire. 
Many superintendents replied that it was impossible to tell how much 
increase of attendance was due to manual training, and how much was 
due to other causes. That the subject of manual training has increased 
the attendance seems to be the general opinion of those superintendents 
who have given the matter consideration. Just to what extent it has 
done so is a matter almost impossible to determine. 

Superintendents of the following first class cities have expressed 
themselves as indicated : 

Fall River, Massachusetts: "One or two per cent." 

New Haven, Connecticut: "Perhaps 25 per cent among the boys and girls in 

the high school." 
Allegheny, Pennsylvania: "It holds the pupils in school longer." 
Cleveland, Ohio: "No statistics from which to answer. We feel that high 

school attendance has been greatly stimulated." 
Milwaukee, Wisconsin : "Possibly 25 per cent." 
Kansas, Missouri: "Do not know that it has affected it." 
Louisville, Kentucky: "Doubled the attendance of boys in the high school." 

Of the superintendents of cities of the second class who gave any in- 
formation on this subject, the following are typical answers: 
Lynn, Massachusetts: "Among the boys in the high school 30 per cent." 
Peoria, Illinois: "Impossible to state, but there is a greater proportion of boys in 

the buildings in which we have manual training than in those where it 

does not exist." 
Des Moines, Iowa: "Considerable increase among boys in the high school. Few 

girls take it in high school." 
Seattle, Washington : "We have no statistics but it is the general opinion that 

it has materiallv increased the attendance." 


Superintendents of the third class cities did not feel disposed to give 
as much information relative to this question as did the superintendents 
of other cities. The answers received from some of these are here given : 

Belmont, Massachusetts: "Probably not at all, as attendance is compulsory 

practically for all taking this work in the elementary schools." 
North Adams, Massachusetts: "All that we can find room for." 
Newport, Rhode Island: "Do not know. However, the boys outnumber the 

girls in the high school." 
Auburn, New York : "I am of the opinion that a good many of the boys and 

girls remain in the school for the sake of Manual Training." 
Port Chester, New York: "Think perhaps it has a tendency to increase the at- 
tendance somewhat." 
Town of Union, New Jersey: "Cannot give details at this time; about 10 per 

Clearfield, Pennsylvania: "It has been a great help in keeping boys and girls 

in school." 
Warren, Pennsylvania: "A perceptible change for the better among both boys 

and girls." 
West Chester, Pennsylvania: "Among the girls in the elementary school a few 

have continued for sewing, possibly 5 to 10 per cent; among boys in the high 

school, approximately 20 per cent increase. That is a conservative estimate. 

Among girls possibly 10 per cent in the high school." 
Frederick, Maryland: "Among boys in the high school, 25 per cent." 
Elyria, Ohio: "Among the boys in the high school, 5 to 10 per cent." 
Bluffton, Indiana: "Among boys in the high school, 25 per cent." 
Galesburg, Illinois: "I cannot say what percentage, but I feel satisfied it has 

been one and an important factor in increasing the attendance." 
Ann Arbor, Michigan: "No appreciable effect has been produced in this line, 

but it has had a beneficial effect upon all other work, as to neatness and 

Muskegon, Michigan: "Among boys and girls in the high school about 50 per 

Saginaw, Michigan: "Among boys and girls in the high school say 30 per cent." 
Janesville, Wisconsin: "Among boys in the high school about 50 per cent." 
Menomonie, Wisconsin : "Among boys in the high school 50 per cent." 
Racine, Wisconsin : "This is all conjecture anywhere. Manual training means 

better schools and that means better attendance." 
Atchison, Kansas: "Estimate about 10 per cent." 

Mobile, Alabama: "As this is the second year it can not be estimated." 
Pueblo, Colorado: "Among high school boys 20 per cent." 
Ballard, Washington: "I believe the number of boys attending the high school 

has been doubled." 
Fresno, California: "Among boys in the elementary school 150 per cent; 

among boys in the high school 50 per cent." 

Owing to the recent introduction of manual training in many cities, 
it is impossible to determine at present just what effect it has had upon 
the attendance. The superintendent of schools at Racine, Wisconsin, 
has explained the situation very pointedly when he says, "Manual train- 



ing means better schools and better schools means better attendance". 
This principle is illustrated in St. Louis where the superintendent of 
schools has expressed himself in the following language: "The addition 
of these tv\'0 new high schools has demonstrated a very important princi- 
ple: high school enrollment depends largely upon the facilities offered. 
Where these are improved and the high schools are placed in various 
parts of the city so as to be easy of access, the enrollment will increase." 
In general, from these statements it will be seen that there is a 
variety of opinions relative to this matter of attendance. On the whole, 
it seems fair to say that the superintendents throughout the country are 
of the opinion that the attendance, especially among the boys in the high 
school, has been somewhat increased. Where the attendance was good 
before the introduction of manual training, one would expect to find 
very little improvement as the result of its introduction. On the other 
hand, where the schools have been poor, and manual training and its 
necessary equipment has been added, and where possibly other general 
improvements have been made in the school, the attendance has probably 
been materially increased over and above what it otherwise would have 
been. Just how much this increase in attendance is due to the one factor 
of manual training is impossible to determine: it is impossible because we 
can not say with certainty what the situation would have been had it not 
been introduced. Any one who takes exception to the statement that 
manual training has increased the attendance can be sure that his state- 
ment can not be contradicted with mathematical precision. On the 
other hand, those who believe that the attendance has been increased can 
console themselves also with the thought that their contention likewise 
can not be disproved. 



Gilbert B. Morrison 

IN presenting the order of exercises and projects as at present fol- 
lowed in the McKinley High School, I am simply contributing to 
that almost universal effort which is being made toward the adap- 
tation of our schools to modern demands. I am not offering it as a 
model to be adopted by other schools, wherein the conditions, ideals and 
possibilities may be quite different from ours. I am not even offering 
it as fully representing my own ideal of the best and most appropriate 
course for the high school of today. It simply represents what we are 
doing now as the best we have been able to work out in our own 

Conditions are not constant; opinion is changing. Our educational 
horizon is broadening. Certain lines in the perspective are indefinite or 
missing, and an effort to respond to national demands is becoming gen- 
eral. These demands are social and economic, and spring from an 
instinctive tendency toward self preservation."^ This tendency is shown 
by nations no less than by individuals. A consistent democracy is con- 
stant change, as no two successive davs finds exactlv the same conditions. 


Therefore if there is any one thing that I would urge as necessary it is 
that we be not in a hurry to legislate on courses of study. The sub- 
stantial progress made in the reforming of our school curricula during 
the past few years has its cause in the fact that we have not known just 
what to do — just how to cope with new demands that press overwhelm- 
ingly upon us. As a result, freedom has been accorded to the field men 
who perhaps more nearly express the common needs of our civilization. 
This freedom has resulted in a period of experimentation, of comparison, 
and of intelligent observation. This spirit should be kept alive for 
some time to come, for we have yet a long distance to come before we 
shall reach modern requirements in their full measure. The time has 
not yet come, and probably never will when any one man or set of men 
can be trusted to formulate a democratic ideal, which can be sterotyped 
into a perfectly stable system. Contributions to our present needs can 
be little more than a body of suggestive hints. We must write articles 
and exchange ideas, but after words have spent their force, the people 
by a sort of brute instinct for self preservation act in accordance with 
those elemental principles which can not be set forth in an argument. 

We must admit that our progress in the past fifty years has been 
seriously impeded by assumptions which became crystalized in the acad- 
emic mind. Certain self-evident truths had been appropriated so per- 
sistently as expressing the content of conventional curricula that the 
habit of thinking of these truths and this content as identical had become 
fixed. That the making of "men", the building of "character", the 
preparation for "citizenship" are the objects of education, are axioms 
which always have, and alwa^'S will be generally admitted without 
debate; but the specific means best suited for the attainment of these 
aims is a different matter. 

The school men have after many )'ears of phrasing failed to inspire 
the laity with a belief in a culture which does not reveal itself in 
economic efficiency. Forward steps in education have always been taken 
by those who voice the common sense of the laity. The demand for a 
practical education which is just now everywhere manifest does not 
shatter our cherished ideas of American citizenship — a citizenship that 
is not circumscribed by the accident of birth. It is the development of 
each boy according to his powers that should engage our attention. In 
formulating a course of study we have tried to grasp that conception of 
humanity, which is central and normal, and then gather our activities 
about it. This central idea is, as I see it, to take each separate indi- 



vidual boy or girl as a foundation, and then to build upon him or her 
according to the nature of that foundation. 

I pass now from these general reflections to the organization of the 
studies and exercises in The McKinley High School. This school, 
it should be remembered, is one of the district high schools of St. 
Louis and in common with them contains a cosmopolitan course of 
study and exercises, comprising nine groups of studies from which 

• • # w 

• • 1 








■ ■ . 

students may choose. The groups, or "courses", are named: Scientific, 
General, Classical, Art, College Classical, College Scientific, Commer- 
cial, Manual Training, and Preparatory to Teacher's College. All of 
these courses have the following studies in common, though in somewhat 
different proportions: — English, Algebra, Geometry, Botany, Physiol- 
ogy, Physics, and History. 

The advantage we claim in having all of these courses complete in 
the same school and in the same building are, ( 1 ) It enables each child 
to find in his own school in his own district any study or exercise which 



experience has demonstrated as having a right to exist in a secondary 
school. (2) It offers each child the free latitude of choice under com- 
petent advisors. (3) It offers differentiation without distinction of 
rank or caste. (4) It permits a change of course without a change 
of schools when it is discovered that a wrong selection has been made. 
(5) It places pupils in a position to compare values and to observe 
the methods and results of different ideals. (6) It enables a pupil to 
finish his course with his former friends and associates. (7) It enables 
a pupil to choose special or technical work without crowding him entire- 
ly off the conventional highway to learning. (8) It secures in the 
same school great individual diversity and perfect social unity. It ad- 
mits differentiation without class estrangement. 

From these nine groups at present, more than forty per cent of the 
pupils entering the McKinley High School choose the Manual Training 
group, and it is the organization of the work of this course to which I 
am calling attention in these articles. The following is an outline of the 
course of study. 




Manual Training. 


Botany (first half-year). 
Physiology (second half-year) 




Manual Training. 







Manual Training. 


One of the following languages: 

Latin, German, French, Spanish. 

Physics (first half year), and Chem- 
istry (second half-year), or Alge- 
bra and Geometry. 


English and Shakespeare. 

Manual Training. 


One of the following languages: 

Latin, German, French, Spanish. 
Chemistry or 

In the academic studies the individuality of the pupil is appealed to 
throughout, and promotion is made by subjects. The course provides 
the mechanic arts for bojs and the domestic arts for girls. But it is the 
mechanic arts to which I shall now direct attention. In the elementary 
schools of St. Louis manual training is provided once a week through 
the seventh and eighth grades, so that the pupils come with some 


knowledge and skill in the use of certain tools. After preliminary 
instruction in the further use of tools, and the general study of woods 
the first work is the selection of an exercise which will give skill and 
practice on some simple process in joiner3^ Before doing this, however, 
the teacher calls the pupils attention to several applications of this pro- 
cess impressing upon him the necessity of some knowledge of it before 
he can hope for much success in making things in which it must be em- 
ployed. The boy learns that the mortise and tenon has a broad appli- 
cation in the manufacture of such articles as sash, doors, furniture, 
framing, bridge work, etc. In the selection of the exercise or article 
to be made illustrating the process, the individuality of the pupil is con- 
sulted. He may for example, make a simple mortise or tenon joint, a 
table leg, or four table legs assembled in a table 'fram?, according to his 
advancement, ability and speed. No attempt is made to make all boys 
do the same amount of work, for this would be like trying to make two 
pendulums of different lengths beat at the same rate. 

So soon as a boy shows sufficient skill in the use of his tools he is 
encouraged to make some useful article such as a table, a chair, or a 
stand. We do not find the boy who gets no further in this exercise 
lesson than the making of the simple joint becomes discouraged. If he 
makes a joint by the correct use of his tools, which receives the teacher's 
approval, he feels that he has shown his ability to at least make a part 
of a table as a mechanic would do it. He has proved to that extent his 
economic efficienc}^ He has shown that he can work along correct 
lines. We allow the bo^'S some choice within technical limits in the 
selection of their exercises, but we never leave them fancy free to potter 
along in their own way. We are not afraid of dwarfing their initiative 
powers when we hold our boys down to systematic progressive work. 
We avoid that so-called "constructive" work which expects a boy to 
find his own technique while expressing "The Self" in ill chosen "crea- 

Normal motives appeal to normal boys. The average boy wants an 
education ; he wants to become a useful man ; he wants the pleasure 
which comes from a sense of power to do things as men do them; he is 
willing to work for this power and for the skill which brings it. We 
do not iorget the importance of learning to think, but the importance 
of learning to work is paramount. The joy of systematic, skillful, suc- 
cessful work when it is well timed is as great as the joy of play. There 
is an occasional boy who will not readily respond to normal motives — the 


lazy, spoiled boy whose ambition is mc a Hired cy the selfish gratification 
he experiences from moment to moment in his amusements. For him 
we may sometimes be justified in resorting to molycoddling methods. 
We may allow him to "make something" which suits his fancy in the 
hope that he may be led to see for himself the importance of systematic 

In connection with the shopwork, we have a course of designing 
which we apply after the boys have finished the first quarter's work. 
This we hold to be of first importance. By referring to the accom- 
panying tables the scheme of our work for the first j-ear may be obtained. 
It will be observed that we give attention, (l)to the processes of join- 
ery; (2) to the applications of joinery; (3) to the exercises, articles or 
projects illustrating the processes; and (4) to the form of design which 
is applicable to these processes and exercises. We aim at correct tech- 
nique, utility, good workmanship, and artistic execution. We carefully 
avoid those practices which would not command the respect of practical, 
intelligent mechanics. Of the great importance of such a measure of our 
high school manual training I shall speak at a future time when I turn 


TABLE I. — Joinery.— First Year. 




Illustrating: the 

il. Care of Tools General 

Form of Design 

applicable to 

Process and Exercise 

I2. Study of Woods General 

3. Gaining 

Shelving, Pigeon 
Holing. Furniture 

Half Joint 
Brace Joint 
Lap Joint 
Dado Joint 


4. Mortising 

Sash, Doors, Furni- 
ture, Framing, 
Bridge Work 

5. Forming 

Mortise and Tenon 
Joint, Table Leg, 

Mortise and Tenon 
with relish 

Trays, Lamps, 
Book Racks, Fur- 

Pin Tray, Pen 
Tray, Whisk Hol- 
der Paper Knife, 
Moulding, Book 

Inlaying or Carv- 

6. Staining 

All Interior Wood- 
, work and Furni- 
I ture 

All Exercises ex- 
cept the Joints 

7. Splicing 

8. Mitering and 
j Gluing 

jBuilding Construc- 
I tion and Framing 
Interior Finish, 
Mouldings, Pic- 
ture Frames, Pat- 
tern Making 

Various Splice 

Miter Box, Jewel 
Case, Picture 

Frame, Triangle, Inlaying 
Beveled Tray 

9. Tongue and 

3d 10. Angle Joining 

Flooring, Box Mak- 
ing, Slides, Furni- 

Book Rack, Stand, 

Low Relief Carv- 

Pattern Making, 

n. Splining 

Round Corner 
Joints, Light Cab- 
inet Making 

Clock Case, Tab- 
ourette. Lamp 

Glove Box, Hand- 
kerchief Box, 
Jewel Case 

High Relief Carv- 


12. Dovetailing 

Drawers, Framing, 
Boxes, Braces 

I Dovetail Joint, Re- 
' volv. Book-Rack, 
I Chest, False 

Chest Banded with 
Copper, Inlaying, 


13. Irregular Shap- 

Pattern Making, 
Cabinet Making 

Paper Weight, Pin 
Tray, Pen Tray, 
Ink Stand 

114. Cabinet Mak- 

Furniture, Interior 
Woodwork and 

Magazine Holder, 
Tabouretle, "T" 
Square, Screens, 
Writing Board, 

Carving, Line and 
Surface Relief 

Any acceptable 
Method of Decor- 



TABLE II.— Drawing.— First Year. 




Illustratingr the 


Form of Desisrn 

applicable to 

Process and Exercise 

1. (a) Lettering 


3. (a 





Surface Decor. 

2 small sheets of 
Freehand and In- 
strumental Letter- 

Elements of Design 

Ruling Pen 

Surface Decor. 

jl small sheet 

! Elements of Design 


Working Draw- 

ic Projec- 
tions 3rd i 
Design JSurface Decor 

7 Drawings of 

Geometrical Blocks 
and Shop Exer- 

Surface Decor, of |Composition 
Shop Exercises ; 

+. (: 


5. (a 


6. (a 




Shop Practice 
Surface Decor. 

2 Large Sheets of 

Table Machine [ 


Decoration of Book St. Line 
Rack, etc. 

and Render- 


Picture and Con- 
structive Purposes 

Decoration of 
Joinery Exercises 

and Render- 


[Picture and Con- 
I structive Purposes 

jForm and Surface 

1 Large Sheet of 



and Carving 
Decoration of 

Glove Box, etc. 

Curved Line 

1 Large Sheet of 
Forms, 1 Large 
Sheet of Drawing 
desk rendered 

Designs for Low 
and High Relief 

7. (a 

from Ma- 


Preliminary to 
making of Work- 
ing Drawings and 

Form and Decora- 
tion of Cabinet 

Steam Pump, Ma- 
chine Tools, etc. 

Designs of Lamp Form and Decora- 
Shades, etc., with tive 
Copper Banding 

8. (a 


from Casts 



Form and Decora- 
tion of Cabinet 

Casts of Human | 
Anatomy and 
other objects. ' 

Design of Pen Form and Decora- 

Tray, etc. (cont.) tive 



to the problem of industrial education. Whatever we have been able 
to accomplish is due largely to an enlightened supervision which within 
reasonable limitations enables us to work in an unrestricted atmos- 

Our work as outlined in these tables, and in others which will fol- 
low are subject to modification and change. These outlines show what 
we did during the past vear. Credit for the arrangement of Table I is 
due to Stanley H. Moore, Roy C. Woolman and E. F. Card of the 
McKinley High School, and R. A. Kissack of the Yeatman High 
School; and table H to A. J. Burr and Edward Frauenfelder of the 
McKinley High School, and M. J. Scherer of the Yeatman. 

The next article which will tabulate the work of our second year, 
will contain a short discussion of the Ai?ns as distinguished from the 
Aim of manual training. 



Gertrude Roberts Smith 

IN the present revival of the crafts, and the high ideals aspired to in 
their various activities, it is earnestly hoped embroidery will 
maintain the dignified position it has occupied in the past. 

On the fruits of healthy happy work we have much daily literature, 
and our hope for a large part of the mental and moral vitality of 
education in the future, seems to rest upon the concentration of all our 
powers toward the forgetfulness of aught, save how to do something 
well. In recognizing the physical demand for beauty in the happiness 
coming from work, we find justification for great expenditure of time 
and money in the development of new fields of expression and almost 
personal appeals for special subjects. With the truth that the more 
varied our interests the greater our pleasures, we must remember, the 
door to all nature's treasures is not opened with the same key, hence our 
effort to appreciate with intelligence and toleration the work of others. 

It is not claimed anything new is contributed through this article, to 
the art-craft of the needle. Rather, a renaissance is desired for it in the 
clearer atmosphere of fine design thought, which is coming to us from 
the inspiration of such lovers of the beautiful as Mr. Arthur W. Dow 
and Dr. Denman Ross. Surely, no one craft can combine more sympa- 
thetically, or in more varied way, perfection of textures in space and 
color harmony, than cloth and stitches which can be controlled by the 
needle worker. The possibilities for thoughtful adjustment of color is 
limitless in a scale of embroidery silk. The colors are not unlike pastels 
and should the artist of the needles so desire the effect of broken color 
can be produced as surely as from the palette of the painter. 

In our age needlework has probably shared with china painting 
greater degradation than any of the crafts. Under the name of Art 
and Royalty it has been tortured into every conceivable technique which 
could be invented to further the interests of commercial gain. Our 
feverish desire for novelty has been fostered by grafting new names on 
old products, or what is more misleading, old names on an unintelligent 
rearrangement of originally good material. There is much to be longed 
for in the so-called revival of colonial embroidery; while all the laws 
of design have been violated at one time or another under the name of 
Mount Mellic. Whatever the first ideals of Kensington embroidery 



may have been, we are now most conscious of the evils it has left with 

The return to honest principles, and special commendation of robust 
materials, as hand-woven linens, etc., which William Morris stood for in 
embroidery, did more than any one movement in modern times, to save 
the art, from those extravagances under which it had been buried, utterly 
dead to our cravings for good taste. 

So far removed are modern embroideries from the beautiful examples 
of the past, shown in our museums, that the average visitor gazes at 
them through their glass coverings, as curiously as at the mummy wrap- 
pings of ancient Egypt, and with as little thought of any lesson from 
them touching our own time. To any one who has enjoyed fashioning 
in the real, some image which his own imagination has created, these old 
embroideries are fraught with a richness and sincerity of purpose most 
convincing. At the same time, the adjustment of design and technique 
to materials, responds truly to all we know of aesthetics. From the 
simplest to the most ornate, where the design is good, either because of 
space or color interest, or both, we find pleasure. That there must have 
been pleasure in its making seems evident, since the design suggestions 
usually reflect the every-day 1'*'^ of the period and place in which they 
were produced. 

There is a special charm in the individuality marking the primitive 
embroideries, which the larger and more gorgeous examples of a later 
period rarely possess. Their simplicity makes the processes by means of 
which a result is arrived at easier to analyze. They seem to have a 
message for us. I am convinced, it is through familiarity with them and 
the knowledge coming to us from study of design, that our new school of 
embroidery is to be built up, rather than through the societies of decora- 
tive art as they now exist. 

That embroidery is still considered abstractly an art, is shown by 
its admittance to the various exhibitions of arts and crafts. But that at 
present the best thought of our design training has not been put into it, 
is evidenced by the meagerness of the exhibits and the poverty of imagi- 
nation as well as beauty, generally shown in them. The fact that the 
machinery of the needle is so directly controlled by the worker should 
place the design ideal higher. Not but that there are technical limita- 
tions imposed by thread and cloth. In the very ductility of their nature 
lies one of the dangers of too great realism in design ; and again, the 
stitchery seems, in the opportunity it offers for invention, to blind the 
worker to the more important matter of effect as a whole. 








In the execution of those examples of the older needlework which 
give us most lasting pleasure, more than one kind of stitch has rarely 
been used, and it has been my experience in actual practice, that satis- 
faction is with difficulty achieved where more than two are combined in 
the same design. This refers to work in colors ; work in white, or one 
color value, offers a somewhat different problem. It seems worth while 
to consider seriously, this question of stitches, for it has been a prevalent 
error in the minds of many who love to do needle work, that stitchery 
constitutes embroidery, and having lessons in the latter means being 
taught to use the needle in some new and mysterious way. 

Real lovers of beauty in embroidery, are constantly irritated by ques- 
tions relating to its execution, the real purpose of its creation being 
missed altogether. How this condition has come about we shall not 
now enquire. But the fallacy of it is manifest in the work we know 
and recognize as superior to our own. The truth is, that in needle- 
work as in any other craft, a knowledge of its tools, is but to 
strengthen its art. From long familiarity with their usage, comes to 
the needleworker, courage and power to do the unusual and make it 

Good embroidery always regards the woven threads of the back- 
ground. Presuming it is cloth we are considering, to it our embroidery 
should bring, not only a clear expression of some design thought, but 
preserve a pleasurable harmony in textures. The latter is well illus- 
trated by the cross stitch embroideries so familiar to most of us. The 
designs are often far from good but the construction of the stitches, 
accenting as they do the angles formed by warp and woof, constitute in 
themselves great charm. When worked on coarse material the thread 
weavings assert themselves in the design spacings, and our satisfaction is 
given additional gratification. (Fig. 1.) It is regretted the example 
shown in the embroidered leggin,' cannot here convey the exquisite 
beauty of color arrangement. In it we have clear strong blue and red 
alternated in the regular repeat of an equally intense green. The spaces 
are perfectly controlled, and when the simplicity of the means is consid- 
ered the result is amazing. In its way art can go no farther. 

In Fig. 2, we have great richness obtained, by the simplest possible 
outline stitch. Color even has not been called upon to add its interest, 
and the soft crimson of the design depends only upon the direction of 

The illustrations accompanying this article were made from examples of 
embroidery in the Boston Museum of Fine Arts. 



■->»>«iiii»i, iiifc « iijjiiWijWMjr'yT-^' 

^< ■ ;v 




Stitches for variety. The massing of lines in the pattern gives tone 
qualit}- at intervals, where the eye may pause with pleasure. The larger 
spaces of the design are ingeniously opposed to those left in the back- 
ground, and a reasonable construction with quiet movement preserved 
in the more slender parts of the design. 

The third illustration shows design beautifully adapted to border 
space. The colors are gold, edged with deep blue. 

The fourth illustration is a fine adjustment of color; the texture 
here is especially soft and smooth. Two values from the purple scale 
are balanced with two from the yellow, one of each being modified in 
intensity. The whole design is outlined with soft black. 

In these illustrations we have designs perfectly suited to the material. 
It could not be said of any one of them, "This would be better ex- 
pressed in another medium." Note that those curves whose beauty 
would be disturbed by cloth wrinkling have been avoided. This may be 
counted an essential in embroidery. In good designs where curved 
forms do exist, they are generally kept in harmony with the cloth weave 
by a suggestion of angles in the outline. 

Where the background is of finely woven material, either linen or 
silk, the design may be smaller and preserve greater delicacy in drawing. 
Again the distance at which it is to be seen and the purpose for which it 
is to be used should influence its manner and selection of material. 

The early handicrafts of our country have always had interest for 
me. In them we feel adjustment of desire for beauty, with dignified 
restraint. Our grandmothers found and prepared the materials from 
which they spun threads and wove cloth. They made their own dyes 
and often used them in realizing some design which their fancy had con- 
ceived. In the compromise often enforced by natural conditions, little 
wonder we have developed in these creations power as well as the vitality, 
without which no object fashioned by the human hand can have lasting 
interest or value. These works are in a class by themselves, almost 
exempt from criticism. 

In the freedom from self-consciousness fostered by outside conven- 
tions, these early workers were more fortunate than we. With them the 
thought was primarily of the thing being fashioned, and as it was made 
at some physical sacrifice, the demands of service and durability were 
properly considered, and the best possible material and work put into 
it. It is to be regretted the old idea of ""its being worth while" has 
given place to the modern thought, "It's entirely too much work." 

If embroidery is again to become a living art, it must be from real 
love of creating beauty in it, all thought of the quantity to be produced 
or the time it involves being forgotten in the higher ideal of qualitj\ 


Gertrude Stiles 

THE type of book here illustrated brings into use certain processes 
of forwarding which are done in the same manner as in any 
more advanced example of library binding. A library binding 
of half leather, if bound from the sheets will have in order the following 
steps: folding, cutting, forming into sections, sewing, cutting of boards, 
rounding, backing, lacing in, covering, pasting down end sheets. In this 
book, we begin with the folding and cutting, form into sections, and then 
sew as for a library binding on tapes. We stop when the book is at this 
stage, impressed by the decorative possibilities in the sewing — the 
straight lines .of tape pleasantly spaced across the back and the man- 
agement of the threads, caught up at intervals, form a design in bright 
color against the dull background of the tapes, — all this seems too inter- 
esting to be lost. Some such mental process has led to this very decor- 
ative type, the structural condition already existing, constituting its ar- 
tistic claim. 

These books were made with success by pupils in the sixth, seventh 
and eighth grades in the bookbinding class in the School of Education, 
Chicago. They were used as visitors or guest books, — blank books, of 




course, made from good quality heavy grade book paper, or M. B. M. 
charcoal paper. They were sewed upon tapes, ribbons, or leather cut 
into strips ^-in. wide. Bright silk twist was used in the sewing, in 

color contrasting or harmonizing 
with the colors of the materials 
used. The covers were of linen, 
Japanese grass cloth or of different 
cover papers. Sometimes, if cov- 
ered in plain cloth or paper, a fur- 
ther decoration was added, of sten- 
cil or lettering. The colors and 
materials were at the selection of 
the pupils and many tastes were 
displayed. One child designed the 
book for the guest chamber in his 
home and used as covering a bit 
of the cretonne used in the room 


joof" or till. 

FIG. 1. 

lurnishings, with ribbons and silk to harmonize. 

After yielding to this decoration produced by the sewing process we 
have the narrow path of 
the more orthodox library 
binding, omit the round- 



ing and backing entirely; 
we cover and finish our 
boards as fancifully as we 
choose ; we say good-bye 
to precedent and follow 
our fancy. 

In the folding and 
sewing, however, tradi- 
tion and precedent must 


~2'!^ {olJ 


\ 3^" fold 

If a hand-made paper ^^^- -• 

is used, preserve the deckle edge, allowing it to come at the foredge 
and foot of the book, and the cut edge at the top. (Fig. 1.) All 
charcoal papers measures 19 x 25-in. This folded four times will divide 
the sheets thus:— 19x25, 19x123^, 9>^ x 12^/^, 9y2x6}i. A dozen 



sheets of charcoal paper makes a fair sized book: one sheet will form 
a section of four folded sheets, or eight leaves, or 16 pages. (Fig. 
2.) We are dealing with blank sheets. If the sheets were printed, 
they would fold in the same manner, and at the foot of the first 
page of each group of sheets which form the section would be a 

number or a letter indicating the 
order in which the sheets should be 
folded and placed, that they may 
be read consecutively. These 
numbers or letters are called "sig- 
natures". The printer also applies 
the term "signatures" to the entire; 
group of sheets, forming what the 
bookbinders call "sections". 

If this were a printed book ws 
would not alter the sections or the number of sheets forming a section 
but with the blank book we may do as we like. We have twelve sec- 
tions, four sheets each, but let us make sixteen sections of three sheets 
each, being careful as we divide that we keep the cut edges at the head 

FIG. 3. 

FIG. 4. 

and the deckle on the foredge and foot. A hand-made paper is never 
perfectly square, but by keeping the cut edges which should be straight, 
at the head, you will have always a right angle formed by the cut edge 
of the head and the folded edge of the back. 


Place the folded sections together, forming now a book, and put 
between waste boards, old book covers, or two small pressing boards; 



FIG. 5. 

knock all the sections up squarely at the back and head, and place in the 
cutting press. It is important the head should be at right angles with 
the sides; test with a square. Mark a straight line ^ of an inch from 
the head and from the foot, do this with square, and saw slight cuts in 
the folded backs on these two lines. These lines are the marks for the 
kettle-stitches, and the knot' formed there by the thread will sink into 

these openings. (Fig. 3.) 


The sewing frame 
should be set up with four 
tapes. These tapes can 
be tied to the horizontal 
bar of the sewing frame, 
but better still to have 
always on the frame sev- 
eral "lay cords", heavy 
cords looped over the bar, tied securely and hanging 4 or 5 inches below. 
This loop ofEers a good, strong hold and the tapes can be pinned or tied 
to this, with the further advantage of economizing in tape. Fasten the 
four tapes to the lay cords (Fig. 4.) Sit in front of the frame with 
screws toward you. Place your book on the bed of sewing frame with 
the back of the book against the slit in the bed of the frame and the 
head to the right. Dispose your tapes across the back of the book so 
that they are evenly spaced, or spaced 
according to a design previously 
planned ; draw the tapes down 
through the slit in the bed of the 
frame and fasten with thumb tack. 
Push your board and book close - 
against the tapes; screw up the rings 
of the frame to tighten the tapes; 
look a second time at your spacing to see that the tightening has not 
altered these relations, and you are ready to sew. Mark a pencil line 
straight up the tapes on the back of the book. . (Fig. 5.) 

The tapes should be equally tight and it is better to place the book 
and tapes toward the right end of the horizontal bar. This allows the 
arm to pass between the left hand upright of the press and the tapes, a 
position convenient for working. 



FIG. 6. 



Now place the book face upwards near at hand and take up with 
left hand the first section ; open it carefully to the middle of section and 
slip the forefinger inside to keep the place; be sure that the head is even, 
that is all three of the sheets comprising the section are level at the head 
and. none of them slipped down. Place it flat on the pressing board, 
the back against the tapes according to pencil marks, and the head 
to the right. With the right hand insert the threaded needle in the 


FIG. 7. 

saw-cut made near the head of the fold; pass it through this into the 
inside of the section, where the left hand takes it and thrusts it back, 
passing it out against the right hand side of the first tape; here the 
right hand again takes the needle and crossing the tape passes it back at 
the left hand side of the tape. The thread crosses the four tapes in the 
same way and comes out at last at the kettle-stitch saw-cut at the foot 
of the section. Pick up next section and place in position; thrust the 
needle through the foot kettle-stitch cut, and sew as with the first sec- 
tion, only passing from foot to head in place of from head to foot. 
When the thread comes out at head kettle-stitch, tie it firmly to the loose 
end of thread which is still hanging there. Tie in hard knot and allow 
the knot to sink back into the saw-cut. The third section is then taken 
up and sewed as was the first from head to foot. When reaching the 
foot, and emerging from the inside of section, the thread should fasten 
to the first two sections to hold the three securely at this point. To do 


this, pass the needle between first and second sections behind the thread 
which has previously joined them, but before drawing it tight, pass the 
needle through the loop thus made by the thread, and a tight knot is the 
result, called unaccountably a "kettle-stitch." (Fig. 6.) 

The fourth section is then placed in position and started in the same 
way as the three previous, but instead of crossing the tapes directly, the 

needle passes under the 
group of threads previ- 
ously crossed on the 
tape, catches up these 
three threads into a 
knot like the kettle- 
stitch and then passes 

o\ tVeo^oV. ^^^^^5^^*^ N^ on mto the section m 

regular order. This 

FIG. 8. • -1 * 

serves primarily to 

tighten the sewing, and in the second place is made decorative. In the 
book of sixteen sections the thread of every fourth section can be used to 
catch up. A variety can be made by different groupings. (Fig. 7.) 
When necessary to join the thread, be careful that the knot does not 
occur on the outside of the section. A weaver's knot is best, cut the 
ends y2 in. long and fray out. In sewing learn to keep the left hand 
inside the section and allow it to do the work there, and the right hand 
to do all the work on the outside. The left hand can also assist in 
holding the sheets firm. By bearing down heavily with the side of the 
hand and the little finger the section can be held in place and still allow 
the other three fingers and thumb to manipulate the needle. This is 
important, difficult at first, but 
when once learned, better and 
quicker sewing is the result. The 
disadvantage of sending the right 
hand around the frame and into 
Mie book, to inquirj into the doings of the left, are obvious. 

After the catch-up stitch no other complications arise, and each sec- 
tion is sewed in its order. At the end make two kettle-stitches for 
greater security. Be careful not to forget the kettle-stitches. Always 
make one as the thread finishes at each section. Draw the thread tight, 
and always, when pulling it to tighten, pull in the direction the thread 
is going, or a badly torn section will be the result. (Fig. 8.) Do not 



draw kettle-stitches too tight, or your book will bulge through the 
middle. (Fig, 9.) When finished the book should have the sections 
showing level at the head, the tapes rightly spaced and going straight 
across the back, not wrinkled or crooked and the stitches crossing them 
evenly. Loosen the screws of sewing frame. Take out thumb tacks 
and pins and your book is sewed. 


Boards should be a good quality of binder's board, between 1-16 
and 1-18 in. in thickness. 
These should be cut to ex- 
tend 14, in. beyond the size 
of the book to form what 
is called the "squares" of 
the book, and is for pro- 
tection to the leaves. Al- 
low this projection to be 
on the three sides only, — 
the head foredge and foot. 
If our book is 6^ x 9^ 
then boards should be 


If our cover material is 
cloth, it is better to leave 
the body of the cloth 

unpasted, and paste only those portions which turn over the edge; 
with some ordinary white paper, and use this side against the cloth. 
Allow }^-'m. for turning in of the cover material. Use paste, not glue 
pull it over smoothly without stretching. Better to paste the two long 
sides first, then ends; in case the cloth does stretch, this will help it to 
stretch evenly. When covering with cloth, the corners work better if 
the sharp right-angle of the board is cut down just enough to take off 
the sharpness of the angle. 

Wbeo cvtli'na ^Iffj-or tape^ slfl.nt' ^m/t 
in direc/rorj of arrets 

FIG. 10. 


Place the boards in position on the book, the squares adjusted, and 
the boards flush with the back. Draw the tapes out on top of the 



boards, straight across at right angles to the back, and Y^-'in. from the 
back, mark two points indicating the width of the tapes. (Fig. 10.) 
One board can be marked by the other, being careful that you do not 
mark them both for one side. Take your knife and cut a slit in the 
board for the tape; make the cut slanting away from the back. Draw 
the tapes through snugly, so that when the board is closed there is no 
slack in the tape. Paste down end of tape on inside of board ; with a 
hammer beat the board where the slit was made, and it will close, holding 
the tape firmly. Put in ties for the front in the same way. If tapes are 



,y \^<i,sti. -pa-hdr 

FIG. 11. 

made long enough bring them through to form ties. This carries out the 
implied construction of the tapes going all around the book, but is not 


Throw back the board cover, slip a waste piece of paper which is 
larger than the book sheet under the first page; (Fig. 11.) paste all over 
the front of the first page, slip out the waste paper, and close the cover 
on the pasted sheet; press dow^n with the hands. Paste end sheet at 
other end of book in same way. Then inside each cover, slip in a 
pressing tin covered with clean paper, and press for a moment under 
quick hard pressure. Take out and substitute blotting papers in place 
of the tins ; place in press again, but not hard pressure, and allow to dry. 

The final purpose of these books is a varied one. Beside their use 
as visitors books, they are excellent as a register for a club or society, for 
banquet gatherings, for a child's annals or even to hold an artist's 
records of certain pictures, when and where painted, where sold etc. 
The decoration can be nothing beyond that of tapes and sewing or it 
can be as elaborate as one wishes, materials and color adding all richness 
of effect that mav be desired. 



In the photograph below, the cover material is dull linen of a natural 
color, the leather is an olive green Levant, the silk a duller green, and 
the metal of dull brass. Copper lends itself to most delightful decora- 
tion, — be careful to use a thin sheet metal or it will appear clumsy. 
Metal fastenings could be made, always remembering that they should 
not be too heavy for the character of the general construction. The 
book without backing and rounding is of a more or less transient nature, 
and while it will endure the wear it is liable to have will not endure 
artistically a decoration more suited to a solidly backed book. In the 
photograph on page 41, the larger book was sewed on linen tape, colored 
a dull salmon tint ; the silk used was golden brown, the cover a biscuit 
colored cover paper, and the fastening a loop of tape, through which is 
thrust tape ends finished off with dull Venetian beads. These books are 
all made of charcoal paper ; one is the exact size of the folded sheet, the 
other two cut down 1^4 or 2 inches at the head, giving a little variety 
in shape. The third book, page 41, is sewed with green silk on natural 
colored linen tape and the cover paper a Kuro Nkaboban from Japan. 





William Noyes 

THE making of joints as joints less and less constitutes the curri- 
culum of manual training courses, but since joinery involves the 
constant use of joints, a reference list of them, with illustrations, 
definitions and uses will be of convenience to workers in wood. 
The various kinds of joints may be classified according to the direc- 
tion in which the joined pieces meet, as; I, End to end, H, At right 
angles, HI, At oblique angles, IV, Edge to edge. 


1. A lapped and strapped joint is made by laying one end of a 
timber over another and fastening them together with bent straps on the 
ends of which are screws by which they may be tightened. It is very 
strong joint and is used where the beams need lengthening as in false 
work or in long ladders and flag poles. 

2. A butted and doweled joint is made by inserting one or more 
dowel pins in the ends of the two pieces butting together. It is used 
in joinery where there is little transverse strain. 

3. A fished joint is made by butting the squared ends of two timbers 
together and placing short pieces of wood or iron, called fish plates, over 
the faces of the timbers and bolting or spiking the whole firmly to- 
gether. It is used for joining timbers in the direction of their length, 
as in boat construction. 

4. In a fished joint keys are often inserted between the fish plate 
and beam at right angles to the bolts in order to lessen the strain that 
comes upon the bolts when the joint is subjected to tension. In wide 
pieces and for extra strength as in bridge work the bolts may be 

5. 6, 7 and 8. A scarf or spliced joint is made by joining together 
with flush surfaces the ends of two timbers in such a way as to enable 
them to resist compression, as in 5, tension, as in 6, both, as in 7 where 
the scarf is tabled, or cross strain as in 8. No. 5 is used in house sills 
and in splicing out short posts, Nos. 6 and 7 in open frame work. A 

1. Corrections will be gladly received by the writer. 
Copyright, William Noyes, 1907. 



joint to resist cross strain is stronger when scarfed vertically (Fig. 8 
is a plan) through its depth than flat-wise across its width. 


9. A doweled butt joint is made by inserting, with glue, dowel pins 
into holes bored into the two pieces to be joined. It is used in cabinet 
making, as in joining the edges of two boards at right angles where the 
presence of nails would be unseemly. 

10. A toe-nailed joint is made by driving nails diagonally through 
corners of one piece into another. It is used in fastening the studding 
to the sill in balloon framing. 

11. A draw-bolt joint is made by inserting an iron bolt through a 
hole in one piece and into another to meet a nut inserted from the side. 
It is very strong and is used in bench construction, wooden machinery, 

12. A plain butt joint is one in which the pieces join endwise or 
edgewise without overlapping. It is used on returns as in ordinary 
boxes and cases. 

13. A glued and blocked joint is made by gluing and rubbing a 
block in the inside corner of X.\\o pieces which are butted and glued to- 
gether. It is used in stair work and cabinet work as in the corners of 

14. A hopper joint is a butt joint, but is peculiar in that the edges 
are not right angles on account of the pitch of the sides. It is used in 
hoppers, bins, chutes, etc. 

A halved joint is one in which half the thickness of each piece is 
notched out and the remaining portion of one just fits into the notch in 
the other, so that the upper and under surfaces of the pieces are flush. 

15. A cross-lap joint is a halved joint in which both pieces project 
both waj's from the joint. A very common joint used in both carpentery 
and joinery as where stretchers cross each other in the same plane. 

16. A middle-lap joint is made in the same way as a cross-lap joint, 
but one piece projects from the joint in only one direction. It is used to 
join stretchers to rails as in floor timbers. 

17. An end-lap joint is made in the same way as a cross-lap joint 
except that the joint is at the end of both pieces. It is used at the 
corners of sills and plates, also sometimes in chair-seats, 

18. A dovetail halving or lap-dovetail is a middle-lap joint with the 
pin made dovetail in shape, and thus better able to resist tension. It is 
used for strong tee joints. 






ClPl trs^TSD 


.^ y A 















_S f"! ,'-' 

^igr Iff <gr 


19. A beveled halving is made like a middle-lap joint except that 
the upper end of the upper piece is thicker, so that the adjoining cheeks 
are beveled. It is very strong when loaded above. It was formerly 
used in house framing. 


20. A notched joint is made by cutting out a portion of one timber. 
It is used where it is desired to reduce the height occupied by the upper 
timber. Joists are notched on to wall plates. 

21. A checked joint or double notch is made by cutting out notches 
from both the timbers so as to engage each other. It is used where a 
single notch would weaken a timber too much. 

22. A cogged or corked or caulked joint is made by cutting out only 
parts of the notch on the lower piece, leaving a "cog" uncut. From the 
upper piece a notch is cut only wide enough to receive the cog. A 
cogged joint is stronger than a notched because the upper beam is not 
weakened at its point of support. It is used in heavy framing. 

23. A ledge or rebate or rabbet is made by cutting out a portion of 
the side or end of a board or timber to receive the end or side of an- 
other. It gives more surface for gluing -and makes a strong neat finish 
for boxes. 

24. A dado or gained or grooved joint is made by cutting a groove 
in one piece into which the end or edge of the other fits. Shelves are 
frequently "dadoed" into their uprights. It is used for the bottoms of 
drawers and for water tight boxes. 

25. A dovetail dado is made by cutting one or both of the sides of 
the infitting piece on an angle so that it has to be slid into place and can- 
not be pulled out sidewise. It is used in fine book cases. 


The tenon in its simplest form is made by dividing the end of a tim- 
ber into three parts and cutting out rectangular pieces on both sides of 
the part left in the middle. The mortise is the rectangular hole cut to 
receive the tenon. The sides of the tenon are called "cheeks" and the 
"shoulders" of the tenon are the parts abutting against the mortised 
piece. The mortise is made slightly deeper than the tenon is long. 

26. The common mortise-and-tenon or stub mortise-and-tenon is 
made by cutting only two sides of the tenon beam. It was formerly 
used for lower ends of studding or other upright pieces to prevent 
lateral motion. 




27. The through mortise-and-tenon is made by cutting the mortise 
clear through one piece, and by cutting the depth of the tenon equal to 
or more than the thickness of the mortised piece. The cheeks of the 
tenon may be cut on two or four sides. 

28. The blind mortise-and-tenon is similar to the simple mortise- 
and-tenon described in 26. The tenon does not extend through the 
mortised piece, and the cheeks of the tenon may be cut on two or four 

29. A wedge mortise-and-tenon joint is a through joint in which 
after the tenon is driven home, wedges are driven in between the tenon 
and the sides of the mortise. The wedges are dipped in glue or white 
lead before being inserted. The sides of the mortise may be slightly 
dovetailed. It is used to keep a tenon tighth' fixed as in wheel spokes. 

30. A wedged mortise-and-tenon joint may also be made by driving 
the wedges into saw kerfs in the tenon instead of along its sides as in 
29. It is used in ornamental joints as well as in carpentry. 

31. The fox-tail tenon is a blind mortise-and-tenon in which the 
mortise is made slightly wider at the bottom than the width of the tenon. 
Wedges are driven into saw kerfs in the tenon before inserting into the 
mortise; then when it is driven home the wedges spread out the tenon 
and make it fill out the mortise. It is used where the mortised piece is 
already in place so that a wedged mortise-and-tenon is impossible, and 
also in strong doors. 

Z2. The dovetail mortise-and-tenon is a through mortise-and-tenon 
beveled on one side so as to form half a dovetail. The corresponding 
side of the mortise is also beveled and made \vide enough so that when 
the tenon is pressed well up against its beveled side a wedge may be 
driven into the space left on the straight side. It is used to tenon a 
beam into a post especially where the post is fixed against a wall. It is 
also used in wood machinery. 

33. A pinned mortise-and-tenon is one in which a pin is driven 
through holes bored through the mortised beam and through the tenon 
to keep them from drawing apart. It is used in heavy framing as in 
bridges, in wagon making, in window sash, etc. 

34. A keyed mortise-and-tenon is one in which the tenon protrudes 
through the mortise far enough to receiv.c a removable key and thus be 
drawn up tight to the mortised piece. It is used in work benches and in 
ornamental joints like knock-down bookcases and in other mission furni- 




35. A tusk tenon or shoulder tenon is one in which the tenon 
proper is quite thin but is reinforced by a thicker shoulder called a 
"tusk". The upper shoulder is beveled. The object of this form is to 
weaken the mortised piece as little as possible but at the same time to 
increase the strength of the tenon. It is used in joining tail beams to 
headers in floor framing. 

36. The double mortise-and-tenon consists of two tenons side by 
side in one piece fitting into two corresponding mortises. It is used in 
joinery as in door frames, but not in carpentery. 

37. A slip joint or end or open or box mortise-and-tenon is what 
would remain if a mortised piece were sawn off along one side of the 
tenoned piece. Window screens and other light frames such as those 
for slates and for printing photographs have this joint. This joint mul- 
tiplied is used for small machine-made boxes. 

38. A haunched mortise-and-tenon is made by cutting away part of 
the tenon so that that part of it will be much shorter than the rest. The 
haunch gives the tenon great lateral strength and saves cutting so large 
a mortise hole. It is used where the rail of a table meets the leg so that 
the end of the leg may be as strong as possible. It is also used in join- 
ing the rails to the stiles of doors. 

39. A housed mortise-and-tenon is one in which the whole of the 
end of one piece of timber is let in for a short distance or "housed" into 
another. Treads of stairs are housed into string boards. It is com- 
mon in' grill work, and in railings. 

Dovetailed joints are so named from the shape of the pieces made to 
fit one another. The proper angle for the dovetail is shown in 40. 

40. The through single dovetail is made like the slip joint except 
that the tenon or pin is beveled so that it can only slip out one way. 

41. The through multiple dovetail consists of a series of alternate 
projections and indentations in the end of each board. These are known 
as pins and sockets which form the joint by fitting one another closely. 
It is used in tool chests and in fine boxes. 

42. The half lapped or half blind dovetail is a joint in which the 
pins on one board do not extend entirely through the thickness of the 
other board. It is used in joining the sides to the fronts of drawers. 

43. The mitered, secret or blind dovetail is a joint in which only 
part, say one half, of both boards is dovetailed, the outer portion being 
mitered. The edges of the boards are also mitered right through for a 
short distance so that when finished the dovetails are invisible. It is 
used in highly finished boxes. 




A beveled joint is made by beveling the pieces joined so that the 
plane of the point bisects the angle at which the pieces meet. This is 
called the "miter" and maN' be 45 degrees or any other angle. It is 
neat but weak unless reinforced by a spline. 

44. A plain miter is a joint where the beveled edges or ends abut 
and are simply glued or nailed together. It is commonly used in picture 
frames, inside trim, etc. 

45. A plain miter may be strengthened by the insertion of a double- 
ended dovetail inlaid across the point. It is used by Oriental joiners. 

46. A doweled miter is one in which one or more dowels are in- 
serted and glued into holes bored into the beveled edges. It may be used 
instead of nails as e. g. in large picture frames. 

47. A spline miter is one in which a "spline" or "feather" of thin 
wood is set into a saw kerf across the joint. It is used in picture frames 
and boxes. 

48. A ledge and miter or lapped miter joint is made by rebating 
and mitering the boards to be joined so that the outer portion of the two 
boards meet in a miter. It is strong and good looking and may be glued 
or nailed. It is used for fine boxes. 

49. A miter and butt joint is a simplified ledge and miter joint and 
is useful for joining pieces of different widths. 

50. A stretcher joint is a slip joint in which one or both sides is 
mitered. It is used in frames for stretching canvass for paintings by 
driving wedges from the inside. 


51. A strut joint is a form of miter joint used in making trusses. 
52 and 53. A thrust joint or tie joint or toe joint is one in which 

two beams meet at an oblique angle, one receiving the thrust of the 
other. The toe may be either square as in 52 or oblique as in 53. The 
pieces are bolted or strapped together with iron. It is used for the 
batter braces of bridges. 

54. A plain brace joint is one in which the brace is simply mitered 
and nailed into place. It is used for bracket supports. 

55. A housed brace joint is a joint in which the brace is housed into 
the rectangular pieces except that the outer end of the mortise is cut at 
right angles and the inner end diagonally to receive the brace which is 
cut to correspond. It is much stronger than 54. 










56. An oblique mortise-and-tenon or bevel-shoulder joint is one in 
which the shoulders of the tenoned beam are cut obliquely and its end 
is cut off at right angles. The cheeks of the mortise are correspond- 
ingly sunk. By these means the tenon prevents lateral motion w^hile the 
whole width of the beam presses against the abutment. Thus a much 
larger bearing surface is obtained. The whole is bolted or strapped 
together. It is used in heavy truss work. 

57. The bridle joint is an oblique joint in which a bridle or 
"tongue" is left in an oblique notch cut out of one beam. Over this 
tongue is fitted a grooved socket cut obliquely in the other beam. It is 
used in truss construction. 

58. The bird's mouth joint is an angular notch cut in a timber to 
allow it to fit snugly over the piece on which it rests. It is used in 
rafters where they fit over the plate. 


59. A plain or rubbed joint is one in which the edges of two 
boards are glued and rubbed together tight. It is used in table tops, 
drawing boards, etc. 

60. A rebated, rabbeted or fillistered joint. Rebating is the cutting 
of a rectangular slip out of the side of a piece of wood. The re-entering 
angle left upon the wood is called the rebate or rabbet. A rebated joint, 
then is one in which corresponding rebates are taken off edges so that 
the joined boards may overlap. It is used in flooring and siding. 

A board is rebated and filleted when two adjoining rebates are filled 
with a fillet. 

61. A matched or tongue-and-groove joint is made by making a pro- 
jection or "tongue" in the center of the edge of one board, and a corres- 
ponding groove in the center of the other so that they will match to- 
gether. When used for flooring, the lower side of the grooved board is 
slightly rebated so that the upper edges will surely touch. This sort of 
flooring can be blind nailed. 

62. A beaded joint is similar to a matched joint except that a bead 
is worked on one edge to disguise the joint for decorative purposes. 

63. A spline joint is made by plowing corresponding grooves in the 
edges to be joined and inserting a spline or slip-feather. It is used in 
plank flooring. 

64. A doweled joint is made by jointing the two edges carefully. 



boring holes opposite each other and inserting dowel pins when the two 
edges are glued together. It is used in table tops, etc. 

65. A long edge miter joint is made by mitering the long edges of 
boards to be joined. Since the object is usually good appearance, this 
joint is glued. It may be reinforced by inserting a slip-feather along the 
joint or corrugated nails in the ends of the pieces. It is used in tabo- 
rets, pillars, etc. 


Experiments With the growing demand for a more adequate system of 
in Industrial industrial education, the practical schoolman is beginning 
to devise ways and means of meeting it. To him has 
come the opportunity, more than to anyone else, to render a great ser- 
vice, and we hope he will make the best of it. We shall look for many 
enlightening experiments during the next few years. Already we hear 
of public high schools strengthening and multiplying their technical 
courses and we would not be surprised to learn soon that some public 
school had been organized to offer such a course as was outlined by 
Professor Paul H. Hanus, chairman of the Massachusetts Commission 
on Industrial Education, when he said : 

The industrial schools needed to-day to supplement the existing public 
schools should receive pupils fourteen to fifteen years of age who declare their 
intention to learn a trade, and would therefore be parallel to the existing high 
schools, but independent of them. Such schools would offer a course of study 
covering four years. The first two years would comprise general shop instruc- 
tion with related drawing, mathematics, natural science, the history of industry 
and commerce, shop and business English, and the reading of appropriate arti- 
cles and books. 

The last two years would give instruction for particular trades, and for 
each trade represented, the drawing, mathematics, physics, chemistry of that 
trade, the history of that trade treated both as special history and as a branch 
of general history, civics treated as concretely as possible, and English as before. 

The essentials of such a school may easily grow up in connection 
with a manual training high school. Just as one group of studies now 
fits for the engineering college, another may train for the machine and 
building trades. Suggestions for such a group can now be obtained 
from the courses of study in the Wilmerding School of San Francisco. 
The proposed technical high school for Cleveland, Ohio, which Presi- 
dent Howe of the Case School of Applied Science says will aim specifi- 
cally to train young men to become successful manufacturers, may also 
offer some suggestions. But this industrial tendency and possibility in 
manual training high schools is perhaps best illustrated in the fourth 
j-ear of the new course of study for the Stuyvesant High School in New 
York City, recently prepared by Dr. Frank RoUin, principal of the 
school, and the New York board of superintendents. The course is 



planned to be of special benefit to boys who wish to go directly from the 
high school to their life work. The old course will remain for the boys 
who wish to enter higher institutions of learning. The follo\^ ing is an 
outline of the new course : 


English 5 

Algebra 5 

Freehand drawing 2 

Mechanical drawing 4 

Joinery and cabinet-making 10 

Music 1 

Physical training (with physiology and hygiene) 2 



English 3 

Plane geometry 4 

Chemistry 5 

Freehand drawing 2 

Mechanical drawing 4 

Wood-turning, pattern-making, and foundry 10 

Physical training 2 



English 3 

Plane geometry and trigonometry 3 

Physics 5 

Modern history 3 

Mechanical and architectural drawing 4 

Forging and machine shop practice 10 

Physical training 2 



English 3 

Shop mathematics 3 

American history and civics 4 

Advanced chemistry or economics or industrial and com- 
mercial law or applied mechanics, steam and electricity.. 4 
Special shop practice in one of the following electives 10 

(1) Building construction (carpentry, sanitation, including 

heating and ventilating, electrical wiring and in- 

(2) Advanced forging and tool making. 

(3) Advanced pattern making and foundry practice. 

(4) Advanced machine shop practice. 

(5) Industrial chemistry, lectures, and laboratory practice. 
Physical training 2 



But high schools alone, no matter how technical they beconje, can- 
not solve the problem entirely. The great army of children, who are 
forced by circumstances to leave school and become wage-earners as soon 
as the law will permit, never reach the high school. If they are to be 
trained for industry it must be during the grammar school period. 
The problem of separating those who cannot go beyond the grammar 
school and providing for them a special school, or of giving optional in- 
dustrial courses outside of the regular school hours or of revising th^ 
grammar school curriculum to meet the demands of industry is a 
difficult one, but we believe it will be solved. The Manhattan 
School for Girls, though a private institution, has already been a 
great inspiration to many who are studying this problem, and the work 
and results of such schools as Hampton and Tuskegee are being studied 
by more teachers than ever before. Every evening or day school, private 
or public, that takes pupils of grammar school age and gives them special 
training for industrial life may be furnishing data toward the ultimate 
solution of the great problem that is immediately before us. 

In this connection we are reminded of the educational experiment 
just being inaugurated in Trenton, N. J. at the suggestion of Director 
Frederick of the School of Industrial Arts. Pupils of the public schools 
having special ability in drawing are to be gathered together at the Art 
School on Saturday mornings and given thorough technical instruction 
in art processes. This idea of developing natural aptitudes by selection 
and special training early in school life is not a new one^ — the sugges- 
tion comes from Europe — but it is of special interest just now as its 
aim is the best training for individual children with ref erer ce to lat3- 

Mr. Larsson Last wii-ter Mr. Bahabha, inspector general of education 
Honored. ^^ Mysore, India, was commissioned by his government to 

investigate the systems of manual training in England and America. Af- 
ter quite an extended tour through both countries he visited the Sloyd 
Training School in Boston and was so much pleased with the system 
he found there that before he left the school he expressed the desire that 
Mr. Larsson go to India for the purpose of introducing sloyd. On 
returning to his native land, Mr. Bahabha, in reporting to his govern- 
ment, suggested that an invitation be sent to Mr. Larsson. This sug- 
gestion was adopted. The official invitation came early in June and was 
at once accepted, leave of absence being granted by Mrs. Quincy A. 
Shaw the honored patron of the Sloyd Training School. On the way 


to India Mr. Larsson made a short visit to Sweden, his native land, 
and then left London for Bangalore about the middle of July. He will 
remain in India six months. 

Mr. Larsson's work in India will be confined almost entirely to the 
training of a class of selected teachers and the arousing of public senti- 
ment in favor of the work. The government hopes that at the end of 
six months some of the teachers in the class may be able to carry 
forward the work. 

In this connection we recall that Gustaf Larsson came to Boston 
in 1888, and since that time has been adapting Swedish Sloyd principles 
to American conditions. His power to discriminate between essentials 
and non-essentials, his willingness to incorporate the making and use of 
working drawings into his system, and his general attitude of open- 
mindedness toward educational problems have enabled him to gain and 
hold the foremost place among American sloyd teachers, and have placed 
him in the very first rank of all American teachers of manual training. 
The work of no other man has had greater influence upon manual train- 
ing for the upper grammar grades. Mr. Larsson is not merely an ex- 
ponent of the principles formulated by Herr Salomon of Naas. under 
whom he received his training; he represents the broader American sloyd 
which cannot be separated from other American work in manual train- 
ing. But if such a separation could be made, sloyd would be found to 
contain much that is most likely to be permanent in what has vet been 
really attained in American manual training. 


William T. Bawden, Editor. 


The Los Angeles meeting marked the fiftieth anniversary of the organization 
of the N. E. A. It will rank as one of the most important meetings of the Asso- 
ciation because of the adoption of the Charter and the successful bridging over 
of the trying period caused by the omission of the San Francisco meeting and the 
present disturbed railroad situation. 

The tendency, so noticeable during the last decade, to give the school and 
its curriculum more of social content and to bring it into closer contact with 
social needs and conditions was markedly in evidence at all of the sessions. 
The Manual Training Department, the first representative of this movement to 
obtain recognition from the National Association, has this year to welcome as 
its allies two new Departments, the organization of which has been made neces- 
sary by the growing influence of this movement, and whose assistance will render 
possible a more thorough working of the field and more efficient and fruitful in- 
vestigation. The department of Technical Education will confine its attention 
mainly to the field of higher education, and the Department of Agricultural 
Education will make special study of the rural school and agricultural college. 

The attendance at the sessions of the Manual Traininp; Section and the ac- 
tive interest displayed by all were most gratifving. Our most hearty apprecia- 
tion is due the retiring President, Frank M. Leavitt, of Boston, for a well or- 
ganized program with its timely discussions of problems urgently demanding 
solution and for the selection of speakers who from wide and successful experi- 
ence were able to offer many valuable suggestions. 

The first session, a joint session with the Art and Elementary School Sections, 
was held on Tuesday afternoon, July 9th. The general topic under consideration, 
"The Development of an Adequate Course of Study in Manual Training for 
Elementary Grades," was discussed from three main points of view: (1) that 
of the teacher of the manual arts, by August Ahrens, State Normal School, 
Warrensburg, Mo.; (2) that of the child-study specialist, by Professor Dresslar, 
University of California; (3) that of the school superintendent, by Charles H. 
Keyes, Hartford, Conn. 

George W. Eggers, Chicago Normal School, was to have discussed the sub- 
ject from the first point of view but was unable to be present. Mr. Ahrens 
who was on the program to discuss Mr. Eggers' paper kindl}^ consented, on short 
notice, to fill the gap. "I would have you conceive," said he, "the main definite 
end of manual training for the individual to be the systematic training of the 
hand in construction work through the use of tools and the manipulation of 
materials, and the acquisition of facts and ideas that make for power and effici- 
ency in social and industrial service." He emphasized content as well as 
training, and placed ways and processes above the finished product. The fin- 
ished product is but the concrete approach to the end — an adequate course flexi- 
ble and graded to suit the varying stages of the child's development. While ad- 



vocating due regard to the natural interests of children he affirmed that "The 
course will not grow out of fleeting, spasmodic, and temporary impulse or fancy 
of childhood into a fragmentary unrelated scheme of training, but temporary in- 
terests and needs will be wisely directed and shaped towards purposeful and per- 
manent ends." 

Professor Dresslar, who followed, claimed that manual training in its fu- 
ture larger and truer sense would mean learning how to enter into organized 
activity with the hand, whether in the use of tools or on the playground, on the 
farm or in the fishing-smack. He deplored the lack of depth and breadth of 
youthful experience that characterizes the children in our cities. The needs of 
children demand that their growth in consciousness be a direct result of the organ- 
izing and relating of sense stimulation through motor activity. As the feelings 
are in large measure the resultant state of consciousness growing out of the 
present state of muscular activity, manual training is to that extent emotional 
training and closely related to physical training. He pleaded for the mental 
enrichment of the work, giving the child greater power to feel, to think, and 
to express hinself. The natural normal child makes plain the relative values 
of the many varieties of work offered. We are too prone to force upon him some 
finely worked out scheme that we have evolved out of our own mature conscious- 
ness. He suggested a school farm as a necessary part of every city system. 

The choice of the last speaker of the session was indeed a happy one. 
Supt. Keyes in a brief address indicated the essential points as seen by the ad- 
ministrator and suggested a definite way of reaching something tangible. He 
claimed that the responsibility for the inadequacy of our courses rests on the su- 
perintendents and principals. They must see to it: (1) that proper time oppor- 
tunity is provided for accomplishing something worth while; (2) that the course 
be placed, not only formally but through the spirit of the whole school staff, on 
an equal footing with the other subjects; (3) that no attempt be made to lay out 
the actual work before consultation with a manual training instructor, an art 
teacher, a master of child-study, a physical culture teacher, and an efficient 
grade teacher; (4) that they themselves are responsible for the proper correla- 
tion of educational endeaz'or and effective teaching, rather than fanciful and 
ingenious schemes for correlating subjects; (5) that they give adequate recog- 
nition to the environment of the school as a factor. We are not to dream of a 
uniform course even for one state; that would be both unwise and unfortunate. 
At the same time all courses must recognize the fundamental nature of the child. 

Following the suggestions of Supt. Keyes the Committee on Resolutions re- 
ported as follows: "Whereas, the cumulative work of the Department during the 
last two years in seeking a more rational statement of courses of manual train- 
ing seems now to indicate a iiecessity for some definite work by a special com- 
mittee: Be it therefore Resolved, — That the Manual Training Department of the 
N. E. A., now in session, recommend the appointment of a committee for the 
purpose of collecting data of the manual training work done throughout this 
country, that suggestive courses adaptable to various conditions found therein 
may be formulated by it. Further, be it resolved, — That this committee consist 
of three persons now actively engaged in manual training, with power to add to 
their number a superintendent of schools, a teacher of art, a child-study specialist, 


a grade teacher, and representatives from such other departments as may be 
deemed advisable to increase the efficiency of its work. Further, be it Resolved,— 
That the committee be appointed by the President for a term of two years and be 
requested to make a preliminary report at the next meeting of the Association." 

The resolution was adopted unanimously and the usual steps were taken 
to obtain an appropriation from the Board of Directors. The Board set aside 
the sum of $500 for the use of the committee. Later in the week President Leavitt 
appointed the following to act on this committee: B. W. Johnson, supervisor of 
manual training, Seattle, Wash., chairman; H. D. Brundage, Stout Training 
Schools, Menominie, Wis.; Miss E. E. Langley, School of Education, Chicago. 

The second session was held on Thursday morning, the general topic under 
discussion being, "The Relation of Industrial Education to Public Instruction." 
Magnus W. Alexander, of the General Electric Co., Lynn, Mass., was unable to 
be present to present his paper on, "Industrial Training as viewed by the Man- 

B. W. Johnson, Seattle, Wash., limiting his discussion to the high school as 
it exists at present, pointed out that during the first two years the students 
are too immature and too limited in general experience economically to undertake 
definite industrial training. We should see to it that during these years the 
students get the necessary enrichment of experience and gain in maturity so that 
with economy both to themselves and to society they can receive definite indus- 
trial training during the last two years. The first two years would enable the 
individual to discover his special aptitude and to lay a general foundation for 
subsequent special work. The work should be closely related to the activities of 
the community. The girl should receive as generous treatment as the boy. 

Jesse D. Burks, Teachers' Training School, Albany, N. Y., followed with a 
discussion of that most perplexing part of the problem, the later years in the 
elementary school and the transition to the high school in the case of the 
favored few or out of the school into the actual life of affairs in the case of 
the great majority. He emphasized the fact that our whole educational system 
is weakest just at this point, and set forth in the following propositions what he 
deemed a true statement of the situation and its remedy: (1) there is a wide- 
spread feeling among pupils and parents that the last two or three years of the 
elementary school course are of less practical value to children than the same 
years given to vocational pursuits: (2) investigation shows that under present 
conditions the years between the ages of fourteen and sixteen, whether spent in 
school or at work, are for the great majority of children wasted years so far as 
industrial efficiency is concerned; (3) the work of the last few years of the 
elementary school, like that of the traditional high school, disregards differences 
in native capacity and in prospective careers of pupils although these differences 
appear with increasing force at the very time when the children are passing 
through these years; (4) the systematic recognition of special aptitude in the 
organization of school work supplies the rational basis for secondary as distin- 
guished from elementary education — the division between elementary and sec- 
ondary education is at present made too late; (5) under an adequate system of 
secondary schools, boys and girls would be made conscious of their individual 
powers, and thus would be enabled to adjust themselves rationally, rather than 


fortuitously, to the requirements of social life; (6) with proper data concerning 
the inheritance and personal development of individual pupils, it would be pos- 
sible for teachers and school officers in co-operation with pupils and parents to 
determine with considerable accuracy the careers for which individuals are best 
fitted; (7) it may be assumed that, on the whole, chidren will remain in school 
as long as they and their parents regard It as distinctly to their advantage to 
do so and economic conditions do not prevent; (8) the conclusion clearly indi- 
cated by the foregoing is that adequate provision for vocational training be- 
ginning at about the sixth year of school would tend to prolong the school life 
and increase the vocational efficiency of the great mass of children, especially 
of those who enter industrial and domestic pursuits. 

The closing session of the Department, a joint session with the Department 
of Indian Education, was held on Friday morning. Three very suggestive 
papers were read. Elbert H. Eastmond, Brigham Young University, Utah, dis- 
cussed "Rational Art and Manual Training in Rural Schools." He dealt with 
work, aims, method, and materials, mainly from the elementary side. His 
photographs of work from various schools in Utah were very suggestive. M. 
Friedman, Haskell Indian Institute, Kansas, gave a general idea of the special 
adjustments necessary when presenting the work to Indian boys and girls. 
Miss R. M. Hodge, Los Angeles, discussed the value of the work in dealing 
with the immigrant child — from southern and south-eastern Europe, the Orient, 
and Mexico — and the sub-normal or physically deficient. This paper closed 
the session. 

Jesse D. Burks, Albany, N. Y., was elected president of the Department for 

the ensuing year. 

James Collins Miller, 

Throop Polytechnic Institute, 

Pasadena, Cal. 


The Society for the Promotion of Engineering Education held its fifteenth 
annual meeting at the Case School of Applied Science in Cleveland, July 1st 
to 3rd, 1907. The program dealt very largely with technical school problems of 
such a nature as to be hardly of interest to Manual Arts teachers. 

On Wednesday morning, Calvin M. Woodward was called to give the 
report of the Committee on Industrial Education. He prefaced his report by 
announcing that what he had to say could hardly be called a report of the 
Committee, but a statement of his own personal opinion. He heartily endorsed 
manual training in the secondary schools as the greatest step in Industrial educa- 
tion. It serves to train the youth for work In industrial fields and is the best 
feeder of the higher technical school. Thus the modern product is both theo- 
retic and practical. The engineer who can both plan and execute is the most 
important asset of the manufacturer. Manual training has another important 
result In making the schools attractive and worth while. 

The advanced trade schools founded by corporations, with a broad educa- 
tion as a prerequisite are also to be encouraged. 


There are two classes of boys whom the secondary schools do not reach, and 
for these provision should be made. First, those who from taste or necessity, 
nearly 85 per cent, never enter secondary schools. Upon these, the greatest 
influence should be brought to bear to enter either a manual training or classical 
school or a vocational school. Each boy should be free to choose his school. The 
manual training school is the ideal in which one third of the time is given to 
mechanic arts, two thirds to cultural studies. The vocational school, giving two 
thirds of the time of mechanic arts is educationally narrower than the manual 
training school. 

The second class of boys includes those from 18 to 24 years of age who have 
had little industrial education and are working through the day. To these 
should be offered the privileges of the mechanical plants of the schools, during 
the hours when the equipment stands idle. Such could be of advantage in night 
schools. Professor Woodward mentioned a Sunday morning school in St. Louis, 
in which he was personally interested, and which proved very popular. 

Mr. Woodward's talk was supplemented by Professor Williston of Pratt 
Institute, a member of the Committee, who enumerated without particular com- 
ment the movements in industrial education throughout the country. 

The topic of the day which excited the most discussion and comment was 
The Co-operative Engineering Course at the University of Cincinnati, presented 
by Professor Herman Schneider, for the University and Chas. S. Gingrich of the 
Cincinnati Milling Machine Co., for the manufacturers. In introducing his 
subject. Professor Schneider said that he was reading this paper at this time 
under protest, as he would prefer to present it three years hence. The Co- 
operative course has been in operation but one year and the experiment is new. 
The course covers six years and includes all of the university work taken by 
the pupils of the regular four-year technical course, and a thorough experience 
in the practical shopwork in all of the various departments of the Cincinnati 
Milling Machine Co. The shopwork alternates week by week with the class- 
room work through six university years, and is continuous during the summer. 
The boys receive daily wages increasing until a maximum of 21c per hour is 
reached in the sixth year. While their wages at first are not sufficient to pay all 
expenses, they have the opportunity of borrowing from a loan fund, all of which 
with careful planning they can repay by the end of the six years. 

The advantages of this course to both the employer and the young man are 
apparent and manifold. The manufacturer secures men of a high type, trained 
to fit the particular needs of his shops — men who can design with a knowledge 
of details, as well as execute. The young man early gets an intimate knowl- 
edge of business methods, manufacturers' processes, good address and broad 
sympathies through a close association with labor conditions and attitudes, a 
uniform development for life — finally, the essentials making for good citizenship. 
What is possibly more material, he can at the close of his college course, command 
a salary large enough to be attractive to him. 

Mr. Chas. E. Downton gave an interesting account of what the Westinghouse 
Electric and Manufacturing Co., is doing towards the education and social bet- 
terment of its employees, through special apprenticeship courses and co-operative 
societies. H. E. R. 



The executive committee held two meetings at Cleveland, O., at the time of 
the meeting of the Western Drawing and Manual Training Association, at 
which time several important features of the 1908 meeting were decided upon. 

It was decided to lengthen the program by providing for three sessions 
instead of two: Friday afternoon, Friday evening, and Saturday morning. The 
principal features of the Friday afternoon session will be the reports, with dis- 
cussion, of two committees: the committee on course of study in the manual arts 
for primary and intermediate grades, Seymour L. Smith, DeKalb, chairman ; and 
the committee, William F. Raymond, Peoria, chairman, appointed to investigate 
the general question of "belt-driven versus individual-motor-driven machinery for 
manual training equipments." 

It is expected to have the usual Banquet at the Friday evening session, 
followed by addresses. The Saturday morning program will include a dis- 
cussion of the course of study in shopwork prepared by a conynittee, C. A. Ben- 
nett, chairman, for the State Course of Study. 

The date of the meeting is February 7-8, 1908. 


The election of Chas. A. Bennett as president of the Western Drawing and 
Manual Training Association has necessitated the reorganization of its editorial 
board. William T. Bawden of Normal, 111., is now chairman and F. H. Selden 
of the University of Chicago is in charge of the advertising. The only member 
of the old board still remaining is Ira S. Griffith of Oak Park. This board is 
now acting in conjunction with the editorial committees of the Eastern Manual 
Training Association and the Eastern Art Teachers Association in getting out 
the report of the Cleveland Meeting. 

It is probable that the date of the next meeting of the Association, which is 
to be held in Indianapolis, will be a little earlier than usual. April 8-11 is 
convenient for the Indianapolis local committee and will probably be adopted 
by the executive committee of the Association. 

The August number of the Manual Training Teacher contains the Fifteenth 
Annual Report of the affairs of the English National Association of Manual 
Training Teachers as prepared by the Execptive Council of that body. Among 
other things the following points are recommended to the Association "as deserv- 
ing very earnest deliberation:— 1. The proper systematic training in a duly 
organized training college of those who wish to become manual training 
teachers. 2. — That it is high time that manual training should be not only 
obligatory, but taught in hours which make a manual training lesson equal in 
duration to a whole morning or afternoon session of the ordinary day school. 
3. That tool-sharpening and the like are a part of the child's training in the 
manual training classroom, and should not be made the subject of extraneous 
tasks forced upon the teacher to carry out in his spare time." 


George A. Seaton, Editor. 


A problem almost as old as manual training itself is what is commonly 
called the cutting board. That it has value as a model is evidenced by its con- 
tinued use and perhaps it will bear repeating for the sake of the slight change 
which W. A. Van Deusen of the Cleveland Central Manual Training School 
introduces. This consists of the cutting of a groove across the under side into 
which a cross strip is tightly fitted. This addition not only offers an oppor- 
tunity for excellent practice in the use of tools but also has a certain historical 
interest. In the days when smooth pieces of board were not so easily obtained 
as at present, the cutting board was the result of considerable labor and it was 
worth while devising some scheme for prolonging the time of its use. According- 
ly the cross strip set in the back took the brunt of the wear and could be renewed 
from time to time, while the front remained unmarred as it hung conspicuously 
on the wall. In addition to the chance offered of renewing the surface subjected 
to the most wear, the fact that the grain of the wood ran in the direction of the 
cut tended to decrease the rapidity with which the knife was dulled. Ordinarily 
the board was made larger than the one shown in the drawing, which has been 
reduced to a size adapted to school needs. 


A project which never fails to interest the boys and one of which they are 
always sure to be proud when it is completed is the little footstool. As shown 
with dowel joints it is very easy to construct but very serviceable. If preferred, 
it could readily be made with the mortise-and-tenon joint in place of the dowel 
joint. Another change that might be made is the using of cleats to support the 
top board instead of rabbeting the rails. The top of the posts can be given a 
number of different shapes according to the ability of the worker. 

The upholstering takes considerable care to be a success. Genuine leather 
may be used as a cover or one of the imitation leathers, of which that known as 
Chase leather is excellent. If this is used as shown in the drawing, going clear 
over the rails, a piece about 16 by 20 inches will be needed. Instead of doing 
this a piece about 11 by 15 inches may be used and brought down but a half 
inch over the rails. In this case it will be necessary to finish the edge with a 
piece of gimp. For padding either tow, moss or curled hair may be used and 
the amount will depend upon the material. From a half pound of tow to % 

'Note: What is being attempted in this department is merely suggested in 
this issue. It is expected that later issues will reveal more fully its plan and 
scope. To be most successful such a department cannot be the work of one man, 
nor even can it be the work of many under the initiative of one. Its greatest 
success means that all the readers must volunteer any valuable ideas with which 
they become acquainted. Though such ideas may seem old to the contributor, 
they may be new and valuable to many readers of the Magazine. We ask then 
the honest criticism and hearty support of all who find this department interest- 
ing. — Ed. 












pound of curled hair will be ample. The first step will be to lay a stick about 
an inch thick lengthwise of the stool on the rails. Over this is stretched a piece 
of muslin 11 by 15 inches which is temporarily tacked in place along the upper 
edge of the long rails. The stick can now be removed and the padding forced 
in from both ends until the top is neatly rounded into shape. A tack is first 
placed in the center of each of the shorter sides which may now be tacked in place 
by working from the center towards the corners. Any large lumps in the top 
can be removed by loosening the tacks on the long sides and stretching the muslin 
tighter over the lumps. The corners are the last to be tacked in place and can 
be fitted by making a 45-degree cut just far enough in from the outside corner to 
make a tight fit around the post. Care must be taken to get plenty of padding 
in the corners. All tacks may now be driven home and the leather put in place 
much like the muslin, working from the center of the sides toward the corners. 
The leather is held in place by ordinary tacks driven in the under edge of the 
rails in the stool illustrated, or along the upper edge of the rails where the 
leather does not cover them. Any extra leather should be trimmed off with a 
sharp knife and the large gimp tacks put in for ornament. Where it is desired 
to have the top especially smooth and free from bumps some cotton batten should 
be placed under the leather. 


Walter M. Mohr's article on the "Decorated Shop Model" (1905 Year Book 
of Council of Supervisors of the Manual Arts) suggested the lines of the tabouret 
shown, though the dimensions given are those used in East Cleveland. This 
makes an excellent application of the mortise-and-tenon joint and can be modi- 
fied by using four legs instead of two. 


Those who noticed the exhibit of the Bradley Polytechnic Institute at the 
last manual training convention will be interested in the drawing of the brass 
letter rack which was there given with the several steps in its making. Aside 
from its beauty it has a worth in suggesting the possibilities in a field now just 
beginning to be developed, namely that of metahvork which may be undertaken 
with a very few hand tools. Especially as this metahvork is combined with 
wood are the prospects attractive. The forming of the wooden back is but a sim- 
ple problem in woodwork but the different steps undertaken in forming the brass 
part are instructive in showing how few the tools needed in the work. After 
the outline has been laid out upon the metal, a series of prick punches are made 
just inside the outline which serve to center the drill which is next used. By 
placing these holes close enough together it is an easy matter to cut out the metal 
occupying the open spaces and a little work with the file brings the piece to 
dimensions. The piece is finally bent to shape, polished and riveted. 


The electrophorus has proven itself to be an interesting model for seventh 
grade boys in Watertown, Mass. It offers a simple method of generating a sup- 
ply of electricity with which a number of experiments, such as are suggested in 















text books dealing with electricity, may be performed. Under favorable condi- 
tions of cleanliness, dryness, and warmth, sparks %-in. long may be obtained. 

The cover should be well sandpapered before the tinfoil is glued to it. Two 
circles of tinfoil 4^-in. in diameter may be cut from tinfoil obtained at a tobacco 
store and their edges overlapped as smoothly as possible when glued to the cover, 
for electricity escapes rapidly from sharp corners and edges. An ebonite rod can 
be made from a rubber comb or other piece of hard rubber, or secured at a 
hardware store. It should fit snugly into the cover. 

Before the pan is filled with the resinous mixture it should receive several 
heavy coatings of shellac to prevent air bubbles from the wood when the warm 
mixture is poured in. This mixture is of fourteen parts by weight of resin, four 
of thick shellac, two of turpentine, and one of paraffine. The melting should be 
done in a rather large vessel as compared with the amount to be melted because, 
the materials are quite inflammable and the heat causes an abundance of air 
bubbles, which however mostly pass away with continued stirring as the mix- 
ture cools to the right consistency for pouring. After the mixture has been 
allowed to harden in the pan it should be made as flat as possible by scraping or 

Sealing wax alone makes a good mixture. 

To generate electricity rub the mixture briskly with woolen or fur for a 
minute or two in a warm, dry atmosphere. Then, handling the cover by the 
ebonite rod, place it upon the pan, touch its upper surface with the finger, then 
lift it from the pan and it will discharge a spark upon any conductor brought 
near td its rounding edge. Harris W. Moore. 





Clinton S. Van Deusen, Editor. 

Professor W. F. M. Goss, known to manual training teachers as the author 
of "Bench Work in Wood" but more generally known as an engineer of wide 
experience and the dean of the department of engineering at Purdue University, 
has accepted the position of dean of the College of Engineering of the University 
of Illinois. He will also be the director of the newly organized School of Rail- 
way Engineering. 

John W. Curtis, for the past two years in charge of the manual training 
department in the provincial normal school at Cebu, Phillipine Islands, has re- 
signed his position to return to "The States" on account of the tropical climate in 
Cebu. It is to be hoped that the work, so well begun by Mr. Curtis, will fall 
into the hands of someone able to carry it forward in the same spirit. 

Dr. Ernest B. Kent, from the B'nai B'rith Manual Training School, Phila- 
delphia, Pa., is to be director of industrial and manual training at Jersey City, 
N. J. Clarence S. Moore, who has had the manual training at Manor School, 
Stanford, Conn., and George F. Foth who has been supervisor of both drawing 
and manual training at Ashbourne, Pa., are to assist Dr. Kent. 

John Thompson, who has been director of manual training at Braddock, Pa., 
is to be director of manual training in one of the Pittsburg, Pa., schools. 

John N. Lobdell, has the manual training work at the MacKenzie School, 
Dobbs Ferry, N. Y. 

Chas. O. Atwater is to be instructor of manual training at Montclair, N. J. 
He has been in the public schools, Indianapolis, Indiana, for the last few years. 

Howard B. Berry and Walter I. LeRoy are to teach manual training in the 
New York public schools. 

Addie G. Reeves is to teach manual training in the new York Orphan 
Asylum at Hastings, N. Y. 

Julian A. Burruss resumes his work as director of manual training at Rich- 
mond, Va. Mr. Burruss has been studying at Teachers College for the last two 
years and supervising the Richmond work. 

Thomas K. Lewis returns to his work at Ohio State University after a year's 
leave of absence. 

George H. Nutt returns to his work at the George School, Swarthmore, Pa., 
after a year's leave of absence. 

Howard S. Harris is to have charge of the manual training work at the Or- 
thopedic Industrial School, White Plains, N. Y. 

Fred Thorne has the work in manual training at the Hackley School, 
Tarrytown, N. Y. 

Miss Worthy Johnson is to assist in manual training and have the domestic 
science work at the State Female Normal School, Farmville, Virginia. 

Shizuka Utsumi is to be director of manual training in one of the higher 



technological schools in Japan. Mr. Utsumi was given a year's leave of ab- 
sence by his government to study in this country. 

Paul Buhl a graduate of the University of Minnesota is now teaching 
manual training at Wheaton, Minn. 

Bessie Savage of the University of Michigan is now teaching manual arts 
at Valley City, N. D. 

E. Franklin Zoerb who has attended the University of Minnesota is now 
teaching manual training at Menominie, Wis. 

Mr. Loffhagen, who has been a teacher in the shops of Washington Uni- 
versity, St. Louis, Mo., discontinued teaching at the end of last year. 

T. M. Wood takes the principalship of the Labette County high school at 
Altamont, Kan. One requirement that the board made of the principal was that 
he should be qualified to teach manual training. 

Wm. Curtis is now in charge of manual training in the schools of Houston, 

Harry King has been transferred from one of the district manual training 
schools of St. Louis to the Yeatman High School of that city. 

Oscar Chaney a graduate of the Normal Manual Training School at Wichita, 
Kan., has charge of the manual training work at Parsons, Kan. 

Chester B. Lambirth, who taught forging in the Central High School at 
Cleveland, O., is now in the high school at Brocton, Mass. 

Helen F. Ekstrom of the public schools of Springfield, Mass., has accepted a 
position as teacher of manual training in the public schools of Boston. 

Fannie B. Prince, teacher of manual training in the Roger Wolcott School 
of Boston has resigned to devote her time to her parents. 

Ernest W. Beck, formerly assistant in the Eliot School, Jamaica Plain, Mass., 
has accepted a position as teacher of manual training in the public schools of 
Trenton, N. J. 

The following changes among manual training teachers is reported from 
Georgia: J. P. Campbell who has been in charge of an industrial school experi- 
ment in the western part of the state has been elected to direct industrial work 
in the Third District Agricultural School at Americus; Ira Williams has been 
elected to a professorship in one of the district agricultural schools. Miss 
Thursby, formerly teacher of manual training in the Hancock Co., schools is 
supervising hand work in Dublin. 

Wm. M. Towle is the new Superintendent of Shops at the Clarkson School 
of Technology at Potsdam, N. Y. 

Leslie D. Haynes, who has had charge of manual training in the Rayen 
School at Youngstown, O., goes to Cornell University as an instructor. His 
position at Youngstown is filled by Clyde E. Wilson formerly of the Manual 
Training High School at Louisville, Ky. 

The work in both manual training and domestic science at Cincinnati, O., 
has been carried into the 6th grades, and one more first-year high school branch 
has been added. The salary schedule has .been raised so that the salary of a 
grade teacher of manual training may go to fifteen hundred dollars and for 
domestic science to ten hundred and fifty dollars. For this reason there were 
few changes in the teaching force this year. Miss Thompson of the domestic 




science department was married last June and Louise P. Yale goes to Kansas 
City, Mo. 

The following teachers have accepted positions in Cleveland, O. : James F. 
Barker formerly director of the Hackley Manual Training School at Muskegon, 
Mich., is principal of the new technical high school. Ada B. Williams formerly 
of Pratt Institute is now Supervisor of Domestic Science. Edward A. Hilgen 
of Indianapolis is to teach manual training in the grades. 

L. N. Bryant formerly of Cleveland is now Director of Manual Training at 
Saginaw, Mich. 

Marv A. Wright of Springfield, 111., is now assisting Miss Goldsmith the 
Supervisor of Manual Training at Bloomington, Ind. 

Five new centers for seventh and eighth grade manual training have been 
opened in Minneapolis. The following teachers have been added to carry on the 
work: W. W. Claus formerly director of Manual Training, Dubuque, Iowa; 
Eugene T. Farley of Austin, Minn.; John B. Corcoran who was teacher of 
manual training in the Phillipines and later a student at Chicago University; 
Terence W. Gilbert from Oswego Normal School, Oswego, N. Y. ; Floyd W. 
Ray from Mechanics Institute, Rochester, N. Y. 

After you get a new school building, the next thing to do is to refine the 
influence it has upon the children by adding beautiful pictures and other works 
of art. Sometimes this is difficult because of lack of funds. The new Webster 
Manual Training School at Omro, Wis., is showing what can be done without 
large appropriations where students and teachers work together to raise money. 

The Worchester, Mass., Art Museum is opening a School of Design and 
Metalwork. Katherine B. Child and George J. Hunt are to be instructors, and 
C. Howard Wolker of Boston is announced as lecturer on design. 

The Jacksonville, 111., schools now have a thrifty department of manual 
training with headquarters in the high school building. 

Eugene C. Graham, formerly instructor in Manual Training at the Central 
High School, St. Paul, Minn., has been elected director of Manual Training of 
the public schools of Davenport, la. 


The growth in manual training the last year in all parts of the State is very 
encouraging — a growth in extent and interest and a growth in method and mat- 
ter. The general prosperity everywhere and its favorable reaction on teacher's 
salaries and the increase of funds available for education, together with a conse- 
quent need for better educated men and women, has made manual training 
possible and attractive, when before it would not have been given a hearing. 

The three state normal schools, Ellensberg in the central part, Cheney, ten 
miles from Spokane, and Bellingham in the extreme northwestern part of the 
state offered courses in elementary manual training during the past summer. 

The State Agricultural College at Pullman, in the southwestern part of the 
state, (Washington is larger than all the New England states), in the prosperous 
wheat growing country, has its courses in domestic sciences and arts, and in 
engineering, and is preparing teachers in manual training through its depart- 
ments of education. This vear a new course is offered to be known as "The 




Department of Elementary Science" intended to deal mainlv with the practical 
application of science and manual training along industrial lines in the years 
corresponding to the tenth, eleventh and twelfth grades of school work. This 
three-year course is planned to serve those who cannot or do not desire to go on 
to college, and who are needed to go back to the farm or shop as intelligent 
workers, rather than superintendents and engineers. 

On the coast, Tacoma has made great advancement in this line. Mr. Whit- 
comb, has equipped the beautiful new Tacoma High School with a department 
of manual arts, providing freehand and mechanical drawing rooms, domestic 
science laboratory, sewing room and two shops for benchwork and wood-turning. 
Four assistants are under his direction in teaching the three hundred boys and 
girls who elect this course. Two centers have been provided for the grammer 
grades boys and girls, the work beginning this fall. 

Everett, "the city of smoke stacks", has secured G. B. Hoag of River Falls, 
Wis., to organize and direct the department of manual training, and Laura A. 
Stowell of Calumet, Mich., is in charge of the domestic science department. 
Superintendent Thornberg is beginning the work right by providing for the girls 
in cooking and sewing as well as the boys in shopwork, and in the grades as 
well as the high school. 

Snohomish, a town of 3,500 population, has made a beginning in a small 
but vigorous way. Superintendent Hodge, not having funds sufficient in the 
public treasury, secured help from the business men and began some elementary 
work in wood for the boys and sewing and cooking for the girls, the latter 
taupht by Mrs. Hodge. He now plans fitting up a building formerly used as 
a county jail with benches, a motor and lathes for work in the high school, and 
expects to raise $5,000 in the town by subscriptions, the popularity of the work 
making such an undertaking possible. 

Seattle has grown prodigously, by increase in numbers and by annexations. 
Four towns or districts contiguous have lately been annexed. Ballard, the largest 
of these, has 75 teachers, four of which are in the manual training department. 
Tq care for the high school enrollment, which now amounts to 2700 pupils, a 
second new high school has been provided to take care of 1000 pupils. The 
increase last year was accomodated in the Franklin Annex where a cooking, and 
a woodworking and drawing room were fitted up, and about 150 of the first- 
year pupils were provided for in the manual training course. In the grammar 
grades there are now thirteen centers for the boys and four cooking centers for 
the girls. This is the first-year cooking has been taught to the eighth grade 
girls. The new Lincoln high school will provide for only the first two years 
of the manual-training course, the last two years to be given at the central 
building. This is done for two reasons : The cost of equipment in the last two 
years is much more expensive, and the classes are always very small, consequent- 
ly expensive to teach. These classes can be combined and the equipment and 
teachers at the central building will be sufficient. It will be easier to offer spec- 
ial trade or industrial courses in these last two years as electives, with teachers 
capable, and equipment adequate for such work, and at an age in the boys' and 
girls education when such specialization may be safely begun if conditions re- 
quire them to make the choice. 





There are now thirty-four special teachers in this department. Lura Reason, 
formerly of the Hackley Manual Training School, Muskegon, sunervises the 
sewing and cooking, and Clara P. Reynolds, formerly of Great Falls, Montana, 
and the past year successful teacher of art and design to the girls in the 
Seattle high school, will assist in the supervision of the manual training for the 
elementary grades. Miss Agnes Craig leaves the domestic art department of the 
high school to accept a position in the College of Industrial Arts, Denton, Texas, 
as head of the Department of Domestic Art, under President Cree T. Work. 

A twenty per cent increase in salaries has made it possible to secure better 
teachers. The future is very bright for constructive educational work in the 
Northwest. B. W. Johnson. 


There are at present twenty-seven manual training centers in the city of 
Los Angeles. Manual training is to be introduced into the public schools of 
Berkeley City this year. Venice is to have a domestic science department. 

That the manual training work at Santa Barbara has taken a strong hold 
upon the community is evidenced by the fact that at a special bond election held 
recently, a new sloyd building was provided for. This will supplement the 
equipment of the Blake Memorial Building and will give adequate space for 
metalworking and domestic science as well as the special work of the normal 
department. In this connection, it is significant that the state board of public 
instruction at its meeting in December, 1906, endorsed the normal training of the 
Anna S. C. Blake Manual Training School and recommended the same to 
countv superintendents, who are permitted to grant special certificates for manual 
training on a diploma of graduation from this school. This summer Miss Ednah 
A. Rich, principal of the school, taught one of the courses at the School of 
Education, University of Chicago and then returned home to conduct her own 
summer classes, which followed the meeting of the N. E. A. 

From a comparatively small beginning, manual training work in the schools 
of Santa Anna under the direction of Albert M. Shaw has this year been ex- 
tended so as to give one recitation per week to all boys in the fifth, sixth, 
seventh, and eighth years of the grammar schools. The girls of the same 
grades take domestic science at the same time. The work has also been intro- 
duced into the high school. A very strong public sentiment has been developed 
in favor of the work. Bonds have been approved to erect and equip a large new 
building. Supt. J. A. Cranston is deeply interested in manual training and gives 
every encouragement for its successful development. The outlook is most prom- 
ising for a successful future. 

Pamona started work in manual training two years ago. An equipment for 
woodworking costing about $600 has now been provided. Concerning the scope 
and plan of the work, the director, A. J. Pirdy, recently wrote: 

"Woodwork is taught in grades five to eight inclusive. Our course of 
models is very similar to those of Mr. Larsson, with some changes made neces- 
sary by local conditions. All material is furnished by the Board, except where a 
boy wishes to make something requiring a considerable amount, when the boy 
IS asked to furnish his own material. This is not a fixed regulation and I often 


furnish the material and encourage the making of larger and more useful things 
for the home, but only after the boy has demonstrated his ability to do good, 
careful work. I find it a very wholesome incentive for a boy to have a little 
personal capital involved. 

"As to drawings we do about as most manual training teachers — have pupils 
copy some drawings, make some from the model, and work directly from blue 
prints. We do very little drawing in the "shop", but try to have the drawing 
done during the drawing lesson in the grade room. In each grade, however, we 
have at least two models made from drawings done in the metric system. Th's 
is to encourage the use of that practical system and to corroborate the grade work. 
(The teaching of the metric system is here begun in the 5th grade.)" 

Mr. Pirdy subjoins the following: "P. S. — I might add that only boys take 
woodworking; the girls, cooking and sewing." 

The manual training department of the San Diego schools is beginning its 
twelfth year. The past year has counted for greater progress than any previous 
year, and this has been greatly stimulated by holding exhibitions of the work 
from time to time during the past two years and by placing a permanei.t exhibit 
in the rooms of the Chamber of Commerce. 

The course of study includes paper, cardboard, raffia, etc., in the first five 
grades, supplemented by the sand table for illustrative work in history and 
geography. The boys of the sixth, seventh, and eighth grades are given bench- 
work. The girls are given sewing. 

Contemplated changes in the general organization of the school system pro- 
vide a room in each large building equipped for benchwork and also a room 
to be devoted to domestic science. 

A polytechnic course will be added to the high school curriculum as soon 
as possible after the completion of the new building now in course of construc- 
tion. The city has a well-equipped private school for the teaching of pattern- 
making and foundry practice. Public interest is increasing in the Manual 
Training School and foundations are being laid for a new demand — the evening 
trade school. In some quarters this is being talked of now and it is hoped that 
the establishment of a polytechnic high school will provide the room and teachers 
for a trade school. 

The State Normal School at San Diego has a well-equipped shop in con- 
nection with its training school. This is to be enlarged so as to provide for the 
students in the normal school proper, and a special preparatory course for 
teachers who contemplate entering the manual training field will be added. 

A movement, far reaching and radical in its significance and one that means 
much in the history of scientific and technical education in the west, is announced 
from Throop Polytechnic Institute. Throop was founded sixteen years ago and 
has had a wonderful growth, having at present some six hundred thirty students 
and comprehending five schools: elementary, commercial, academy, normal and 
college. The increasing demand on the Coast for well-trained men in engi- 
neering lines and the absence in the southwest of any strong college of engineer- 
ing has led to the establishment of such an institution. 

A new site of some 22 acres has been secured and adequate buildings are 
being planned. In the meantime changes have been effected such as to provide 



amply for the college during the few months it is to remain in its present quar- 
ters. Electrical and mechanical engineering will receive chief attention; and 
some thousands of dollars are to be spent in equipment and several additional 
instructors are to be engaged for the coming year. 

The academy, and the normal school of art, manual training, domestic 
science and domestic art are to be strengthened and developed. The commercial 
school will be merged into the academy, and the elementary school will be given 
a separate campus with new buildings, and will be affiliated. 

Dr. Walter A. Edwards, who for ten years has been at the head of the 
Institute has severed his connection with the school and will identify himself 
with the Los Angeles High School as head of the classical department. Prof. 
Arthur H. Chamberlain who has been identified with Throop for several years 
has agreed to remain as acting president until a permanent president is installed, 
and Professor Benjamin F. Stacey, head of the department of history and 
economics is acting dean. 

"The Board of Trustees", says President Chamberlain, "are a unit in 
declaring for college extension. We have a superb site such as shall meet the 
demand for years to come. The plan proposed means buildings adapted to our 
needs ; it means an increased and strengthened faculty, and already we have 
forty of as well trained men and women as can be found in any institution of 
like character in the country; it means money, and we have assurances of in- 
creased endowment. But the thing of chief significance is the fact that the 
Institute is to be put upon the plane of the best engineering colleges in the 


History of the Pestalozzian Movement in the United States. By Will S. 
Monroe. C. W. Bardeen, Syracuse, N. Y., 1907, 8 x 6-in., pp. 224. 

To most teachers who have studied text-books on the history of education 
written five or more years ago the name of Pestalozzi stands merely as one of 
the list of European reformers, which includes Comenius, Rousseau and Froebel. 
It suggests a life of visions and sacrifice in the cause of humanity but seems very 
remote in time and place. Professor Monroe's book changes all this ; it makes 
a vital bond of connection between Pestalozzi and the best educational develop- 
ment in our own country and time. And the teacher of manual arts is especially 
interested in this volume because it covers the germinal period of the manual 
trainin-T; idea. 

But more than that, a pleasant touch of romance is given to the record of 
one's pedagogical ancestry by getting acquainted with William McClure at New 
Harmony, Joseph Neef and "Neef boys from the Falls" of the Schuylkill, Bron- 
son Alcott and his negro pupil in Boston, or even Edward A. Sheldon and his 
"ragged school" in Oswego. When one thinks what has come down from these 
men he is almost ready to say. Blessed is the man who is enough of an idealist 
to become a practical failure. However, this is not a fair inference from the 
book, for it also presents the work of such strong, practical men as Henry Bar- 
nard, Lowell Mason and William T. Harris, who caught and utilized and handed 
down to us somewhat of the spirit of the earlier men and made the teachings of 
Pestalozzi a vital force in American education. 

When one has finished reading the book his only criticism is that the author 
didn't tell him all he wants to know about the subject — he wishes some of the 
chapters had been three or four times as long — but this is the same as saying 
that the author has accomplished his purpose and all the reader has to do is to 
search out and read the books given in the very complete bibliography at the end 
of the volume. — B 

Sloyd for the Three Upper Grammar Grades, by Gustaf Larsson. George 
H. Ellis & Co., Boston, 1907. 7x 10-in., pp. 60; price, teachers' edition, $1.25. 

This book consists of fifteen introductory pages — including definitions, gen- 
eral principles, conventions used in drawing, fundamental steps in whittling, 
sawing, planing, boring and chiseling — ten plates of working drawings for 
seventh grade, nine for eighth grade and thirteen for ninth grade. To these 
are added photographs of models and notes on equipments. With the plates for 
each year is given a synopsis showing the progression and variety of models, 
exercises, tools and wood. The book is essentially a collection of working draw- 
ings, and as such will be heartily welcomed by teachers of grammar-grade 
woodworking everywhere. It contains many of the time-honored sloyd models, 
such as the wedge, shrub-label, penholder, tool-rack, bread-board, and coat 
hanger, but it also contains many new ones, such as the ironing stand, window 
stick, book shelves and other small pieces of furniture. 



A welcome feature is the attention given to supplementary or optional models 
and to the encouragement of individual thought on the part of pupils in designing 
or suiting the model to his own use. This and other progressive features of the 
book prove that there is no marked difference between the best American sloyd 
and the best American manual training for the grammar grades. Indeed, they 
are one and the same thing, and most teachers who call their work manual train- 
ing will find little to criticise in this book except Mr. Larsson's discussion of the 
term manual training. In this he forgets that the use of a word determines its 
meaning and that to one generation a word may have a much broader significance 
than to the previous one. 

A feature of the book that will attract attention is the recommendation that 
the metric system be used in a part of the models of the ninth grade. Most of the 
drawings for this grade are figured in both the English and the metric systems. 

A pupil's edition consisting of the plates printed on heavy grey paper with 
holes punched in one end for binding is sold at 50 cents each. — B 

The JFoodivork Scholar's Guide in the Use of Tools. By C. W. D. Boxall. 
Published by O. Newman & Co., London, 1903. 12x8-in., pp. 38; illustrated. 

"In presenting this little work to the manual training world, the author hopes 
that the accompanying notes and sketches will be found useful as an adjunct to 
the practical demonstration of instructors." — Preface. 

This book consists of twenty-nine plates, each plate consisting of notes on 
some particular tool or tool process, fully illustrated by crayon sketches. In 
addition to these plates there are notes on the structure of tools, structure and 
growth of trees, on timber, and the seasoning of timber, and on the classification 
of exogenous trees. 

The drawings illustrate quite well the different operations and the directions 
are concise and to the point. 

The author is to be commended for having described the tool processes with- 
out reference to any particular set of models. He seems to have realized what 
most American writers of books on woodwork have not, that one's models as a 
whole are interesting to one's self alone, while the interest in tools and tool 
processes is universal among craftsmen. 

With additional plates, illustrating and directions for making the joints 
most commonly used, we should have a book that any teacher of woodwork could 
use to advantage with his classes. 

It is rather unfortunate, however, that the planes described are the old 
wooden ones of our grandfathers, that the claw-hammer is replaced by one more 
suitable for metal work — one which necessitates the use of pincers in withdraw- 
ing nails. The center-bit, too, which receives a whole plate is hardly worth so 
much attention in view of its being so little used now-a-days. 

As a whole, the subject matter is well presented and the book is in the right 
direction. Ira S. Griffith, Oak Park, 111. 

Lehrgang fur Modellieren. By Otto Mayer. Frankenstein & Wagner, Leip- 
zig, 1907. 9i4x65^-in., 24 plates and 14 pages of text; price 2 Mk. 

This grade course in clay-modeling seems very strange to an American 
teacher who is inspired with our present ideals in art education. He may ap- 
prove of much of the technique, but he cannot understand why realistic serpents 


and birds' nests should be the decorative motifs for candlesticks and matchsafes. 
He may agree that modeling a beetle on a lilac leaf or a worm on a plantin may 
be a help in nature study, but when the lizard and the ivy vine are made to 
twine over and around the stump of a tree and the whole cut off horizontally 
and gouged out to make a recepticle for matches or pins the effect is far from 
satisfactory, from the American standpoint. To be sure it combines nature study 
and modeling into a so-called useful article, but in this case we prefer less cor- 
relation and more freedom. Not all of the models are subject to this criticism — 
indeed some of them are excellent, especially some of the examples of plant forms, 
but even in these we miss the study of plant structure which leads to the type 
of design which is approved not only in America but in the best German 
decorative art. From our standpoint the course is narrow and lacks freedom of 
handling. — B 

Art Education Draivinp Book Course. Books 1 to 8 inclusive. Prang Edu- 
cational Co., Chicago. Books 1, 2 and 3, size 9^/2 x 6J^-in., pp. 44, price 15 
cents each. Books 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, size 85^ x ll'/2-in., pp. 40, price 20 cents each. 

This is a new series of books which has only recently come from the press. 
The greater part of the material and the plan have been taken from the "Text 
Books of Art Education," and the same subject order has been closely followed. 
The distinctive difference is not one of plan or of subject matter or of aim, but 
of form. Unlike the "Text Books of Art Education" the pages of the Art 
Education Drawing Books may be used for drawing, the right-hand page in 
each book of the series being left blank and the left hand page containing sugges- 
tive illustrations and very full directions for both pupil and teacher for work- 
ing out the lesson. The page arrangement is such that the right hand page may 
be used directly for pencil or water color drawing, or it may be used for mount- 
ing drawings done on other paper, or certain kinds of constructive work in the 
flat,' thereby making it a record book in which to preserve the best effort of the 

In addition to the directions on the illustrated left-hand pages relating 
definitely to particular lessons, the inside of covers contain general directioi.s 
pertaining to methods and materials, and very helpful suggestions for color work 
which the books provide to an extent, color pages being bound in the front and 
back of each book. A Glossary of Terms peculiar to the subject is printed in 
each drawing book for the convenient reference of both teacher and pupil. 

The sequence of subjects is the same as in the "Text Books," namely: 

I. Out of Doors. II. Growth, Blossom, Fruit. III. Life and Action. 
IV. Beauty in Common Things. V. Apparent Direction of Edges and Out- 
lines. VI. Measuring and Planning. VII. Design. 

Broad in scope, rich in suggestion and examples of the best technique, yet 
definite enough to be practical, these books ought to be especially suited to the 
needs of schools without a trained supervisor of drawing. 

First Steps in Mental Groivt/i. By David R. Major. The Macmillan Com- 
pany, New York, 1906. 7^ x 514-in., pp. 360. 

This volume is based upon a record which the author kept of his own child 
from birth to the end of the third year. These records were not merely in the 
form of notes, for many photographs of the child and drawings made by the 


child were added. This accounts for the fact that the book contains ten pages 
of illustrations. 

The aim of the book is to present data, both observational and experimental, 
bearing upon certain aspects of infant mind which seem to the author to be fun- 
damental to later mental development. The scope of the book is suggested by 
the following chapter headings: Hand and arm movements, drawing, feelings 
and their expression, development of imitation, color, number, form, association, 
memory, imagination, play, pictures, behavior of the child before his image, lan- 

Dr. Major's observations concerning form study, drawing, color and pic- 
tures will be especially interesting to teachers of drawing. — B 

Course of Study for the Common Schools of Illinois. Revised by the standing 
committee of the county superintendent's section of the State Teachers' Associa- 
tion. Published by C. M. Parker, Taylorville, 111., 1907; price 30 cents. 

This represents the work of many people. The outline in drawing was pre- 
pared by E. J. Lake of the University of Illinois, in household arts by Miss 
Isabel Bevier, also of the University, the elementary constructive work by Ed- 
ward F. Worst of the Chicago Normal School, and the woodworking by a com- 
mittee consisting of Charles A. Bennett, Bradley Poyltechnic Institute, L. H. 
Burch, Western Illinois Normal School, William T. Bawden, Illinois State 
Normal University, Ira S. Griffith, Oak Park, and Seymour L. Smith, Northern 
Illinois State Normal School. 

Selected Bibliography on Industrial Education. Bulletin No. 2 of the Na- 
tional Society for the Promotion of Industrial Education. By Charles R. 
Richards, pp. 32. 

This bibliography has been compiled in response to many inquiries, and 
gives references to the most important statistics, books and articles bearing on the 
questions of vital interest in the present discussion of industrial education. Its 
convenient arrangement by subjects and the extensive notes under the several 
titles listed make it especially valuable. Copies may be obtained by addressing 
the secretary of the Society, Prof. Charles R. Richards, Teachers College, New 
York City. 

The following have been received : 

Primary Hand Work. By Wilhelmina Seegmiller. Atkinson, Mentzer & 
Grover, Chicago, 1906. 7^ x 5-in., pp., 136. 

This attractive little handbook is the result of a revision of "Suggestions in 
Hand Work" by the same author. The later book, however, is more comprehen- 
sive and is rearranged so as to present a graded courses for the first years of 
school life. 

Manual Arts Number of the Educational Bi-Monthly. June, 1907. Pub- 
lished by the Chicago Normal School. 

I his contains a dozen articles on the various phases of the manual arts. 
Among them are "Vocational Values in Elementary Manual Training" by 
Ernest B. Kent, "Work in Textiles" by Edward F. Worst, "How Curricula in the 
manual arts might be planned in Outline" by Frank M. McMurray and Oscar 
L. McMurray. 


Manual Training Magazine 



William Hawley Smith. 

IN the early stages of the establishment of any new enterprise, the 
cause is liable to suffer as much or more from the ignorance, the 
mistakes and the ill-directed zeal of some of its supporters as from 
the criticisms, the complaints and even the howls of its enemies of vari- 
ous degrees of intensity. No one is to blame for this condition of affairs. 
It is one of the unavoidable items that always obtain in such a situation. 

And because these things are so, it is the part of wisdom for those 
who head any new procession to "go slo", as dear old Josh Billings 
used to say, and not to be too eager or too anxious to go "fast and far 
in a day." It is all right, and just as it ought to be, to pull the throttle 
wide open when one is running a "limited" over a well-ballasted ana 
thoroughly settled road-bed, on schedule time and under a block system; 
but to try to make the same speed with the same locomotive over a line 
that, as a matter of fact, has as yet only a few ties and rails laid here and 
there, while, for the most part neither the direction nor the terminus of 
the main track has been fully determined, much less mapped out and 
thoroughly surveyed, I say, to try to "speed" under such circumstances 
is to invite trouble, to say the least, and would be very apt to result in 
wrecks many, costly, and generally disastrous and expensive. 

And it seems to me that this condition obtains very largely in the 
status of manual training and domestic economy courses of study and 
methods of instruction, as these are at present conditioned. 

As I have said, no one is to blame for this, but the facts remain; and 
because they do, they demand a conservatism and caution on the part of 
all parties concerned, that will be salutary — that will save the cause 
from set-backs many and serious, and from absolute wreckage in not a 



few cases. I make this statement after visiting a considerable number of 
schools of this kind, in different sections of the country, and from person- 
ally observing the work done and attempted to be done in them. 

This phase of the situation was first brought forcibly to my notice as 
I was inspecting a manual training school in one of the foremost cities 
of the West. I was accompanied by the City Superintendent of Schools, 
one of the wisest and ablest in this or any other country, a man who had 
had more than a quarter of a century's experience in his chosen pro- 
fession and whose success had been phenominal from the first. The city 
had furnished a fine building for this department of school work, and it 
was well outfitted with tools and machinery. And yet — 

We went into a room where a class of boys and girls was at work 
under the instruction of a teacher who was supposed to be able to do 
well the teaching that was required. But a most cursory glance at what 
was doing showed that both in matter and method the work was far 
from what the necessities of the situation required. We looked on for 
a few minutes, and then the Si^perintendent whispered to me, "Come 
away." And we came away. 

As we went down the hall, going towards another room, the Super- 
intendent said: "What you have just seen is a fair sample of what 
manual training has to go up against in these days of its beginning, and 
will have to, for a good while yet. The fact is, everything about the 
business is so new and untried that no one knows what is best to be done, 
or how to do it! I don't know either of these things myself, for I have 
had no experience in the premises to guide me, and I can't find anyone 
who can tell me, with any degree of certainty, what I want to know — 
what I ought to know to make a success of the work. When we started 
in, I went to a university and got the most promising young man they 
had in stock, and put him in charge of the plant and its curricula ; but he 
broke down inside of six months. He had theories to burn, but when it 
came to practice, he was powerless. He couldn't use tools to amount to 
anything; that is, he personally had no technical skill regarding the 
things he undertook to teach. The result was that he could not furnish 
his pupils any ideals to work up to — he botched the things he tried .o 
make, and his pupils did as he did. What else could be expected ? 

"That was the record for our first season," he continued. "I let this 
man go at the end of his year, and in his place I got a practical mechanic, 
a man who had technical skill in his own right, and who could make 
things and make them thoroughly. But he had no knowledge of teach- 


ing, had no idea as to how to impart what he knew so well — the boys 
ran over him, and I had to let him go at the end of his first term! It 
was a black eye for us, but we lived through it, somehow, and kept going 
in spite of these drawbacks. Now I have at the head of the school a 
young man that I have largely raised myself, so far as his education is 
concerned, and we are working things out as well as we can. But the 
trouble still is, to get efficient teachers for the work we want done — and, 
worse than that, to find out what we really ought to do." 

Now this was an honest confession, and my notion is that it voices 
the experience of all equally honest superintendents, all over the country. 
All we can do about it is to do as this man was doing and still continues 
to do, namely, "cut and try," and feel our way along, to the best of our 
ability. Only that way can salvation lie, only so can success be attained. 

And I regret to say that there are superintendents and instructors not 
a few who are unwilling or unable to work by this common sense and 
sane method. I do not blame them so much, but I trust I may be ex- 
cused if I note a few of the ways in which, it seems to me, some of these 
have gone wrong, and so have harmed the cause they stand for. 

The commonest fault I have noticed is the demand of many instruc- 
tors for too complete and expensive an outfit to start in svith. The error 
is a most natural one, and for this reason : Most of these men and women 
have received their training in schools which are furnished with the most 
perfect equipments and appliances that money can buy or the market 
affords. They have learned to do things with the help of all these clever 
and exceedingly handy tools and machines, and it is but natural that 
they should wish for their likes when they set up teaching on their own 

Thus, if a teacher has been educated in a woodworking shop where 
there was a first-class band-saw, which was always ready when he 
wanted to rip a board, it is but natural that he should wish for its 
duplicate whenever he has a board to rip. So he demands a band-saw 
as a part of his outfit. Indeed, I have seen more than one case where 
this method of ripping a board was the only one that the instructor was 
master of ! That was the only way he had ever done such work ! 

But the fact is, that a band-saw is a luxury rather than a necessity 
for the great mass of the rank and file of the wood-working fraternity, 
outside of large manufacturing establishments. It is the plain, muscle- 
driven rip-saw that has to do this work, for the bulk of wood-workers. 
Yet I have seen more than one manual training teacher who could not 



use this most common and most necessary tool with accuracy and dis- 
patch, and who, for this reason, has demanded an expensive band-saw as 
a part of his outfit. This is only a single instance of what stands for a 
very common fault — a fault that has done much to harm the cause that 
needs help rather than hindering. 

Thus, in a town of moderate size, a generous-minded man gave a 
thousand dollars to start a course of manual training in their public 
schools. The Superintendent, the directors and all the people of the 
town were enthusiastic over the gift, and those in charge of it went to 
work, to realize the best returns that could be had out of it. They went 
to a university and got a graduate to undertake the management of the 
business, the Board employing him for a year, at a fair salary, which was 
paid out of the public fund. 

But now, see! The young man began by declaring that a thousand 
dollars was no fit amount of money with which to equip a manual train- 
ing school! He spent that sum in a twinkling, and called for more so 
earnestly that the original donor doubled his subscription, and all of the 
increment went the way of its predecessor. The most perfect and ex- 
pensive machines and tools were bought, regardless of anything except 
what the instructor felt that he needed. The result was, that the bur- 
den became too great for its promoters to carry, and after a year of ex- 
periment the whole attempt was abandoned. All of which was a great 
pity, to say the least. 

On the other hand, I have seen manual training instructors who 
were doing most successful work without a single machine except such as 
they have made themselves. They have begun their work "most any 
old way", with whatever tools they could get together "by hook or 
crook." And I have seen such schools winning out royally. If they 
needed something that they hadn't the money to buy, they made it them- 
selves, as best they could. Crude, indeed, in a way, some of these 
home-made machines have been, but that is only a part of the story, and 
a small part at that. They did the work, but they did more than that. 
Some one has said that any fool can work with tools, but it takes a wise 
man to work without them. There is a deal of wisdom in the remark, 
and it is in line with what I am trying to say. I used to read some 
verses, in an old reader, about the Yankee' boy and his pocket knife, in 
which there was a line, the sense of which was that the young scion not 
only "could make the machine, but could make the machine that made 
It. That's the idea, and its like should be basic in all manual training 


And so I say, buy the best tools and machines, if you can get the 
money to do so without ruining the cause you are trying to set up. But 
if you cannot get what you want in this way, take what you can get to 
start on, and with these for a beginning, go on from grace to grace. 

In a similar way, I have seen teachers of domestic science make the 
mistake of having all their cooking done by gas — not a coal or wood 
stove in the whole establishment. This is a common fault of training 
schools for such teachers. Most of these schools are in cities or towns 
where gas can be had, and so their schoolrooms are fitted up with gas 
stoves. But the fact is that many of these teachers will be called on to 
teach in towns where gas cannot be had, and to teach pupils who will 
have to cook with wood or coal at home. The consequence is that needs 
and training fail to match in such case, and failure is the result. Half 
the success in cooking by coal or wood lies in knowing how to make a fire 
and keep it right! And yet I have seen scores of teachers of cooking 
who couldn't make a coal or wood fire and keep it right, to save their 
blessed souls. My notion is that training schools for teachers of cooking 
should, for the most part, be equipped with wood or coal cooking-stoves, 
and that teachers should have special drill in making and running a fire 

Again, don't promise too much as to the results that will come from 
the introduction of manual training and domestic economy work in a 
school. These factors will not bring the millenium in a few minutes, or 
years; and it is folly for teachers to talk to their patrons as if they ex- 
pected such returns. Always remember that any innovation must malce 
its way among the rank and file with "exceeding slowness" as the river 
Arar ran, and that a boom is very apt to "bust" when the reaction sets 
in. And it will set in ; it always does. Booms are merely temporary 
spurts, and their "bust" is always on the margin. So it is a mistake to 
raise the expectations of patrons or pupils too high, or to make them too 
intense in these particulars. Say that this work will help, that it will 
keep a lot of boys and girls in school that could not be kept there other- 
wise, and that it is a good thing to try, anyhow. Say this, and prove 
your words true by your deeds; by what you can "show down." So 
shall your reward be great all along the line. But if you promise more 
than you can perform, raise hopes that cannot be realized, you will harm 
more than you help the cause you are laboring to forward. Be earnest, 
be enthusiastic, if you will, but "don't slop over." 

Again, beware of making fixed courses of study, in either manual 


training or domestic economy, and requiring all pupils to take the same, 
whether or not. This way ruin lies, and that right soon. There are 
girls who can never be taught to cook or sew, to amount to much of 
anything; there are boys who can never learn to drive a tack into a two 
inch oak plank without splitting the plank! (I speak practically within 
bounds, even if metaphorically, as every honest and common-sense teacher 
knows). And because these things are so, it is contrary to the best in- 
terests of this cause, at this stage of the game, to try to force uniform 
work upon all the pupils, regardless. I have seen many a back-set for 
the good work which had its roots grounded in this very common error. 
A plentiful supply of pupils can be had by taking those who have heads, 
hearts and hands for this sort of work, and if we will take these, who 
love what they do, and make the most of them — bring them to the high- 
est grade of efficiency, we shall help the work as nothing else can. Then 
men will see our good works, and glorify the cause we stand for. 

It is an ungracious task to criticise, and I have done little else in 
what I have written. Some other day I will try to say some things that 
are more definitely constructive, but this must do for now. Danger sig- 
nals must be set, especially on all partly constructed and newly made 
roads, and I have hung up a few herewith that I hope may keep some, at 
least, from getting stuck, breaking down, and going to smash in any 
of several ways. The cause I am writing about is, beyond doubt, the 
greatest in the modern educational movement, and those in charge of it 
ought to be wise to the limit, to save it from halts and hindrances. 

President Roosevelt, in his Keokuk, la., speech, which he made as I 
write, paid a grander tribute to industrial education than to anj other 
form of mental, moral and spiritual training. In doing this, he simply 
voiced what multitudes of people are coming to see is true. With his 
far-seeing eye, and his intuitive ability to pick up things that are in 
the air, he told his audience of the greatest thing that is to happen in the 
immediate future in the educational world. Let the pioneers in the 
cause he so ably set forth see to it that they make as few mistakes as 
possible in furthering the design that he so graphically outlined. 


Gilbert B. Morrison. 

A COMPLETE history of education would reveal the interesting 
fact that every subject of study which has found a permanent 
place in the schools has had what may be termed its academic 
period — a period in which its right to a place in the curriculum has been 
defended on purely educational grounds as distinguished from practical 
or utilitarian considerations. It is also interesting to note that this 
period followed the period of its introduction, which was purely utili- 
tarian in its aims. 

It will be the purpose of this article to distinguish between the aim 
of manual training wherein its objects have enough in common to '^e 
considered singly, conceived under the general term "culture," and the 
aims of manual training which are expressive of the more specific mo- 
tives of different persons when they elect the work for practical or utili- 
tarian purposes. I also desire at this time to give special emphasis to the 
importance of skill as an ideal to be held constantly in mind during the 



teaching process. I shall do this in the light of other subjects whose 
aims and purposes have been dominated by the same laws and principles 
of selection. 

In Milton's time Latin was studied because it formed the common 
vehicle of thought. It found its place in the curriculum of the schools 
of that time, not because it was supposed to have disciplinary value, but 
because it had practical value; its aim was utilitarian. The first type 
of high school in this country — the academy of colonial days — ^was in- 
tended for boys who expected to go to college and prepare for one of the 
"learned professions", particularly the ministry. Greek and Latin 
were considered indispensable to these professions, and because of their 
usefulness to these callings they were placed in the curriculum of 
studies. The pedagogical literature of those days contains no argu- 
ment for the "culture value" of these studies. Thus the study of these 
languages had many aims. In the 16th century Latin was the com- 
mon vehicle of learning; its aim was in pursuit of that learning. In 
colonial times it formed a considerable part of theological literature 
and church doctrine ; and one of its aims was in pursuit of this literature 
and this doctrine. It had many aims and they were all utilitarian in 
character. It was not until the various branches of science knocked at 
the door of the curriculum that the culture value of Latin and Greek 
found expression. While the culture value of these languages must have 
been greatest while they were a part of daily experience, the culture 
motive did not appear till after they had ceased to be to some extent a 
part of this experience. In coming down to the present time while this 
experience has narrowed, the study of Latin and Green still has certain 
definite aims. The scientist studies them for their derivative uses; the 
medical student for their employment in medical literature and the writ- 
ing of prescriptions; the pharmacist for their terminological uses. The 
philologist studies them for that linguistic comparison which forms the 
major part of his actual work. It will be observed that wherever the 
leading purpose is utilitarian there will be found various aims of lan- 
guage study; it is only when the purpose becomes purely academic that 
we find the aim of these studies, and that aim is culture. This culture 
aim was the conception of school men whose main purpose has been the 
establishment of systems of education which would be permanent and 
complete as ends in themselves. 

Another illustration of this tendency may be found in the study of 
mathematics. Algebra in its primitive stages was used by the Arabs 



in supplementing and equalizing in the transposition or exchange of 
terms in what we call the equation. It was a practical art, and probably 
first had its use in some kind of exchange or barter. 

Geometry according to Herodotus, the earliest authority on this 
subject, had its origin in the necessity of measuring lands in Egypt for 
the purposes of taxation. First followed as a practical art, it afterward 
became a deductive science. Both algebra and geometry started as arts 
with purely practical aims. In our own time these branches are still 


pursued with practical aims by the industrial and engineering classes 
who use them in the measurement of quantity. Their aims are as num- 
erous as the occupations employing them. Between these ancient and 
modern aims — these widely separated continents of human experience — 
we find the broad, open sea of mathematical scholastics, abstract in their 
nature and purposes and single in aim. And again that aim is culture. 
Again this culture value will not be denied, and it is probably greatest 
where there has been the least claim made for it — in the practical ex- 
periences of life. 

The culture value of these studies which are not put to actual use 
in practical application is really a matter of opinion and, of course, is 
not susceptible either of proof or disproof. 

Remembering that a great deal passes for culture which is not such, 
and that the primitive instincts of the laity exhibit little longing for it 
in the abstract; and also noting that social conditions in advanced stages 
seem to have evolved the notion of special studies for special purposes, it 
may be wholesome for us teachers to inquire a little more closely than 


has been our habit into the real nature of this culture, and try to find 
the vital element. Teachers will be loth to abandon their cherished idol. 
If we still believe that the culture idea is not mere sentiment, we must 
find and name its true essence. In doing this we may find an important 
principle which may aid us in interpreting some cf the claims made for 
manual training in so far as these claims are for its culture merely as 

Now I think it will have to be admitted that this element, this name, 
this essence is best expressed in the word skill. In order that there may 
be no possibility of a misinterpretation of the word, I shall give the defin- 

ition in Webster's Dictionary, which expresses the exact meaning that I 
attach to it, in order that what I shall say may be perfectly clear: — 
"Skill is the familiar knowledge of any art or science united with readi- 
ness and dexterity in execution or performance, or in the application of 
the art or science to practical purposes; power to discern and execute; 
ability to perceive and perform; expertness; aptitude; as, the skill of a 
mathematician, physician, surgeon, mechanic, etc." and we may add, 
reading or translating a foreign language, teaching, playing games, as 
football, baseball, tennis, chess, etc., etc. 

Wherein lies the efficiency of the teacher of Latin ? Evidently in his 
skill in assisting and stimulating the pupil to the acquisition of knowl- 
edge and skill in perceiving and performing the many inflectional, 
syntactic operations in reading and translating. Incidentally the effici- 
ent teacher adds interest to the study by frequent reference to its deriva- 
tion, its relation to other languages, and to the history of the people who 
used it, but no one will deny that were it not for the skill acquired in 
handling the forms, the power in translating, the thing would not be 
worth talking about as a branch of study. The pupil would be marked 



zero; and the teacher would be counted a failure. The culture lies in 
the skill, both on the part of the teacher imparting, and on the part of 
the pupil acquiring. It is this skill and this skill only which will enable 
the pupils later to enjoy the literature, the art and the history which 
revealed through the language. 

Wherein lies the efficiency in teaching mathematics and the culture 
of learning it? Is it in the knowledge which comes from the history of 
mathematics, its relation to other subjects, or its sociological import as 
applied to the arts of life? This broad view of the value and meaning 

of mathematics is interesting, necessary, and will come incidentally to the 
student who can use and apply the science ; but the world will never ask 
the student, "By what method did j^ou study mathematics?" or "what 
is the sociological import of mathematics?", but rather, "Do you know 
mathematics, and can you apply them to this or that occupation" ? The 
culture, of course, comes with the skill, with the power to solve problems 
with accuracy and dispatch; and the skill of the teacher in aiding the 
pupil in this acquisition is the only measure of his efficiency. In the 
"hierarchy of aims" of mathematics we may then include the aim of the 
teacher, and that aim is the skill in teaching the analysis and solution of 

Of the many illustrations that might be used I have selected the fore- 
going for the purpose of showing that in considering the aims as well as 
the aim of manual training we are not dealing with a new principle in 
education, but that we are studying an old principle with a new subject. 

When primitive man first grasped a club to wield in ofiEense and de- 
fense, or fashioned this club or other material into a rude tool for the 
purpose of assisting his hands in building his hut, his aim was practical. 
From that time to the present, through countless ages of stress and 


struggle, the growth from barbarism to the highest civilization is con- 
comitant with the skill exercised in the improvement and use of this tool. 
In fact, skill is the only measure either of its degree of perfection or of 
its use. It is interesting to know the history of this tool, and the 
sociological relations of its many uses in the arts and sciences, and inci- 
dentally this knowledge and these relations are so all-pervading that they 
almost force themselves upon the minds of persons of ordinary intelli- 
gence. The wide significance of the uses of the hand is necessarily felt 
to some extent by all, but it is known in its greatest extent only by the 
few, and possibly by none. But to whatever extent it can be perceived 
by different individuals and however useful and interesting it may be, 
these relations are only incidental to the real content of manual training, 
either as training per se, or to its use and application in the experiences 
of life. 

Manual training like other branches has many aims. The pure utili- 
tarian aim of the primitive man has been perpetuated in all the arts and 
crafts of life as well as in all engineering and architectural courses. In 
the trade schools in all the countries of the world the manual arts have 
been employed for the purpose of giving pupils the skill necessary to 
compete successfully in the occupations of life. And this competition 
has always been successful just to the extent that the competitors have 
been skillful. Again, the world does not enquire of the man seeking an 
artizan's position, "By what method did you learn the mechanic arts?", 
but the question ever has been and ever must be, "Have you a skillful 
hand?". Not, "Did you enjoy every moment of the time you were 
sweating over your exercise in the school"?, but "Did you master that 
exercise"? Not, "Did you amuse yourself 'constructing' a toy to please 
a fleeting fancy"?, but "Can j^ou use your tools man-fashion?" 

Now, it is interesting to observe that manual training like other 
branches above referred to has its aim; and again that aim is culture. In 
this country we have claimed, and I think we may still, to a certain 
extent, claim that manual training does give culture equal in its own 
way to that of other studies, even when it is not intended to put it to 
practical use in its applications. But as in other studies, this will 
depend almost wholly on whether the training has imparted the power 
which alone can come through the somewhat strenuous acquisition or 
skill. Incidentally, it is necessary and interesting to contemplate this 
work in its wider aspects, to philosophize about it, to read about it and 
to hear lectures about it, even perhaps by people who know very little 


about it — people whose success and usefulness lies not in the skill of the 
artist or artisan but in the skill of talking. But it can not be too strong- 
ly insisted that this wider vision is not the culture that makes manual 
training valuable as a culture study ; it is the skill acquired in the mastery 
of the technique which has been evolved by the race in holding tenacious- 
ly to the best practice of skilled mechanics. It is only by this means that 
the results of this evolution can be appropriated by the learner. We 
can, then, but conclude that the teachers aim must be the impartation of 
skill and it therefore follows that to do this he must himself be skillful. 
He must be skillful, not only in the execution of the processes of the 
mechanical art he teaches, but he must also be skillful in the art of 
teaching. It is through the acquisition of skill that the world's workers 
are produced. There are other ways to produce talkers, but workers 
must first learn to work, and this to be effective must come through 
skillful application. It must not be forgotten that excellence is qualita- 
tive, not quantitative. 

The accompanying tables furnish an outline of the work in manual 
training and drawing done during the second year in the McKinley 
High School. To those who are most attracted by artistic, usable 
articles, these exercises will be somewhat lacking in interest. It is the 
joinery of the first year and the forging of the third year that give the 
most latitude and freedom to the hand. In these the hand not only 
guides the tool but furnishes the power. But to those who like to study 
the machine as an entirely new element in training, these exercises will 
be full interest. Heretofore the movements of the hand have been indi- 
vidual and independent both as to position and time, but now these 
movements must become co-operative and dependent. The boy must 
enter into partnership with a force outside himself. In the use of the 
lathe he can reach results only by combining his own force with that of 
the revolving piece of stock on which he is working. This force is uni- 
form, unconscious and uncompromising. He sees before him a new 
condition which requires absolute conformity. This conformity de- 
mands the keenest attention and implicit obedience to the law of rotary 
motion. The lathe is a perfect disciplinarian. The attention alwaj's 
to be observed in the turning shop is beautiful to behold. The edu- 
cational quality of this co-operation with the moving force of machinery 
is unique and of a high order. Here skill is not only permitted, but it 
is demanded, and as this demand comes from the unconscious motion of 
the lathe, it is uncompromising and inexorable. The hand at the turning 
tool must obey orders or something not in the program is going to hap- 



TABLE III.— Turning.— Second Year. 







Illustrating: the 


Form of Design 

applicable to 

Process and Exercise 

1. Care and use 
of Lathe and Tools. 

2. Centering, 
Roughing and 
Straight Turning. 




3. Taper Turn- 





4. Compound 
Curve Turning. 





5. Sandpapering, 
Staining, Finishing. 

All Interior 
Woodwork and 
and Furniture. 

All Exercises af- 
ter No. 3. 


6. Concave and 
Convex Turning. 




Stocking Darner. 
Potato Masher. 

7. Beading and Bed Posts, Fret 
Cutting Down Work, Spindles, Carving Mallet. 
Square. Table Legs, Chair Table Leg. 
Legs, Porch Posts. 

8. Lectures on 


9. Tool Handle 

All kinds Tang 

Screw Driver 

Turning Tool 

File Handle. 

Chisel Handle. 

10. Boring, Fit- 
ting and Astemb- 

Loose Handles. 



Rolling Pin. 
Revolving Spool. 

11. Face Plate Rosettes. 
Work. Corner Blocks. 


] 2. Plug Chuck 

Napkin Rings. 
Jewel Boxes. 
Puff Boxes. 
Tea Caddies. 

Napkin Ring. 
Tea Caddy. 
Jewel Box. 

Constructive De- 
sign, Carving and 


13. Face Chuck 

Pattern Making. 
Interior Finish. 

Jardeniere Stand. 
Pin Tray. 
Picture Frame. 

Constructive De- 
sign and Carving. 

14. Gluing and 
and Built Up 

Pattern Making. 
Cabinet Making. 


Indian Clubs. 
Dumb Bells. 

Constructive De- 



TABLE IV.— Molding.— Second Year, 







Illustrating: the 


Form of Design 

applicable to 

Process and Exercise 

1. Lectures on 
Foundry Equip- 
ment and Cora- 
position of Com- 
mercial Alloys. 

Foundry Practice 

2. Preparation and 
Mixing of Sand 
and Facings. 

Foundry Practice 

3. Bench Molding. 

Foundry Practice 

Angle Block, 
Gland, Wrenches, 
Pipe Fittings, 
Pulleys, Bench 
Block and Face 

4. Making, Baking 
and Setting of 

Foundry Practice 

Pipe Fittings, Pul- 
leys, Bench Block 
and Face Plate 


5. Art Bronze 

Bronzes, Medal- 
ions, Ornamental 
Brass and 
Bronze Work 

Escutcheon, Push 
Button, Plate, 
Door Plate, 
Drawer Pull, 
Hinsre Tail Me- 

Modelling in Wax 

6. 'Floor Work. 

Foundry Practice 

Pulleys, Pit Work 

7. Management of 
Furnace and 
Crucible Melt- 

Foundry Practice 

8. Preparation of 

Charges of Foundry Practice 
Brass and Iron. 

9. Skimming and 
Pouring. Foundry Practice 

10. Cleaning, 

Tumbling and Foundry Practice 

Pickling of 


pen. In addition to attention, the skill required exercises other definite 
mental functions. The conception of form which must guide the hand 
in holding the tool calls for an active effort of the imagination equal to 
that of freehand drawing. And this is true whether the turning is done 
by the use of a templet — a longitudinal surface pattern — or whether it 
is done freehand. In the former case this effort is employed in design- 



TABLE V. — Drawing. — Second Year. 





Illustrating the 



(a) Principles General Problems 
of Orthog- in Mechanical 
raphic Pro- Drawing 

(b) Design 

Form of Turning 

Representations of 
Planes, Points, 
Lines, Rotation 
of Lines, Special 

Design of Tool 
Handles, Napkin 
Ring, Tea Caddy, 
Jewel Boxes 



(a) Intersec- Sheet Metal Work 
tions of and General 
Planes with Problems 
Curved Sur-, 


(b) Design. Form and Decora- 

, tion of Turning 

Conic Sections 

Design of Jardi- 
nier Stand, Pin 
Tray, Picture 
Frame, Indian 
Clubs, Goblets, 
Travs, Dumb 

Form and Decora- 


3. (a) Intersec- jSheet Metal Work 

tions of 
Curved Sur- 
(b) Design. 

and General 

Form and Decora- 
tion of Turning 

Intersections, Cyl- 
inders, Cone, 
Spheres. | 

Designs at Es- 
cutscheons and 
Door Plates 

Form and Decora- 

(a) Line 

(b) Design 

Rendering of 

Geometrical Forms 
Ring and Pulley 

Fonn and Decora- Design of Drawer 
tion of Patterns Pulls, Hinge 

Form and Decora- 

5. (a) Shades and! Architecture 

(b) Design 

I Geometrical Forms 

Form and Decora- Design of Push- 
tion of Patterns Buttons, Plates, 
j Medalions 

Form and Decora- 

mg and making the templet, and in the Latter case in the independent 
guiding of the tool, and is comparable to the guiding of the pencil in 
freehand drawing, for both must execute .the conceived form, the one in 
co-operation with the machine, the other independently. 

The application and meaning of turned articles are manifest, for 
they occur on every hand in both interior and exterior woodwork, and in 
furniture and other useful and ornamental articles. The Dart of tne 



TABLE VI.— Pattern Making,— Second Year 



Application Illustrating the 

Form of Design 

applicable to 

Process and Exercise 

1. Gneral Consid- 
erations, Drafts 
Shrinkage and General 
Finish Allow- 
ances ' 

Angle Block, 
Face Plate, 
"V" Blocks 


2. Internal Draft 

Wrench, Gland, 
Hollow and Pulleys, Gears, 
Ribbed Patterns Cup Center, Sur- 
face Plate, Shaft 
Coupling Bill 

3. Parted Patterns 

Pipe Coupling, 
Pipe Return, 
Patterns necessitate Pipe Tee, Bench 
two or more parts Block, Sheave 

4. Dowels, Fillets 
and Fasteners 

Surface Plate, 
Parted and Screw Tack, Face 
Ribbed Patterns Plate, "V" Block 


5. Core Prints 
and Boxes 

All Cored Pat- 

Levelling Block, 
Pipe Fittings, 
Pulleys, Ink Bot- 
tle Holder, Planer 

Screw Jack, Sur- 
6. Ribbed PatternSjRibbed Patterns face Plate 


7. Built Up An- 
nular Patterns 

Cylindrical Pat- Pulley, Bell, Pro- 
terns pellor Blade, 

turning course in which the chuck is used admits free play in construc- 
tive design, carving, and inlaying in proportion to the time and talent of 
the pupil. 

The pattern-making and molding constitutes a significant part of the 
second year's work. The making of patterns requires much care and 
skill and the necessity of accuracy in their construction is enforced upon 
the mind of the boy when he comes to use them in his foundry practice, 
for a defect in his pattern would spoil his exercise. The finished casting 
embodies a series of inter-related operations, including the making of 
the pattern, which requires careful thought, protracted attention and the 
exercise of ingenuity and judgment; and in his use of both wood and 
metal, and the processes of handling them, the boy experiences many 
points of contact with the world's work. 

In the next number along with tables showing our work of the third 
year I shall consider the relation of drawing to manual training and the 
significance of the art movement. 


Charles R. Richards. 

UP to the present time very little has been done towards teaching 
form design in the schools in connection with constructive work. 
Much progress has been made of late years in the matter of 
instruction in surface or pattern design, but little has been attempted in 
any systematic way towards a consideration of the elements involved in 
the fundamental design of constructions in wood, clay or metal. 

The reasons for this are not far to seek. In the first place, there 
enters into the problem of constructive design, so many elements, both 
functional and aesthetic, that it is not easy to separate one from the 
other; and in the second place, the considerations of proportion, contour 
and distribution of masses and members, are in many ways more subtle 
than the quantities presented in surface design, and correspondingly dif- 
ficult to bring to the appreciation of young workers. It is much easier 
to start with a given contour, and then work out a surface decoration 
that relates satisfactorily to the contour, than it is to design an outline 
that shall be thoroughly pleasing in itself. In the same way it is easier 
to take a piece of construction, such as a table, and apply surface en- 
richment to it, than to so design the table that it shall be effective and 
self-sufficient merely by force of its proportions and outline. And yet, 
these latter considerations are, of course, in such structures, the funda- 
mental elements of aesthetic effect, and of much more primary import- 
ance than the question of surface decoration, and for these reasons it is 
obviously demanded, however difficult the task may be, that instruction 
in this direction shall have a place wherever work in construction is 

Functional considerations, of course, have first place in the problem. 
The adjustment of primary form and dimensions, material and structure 
to best serve the given end, must determine the fundamental de- 
sign. When these considerations are satisfied, there is a margin in 
which purely aesthetic demands may be considered, and the material 
foundation refined and enriched, and made more interesting and pleasing 
to the eye. That these refinements should in no way interfere with the 
fulfillment of the first set of conditions, goes without saying. 

In the actual conduct of the college course to be outlined, the first 




set of factors are always considered, but the emphasis of the course is 
placed upon aesthetic relations, and these alone will be given any space 
in the following pages. 

It should be noted that this course does not touch the problem of 
surface enrichment, which is, of course, a legitimate and important ele- 

*" ment in the full problem of constructive 
design, but for the sake of concentration, 
confines itself to questions of outline, 
proportion and distribution of members. 
The method of instruction followed 
is, first the definition of a concrete prob- 
lem ; the presentation of varied examples 
showing its successful solution, or that 
of other problems of the same type; 
FIGURE 1. the enunciation and illustration of cer- 

tain general principles; and after the designs have been worked out, a 
comparison and criticism of the results before the class. 

The writer does not regard an emphasis of guiding principles before 
the students work is attempted, however carefully and guardedly they 
may be made, as an ideal method of instruction. With the very limited 
time at the disposal of this course, however, and the fact that very few 
of the students taking it have had any large amount of art training, it 
would seem the most 
practical method of 
bringing out the signif- 
icance of the quantities 
involved, and of cover- 
ing the desired field. 

The main principles 
brought forward are 
those of consistency 
and variation. By con- 
sistency is meant ad- 
justment of form to 

function and the bar- figure 2. 

monious relation of masses and details. In it are included the ideas 
of balance, symmetry, rhythm and consonance of movement. Through 
variation, interest is gained by change and contrast of mass and line, 
enrichment and refinement of detail. On the interplay of these two 



ideas is built up whatever of principle is applied in the various problems. 
Both invention and refinement of a motive are given play in the 
work of the course, but in most cases less emphasis is placed upon 
origination than upon the refinement and adjustment of a suggested 

Plate I. 

Problem I. The first problem is concerned with the simple ar- 
rangement of rectangular masses, and deals with the distribution of 
spaces in a two and a three tier panelled wainscot, as in Figure 1 and 
Figure 2. 

Such wainscots are, for the sake of economy, frequently built of 
equal square panels, and in this set and rigid form offer little of interest 
except in the play of light and shade on their differing planes. The 
conditions, however, afford an excellent opportunity for pleasing 
arrangement of spaces through nicely adjusted variation. 

The possible modifications of a two tier panel are, of course, limited. 
The sense of stability would seem to demand that the larger panel be 
placed below as in a, Plate I, rather than above, as in b, and within 
this arrangement an infinite number of proportions are of course 
possible. To secure a thoroughly pleasing effect, it is essential to 
observe here the principle of subordination, and to proportion one of the 
panels as the clearly dominating mass, with the other as a secondary 

Arrangements like c are obviously unsatisfactory because of uncer- 
tamty of effect, and those like d because of extreme difference in 
mass. In the latter case the eye feels a lack of relation between the 
spaces, and a shock of contrast in passing from one to the other. 

The students' designs shown in Figure 3 and in Figure 4, have each a 



primary mass clearly emphasized, and a secondary mass in pleasing rela- 
tion. It is possible that some of the simplicity of efEect in Figure 3 may 
come from the similarity of portions represented by the two spaces. 
Such likeness of proportion between adjacent masses varying in size, 



often exerts a strong influence in uniting what would otherwise be a 
confused and complicated effect. 

Greater interest of effect may be gained by variation horizontally as 
well as vertically, as in Figure 5, and by still further differentiation 
as in Figure 6. 

With a three tier arrangement, a greater number of arrangements 


are possible. Some of these are shown in Plate II. One dominating 
mass and two equal secondary masses, or three varying masses are 
possible, the latter tending to greater richness of effect. 



The order of the spaces one to the other is of primary interest. 
The arrangement of a is geometrical and obvious. It is like the 
scale in music. It is continuous movement without bounds. The eye 
is carried onward but never brought to rest, b and c employ the 
same masses but have beginning and end. They are balanced — static. 
They stay in the frame. 



Students designs are shown in Figures 7, 8 and 9. It will be 
noted that in these designs the uniform width of frame enclosing the 
panels exerts an important unifying influence upon the entire effect. A 

CD en 

en en 


Plate II. 


change in the size of the rails enclosing a small panel, is sometimes 
desirable, as in Figure 8, but this should be made very carefully, as any 
such change tends to further complication of effect. 

Problem II. The panelled door presents much the same problem 



as the wainscot, but in this case the distribution of m:;sses is more 
affected by functional considerations. The lowest rail of the door is 
always made larger for reasons of strength and resistance to wear, and 



one of the other rails is generally so placed as to lend support to the lock 
and handle. In the days of rim locks this lock rail was so placed as to 
receive the lock centrally, as in the Colonial door of Figure 10. With 



a mortise lock such a position would weaken the joint which holds the 
rail, and in consequence the rail is nowadays placed somewhat above or 
below the lock. 

At the present time, in doors made for inside use, not so much im- 
portance is attached to this supporting function of the lock rail as for- 
merly, but from the purely 
aesthetic side, it is a question 
whether recognition of the im- 
portance and evident function 
of the lock can be omitted with- 
out detracting from the effect, 
as witness Figure 11. 


In the older doors of the simple 
house type, the panels were made solid, 
and the width of the panel, both for the 
sake of strength in the frame, and in 
order to lessen the results of shrinkage, 
was comparatively small, seldom run- figure 11. 

ning over ten or twelve inches. Today, with the use of built up panels, 
the width is increased, and it is now common practice in such doors to 
use one panel filling the entire width, as in the last figure. 

The first door problem is that of an inside single door, with the usual 
limits of dimensions. A number of the most common types of panel dis- 




tribution is illustrated in Plate III. It is evident that the same principle 
of subordination enters into the movement of the panels, as in the ques- 

Plate III. 

tion of massing. A design like Figure 12 gives a half-way effect. It 

is neither vertical or horizontal, and is uncertain and unpleasing for that 


On the other hand, in an arrangement like b, Plate III, the dominant 
vertical movement of the panels is in harmony with the 
shape of the door, but its otherwise meager effect is re- 
lieved, and an element of vivacity added by the single con- 
trasting cross panel. Examples of students' designs are 
shown in Plate IV. 

Figure a is in danger from the uncertainty of move- 
ment referred to above. The effect of this design would 
be improved by an increase in the width of the bottom rail. 
In c the rails show well-studied proportions but the lock 
is badly placed from a structural standpoint. 

Problem III. Larger doors present opportunities ioi 
more elaborate groupings. - In outside doors both the 
effect and appearance of strength is aimed at, and such 

doors, when made of wood, often have the panels arranged in squares, 

with heavy encompassing frame work. 

In the inside double doors of the salon type, however, a natural 










opportunity is presented for rich and varied grouping. The French 
have excelled in this study of panel spacing, and doors of the Louis 
XIV, XV and XVI periods, present exquisite examples of panel divis- 
ion. Figure 13. 


The Japanese also, in their temple and palace gates, have dealt with 
this problem of panel spacing in a charming way, using generally some 
variation of the motive shown in Figure 14, 

In the tall double door, running up to perhaps nine or ten feet, it is 
evident that a greater number of single divisions may be employed than 
in the lower single door. A fourth division often takes the form of a 
small panel at the top, and here a nice question is presented as to whether 



this is better made of the same size as the other small panel, or a fourth 
unit of size introduced. The latter is a move away from simplicity of 
effect, and the adjustment must be nicely studied if it is to result in an 
improvement in the design. 

Students' designs are shown in Plates V and VI. Figure a in Plate 
V would probably be improved if the small panel were made slightly 
larger and the width of the enclosing rails somewhat reduced. Figure 
a, Plate VI, possibly suggested by a Japanese example, shows a well dis- 
tributed panel scheme but is weak as to the width of both stiles and rails. 


G. R. SMITh 



Gertrude Roberts Smith. 

"Embroidery is not among the things zuhich have to be done. It is 
in the nature of a superfluity; the excuse for it is that it is beautiful/^ 

THE expression of art in embroidery is primarily design-thought in 
stitches,which defines clearly some orderliness of space relations 
and, at the same time, exhibits care in the selection of materials. 
Whatever the purpose for which an article is being beautified with 
stitches, durability and fitness should be considered. The hours oi pains- 
taking labor involved in planning and executing a design motif, however 
simple, becomes labor unworthy its art unless there be in it lasting quali- 
ty. As a rule it is desirable to put a richer material on a simpler, as silk 
on linen, rather than linen on silk but, whatever the character of the 
cloths selected, let them be the best of their kind. Shiny stuffs, as silk and 
satin are to be avoided, as hard and unsympathetic. Brocade has less 
danger as its pattern gives broken light. Linen is, when all the quali- 
fications desirable for embroidery are considered, a most satisfactory 
fabric, and can be obtained in such variety of color and texture, that for 
the present we will consider its use alone. 



The natural colors are safest and in the end best, for as we have 
noted a rising scale of richness in the njaterials we are superimposing, so 
we avail ourselves of the impressiveness given by an increasing color 
scale. A jewel-like quality is obtained by opposing color to a proper 
neutral, and toned linens give to color schemes something of the envelope 
we so admire in Japanese prints. The round threads and slight irregu- 
larities found in hand spun and woven linens recommend them espec- 
ially for our purpose. When studied, the range of color from light to 
dark and warm to cold, offers limitless scope for the application of 
color in embroidery. If expense is not to be considered, these linens may 
be woven to order and in any shade desired. For many purposes, how- 
ever, the Russian peasant crash, obtainable in most dry goods stores, is 
beautiful and inspiring. The fact that its width is limited to from 
fifteen to eighteen inches, is sometimes an obstacle in its use, but when 
frankly seamed together, it can often be treated as one width. These 
linens vary in price according to their fineness, costing from twelve to 
thirty cents a yard. 

Linen embroidery thread which could be very valuable to the needle- 
worker is practically prohibited since, from the nature of its fibre, it will 
not hold dye, and the rubbing of a thread as it passes and repasses 
through cloth will fade colors that are unaffected by sunlight. Fading 
in wash is largely brought about by the same cause. Mercerized cotton 
has been so developed that its texture is not unlike silks and may be used 
when the colors have been tested. The embroidery threads sold in art- 
craft shops and recommended by them as vegatable dyed give to the 
worker all the advantage of individual experiment without the tedious- 
ness and discouragement attendant upon controlling coloring matter at 
first hand. Tussah silk has a quality in its color and texture, which is 
well nigh perfect in connection with the homespun linens, and it is to be 
regretted these really splendid Oriental silks are so little appreciated that 
it is difficult to get them in this country. 

The transferring of designs to rough cloth offers many obstacles, as 
impression paper and the powders used on smooth material fail to enter 
its interstices. Experience has proven that a sure and comparatively 
easy result is obtained by cutting the design, stencil fashion, from tough 
paper and tracing round it with an ordinary pen and water proof ink. 

This description of materials and methods has been given with the 
thought of their practical application, presupposinp' a love of the subject 
with ordinary control of the needle and some ability to express space 




relations in drawing. Desiring to make our discussion still more specific 
we will give it the form of a problem, selecting for our purpose a runner 
or rectangle of linen to be embroidered. 

The uses to which the embroidered runner may be put are varied and 



in considering these in connection with the shape, we have our design 
partially suggested. If our rectangle or runner is planned to go in some 
fixed place its position will more or less define the design spacing. If 
the rectangle is to lie on top of a table its relation to the whole as well 
as to its parts should be recognized. If it hangs over the edge of the 
table the amount of cloth and the division of it into spaces becomes the 
important thought. In either case the hem, which must finish the raw 
edge of the material, cannot be ignored, and it is best to make it con- 
sciously a part of the construction, in proper width to bind the design 
well down to the other space divisions. 

The straight line of the hem most naturally suggests a band or its 
equivalent in the design treatment, and should we confine ourselves to it 
alone, there would be endless opportunity for invention within the space. 

The band holds the edges of the cloth together, at the same time em- 
phasizing the hemmed ends. It is here we should develop our greatest 
design interest, either by concentration of thought in the middle of the 



space or toward the corners, the weakest arrangement being that in 
which the design travels uniformly from edge to edge of the cloth, sug- 
gesting a machine woven pattern which could be cut off by the yard. 
The utterly to be rejected design in this space is the one-sided unit which 
enters the cloth at one edge and ambles along to its exit on the other. 



The spot arrangement so satisfactorily demonstrated in oriental 
needlework offers an alluring field in which there are many pitfalls, for 
detached unconstructed units are tiresome unless there be in them some 
naive quality which we recognize as genius. 

Figure T shows an arrangement of roses in which the relation of hem 
and design to uncovered space have been carefully considered. The 
cloth is coarse linen, of cool grey tone ; the design is in soft greens, blues 
and old roses. Here the strong color value might allow the proportion 
of uncovered space to be increased, until the hem and pattern stand in 
minor relation to it without the latter suffering. 

In this design we have preserved the band or border thought, the in- 
terest being almost equally distributed in the space, yet conveying perfect- 
ly the impression that the design is complete in itself and made so in 
relation to definite dimensions. The simplest possible stitch has been 

^Figures 1, 2 and 3 are used by permission of Nevvcorab College, New Orleans. 



used in its execution, the silk embroidery thread following the warp or 
woof over and under as in darning. 

Figure 2 shows one-half of a design planned for the end of a rec- 
tangle similar to the one already described. Here we have the interest 
centered in the two medalions, which were carefully spaced in relation to 


the edges of the cloth and to each other. The bands which form struc- 
tural lines holding all the parts of the design together are placed, as in 
architecture, where the construction is most apparent, or where the lines 
of beauty may be made stronger and more complete. The colors, dull 
blue, green and terra cotta, with touches of purple carried through the 
scheme, give further emphasis to the thought by being forced in the 
medalions. The mass of color in the terra cotta sails is supported by the 
introduction of a brighter blue in the distance than appears in the 
bands. This runner was planned to go on a mahogany table and its 
values made accordingly robust. 

Figure 3 is another arrangement of ornament on the runner. The 
magnolia bud motif with its divisions and strong contrasts forces 
attention to the middle of the space. Coarse linen of a warm brown 
tone was selected for the background. The other colors are bronze 
greens, blues and purples with deep cream in the flower. The character 



of the blossom lends itself to applique and a smooth silk has been used 
to assimulate the texture of the flower. 

With all applique a strong outline is necessary, and here the same 
one has been carried through the whole design. Several threads of dark 
green and red purple were sewed down, or couched, with a single thread 



of blue. The leaf spaces were filled in with button-hole stitch, row 
after row having been placed with some effect of modelling. By 
keeping several needles in the work, colors were broken at will ; three 
different greens of the same value were used in each leaf, and variety 
was given without disturbing the flatness of the decorated surface. 

In Figure 4, fleur de lis motif, all parts of the design play one into 
the other. The arrangement in the corners is dependant for its com- 
plete comprehension upon lines at the sides and hem of the rectangle. 
Such a design is seen to best advantage lying full length on a horizontal 
surface. This is the design form which perhaps offers the greatest scope 
for subtle beauty and variety. A complete unit in itself, its possibilities 
for pleasing are unlimited. 

Fine design comes from a full experience and, whether the motif 
chosen for a runner be purely abstract lines or material which in itself 
tells a story, beauty and its adaptation to cloth should be the funda- 
mental thought. 


Cheshire Lawton Boone. 

THE course of study as suggested in the present article and those 
to follow is not a theoretical compilation. Each topic and 
problem has been tried not only in one grade, but oftimes in 
several and the exercises described are the residue after a long process of 
selection and rejection. A general outline of the scheme for the primary 
grades, will be found in the Manual Training Magazine for April, 
1907, in which is stated the basis upon which the work is planned. Any 
other set of exercises than those mentioned might well be used; it is 
only contended that whatever group is chosen, that they shall be centered 
in some definite way about one idea, or groups of related ideas. 

In addition to the primary work referred to, this series of papers will 
include pottery-making, basketry, work in wood, and a series of discus- 
sions, with drawings of several mechanical problems, as the water wheel, 
pumps, kite, printing press, motors and electrical apparatus. These 
grammar grade projects are planned in the same way as for primary 
work, in series, closely related. It is hoped the articles will show that 
there is some guide by which a course may be planned, to produce sensi- 
ble results, and command the attention of the diffident ones, as well as 
build up the creative powers of children. 



The play house is a typical first-year project. It involves an amount 
of "making" of a simple kind, and uses a variety of materials. The 
work can be extended or condensed to suit classroom conditions, without 
in any way impairing the problem as a whole. 

Materials — For the house a number of packing boxes (soap boxes 
for choice) are secured, and two sides of each removed, leaving not a 
house, but a room in each case. A real play house, with a roof, is at- 
tractive but the rooms are dark and hard to get at in furnishing them. 
For school purposes, boxes are easier to handle and as satisfactory. 

For the furniture to be placed in the various rooms, any firm, tough 
paper, which first grade children can fold accurately, will do. The best 

'Copyright, 1907, Cheshire L. Boone. 





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material is 30 lb. cover paper of tone suitable for tables and chairs. Un- 
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present case, 6-in. x 6-in. 




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Natural and colored jute is the best stuff for weaving rugs for the 
rooms. The looms are strung with common carpet warp, or any strong 
cotton twine. The best loom for use here, is one of cardboard, a little 


larger than the size of the proposed rug. The cardboard should be 
notched at the ends with notches about 3^ -inch apart for stringing. 

The walls of each room ought to be papered with bogus or cover 
paper, or some material of good tone. 

Explanation of Plates — The drawings presented herewith give de- 
tails of construction for making typical pieces of furniture. The dotted 
lines in the drawings show where the paper has been folded. The 
cutting is to be made on full black lines. Portions indicated by crosses 
are cut off entirely. 

As already suggested, most of the articles are made from square pa- 
per 6-in. X 6-in. When this is not possible, the paper should be fur- 
nished to pupils in the right size, and the measurement necessary accom- 
plished by means of kindergarten tablets or strips of cardboard, rather 
than rulers. 

It is advisable to practice the simpler foldings and pasting, first, with 
manila paper, until the technique is understood. Library or stock paste 
is used for finishing the work. 

If any design is used on the wall paper, it should be some simple 
border, near the top — the mere repetition of motits suitable for decora- 
tion of a given room as vegetables, animals, utensils, landscape.^ 

Weaving has been so fully treated in other places that no explanation 
of it is needed here. It is enough to say that weaving for its own sake 
has little value, and expensive, complex looms have no place in this 
grade. Since rugs are needed to furnish the rooms, each child makes at 
least one, perhaps more, and the best are used. 

Other details incident to completing the rooms, must be left to indi- 
vidual taste; pictures, windows and curtains will be arranged to suggest 
the reality desired. 

In addition to the play house there are a number of isolatLd problems 
which also find their way into the year's work. 

Things like Christmas gifts, valentines and the like are perennial 
exercises, but though important, are mere incidents in the year's plan as 
a whole. These special exercises wU be treated as a separate group later. 

^Design in the Primary Grades by Julia Cremins, Year Book of the Council 
of Supervisors of the Manual Arts, 1904. An excellent discussion of primary 


Charles H. Bailey. 

IT is impossible for any one person to make lists of equipment for 
manual training work that will be satisfactory under all conditions 
and meet the approval of all teachers. Each teacher who has had 
experience in work of this kind has his own ideas about equipments ; and 
tools that are considered absolutely essential by one teacher may find no 
place in the equipment of another. Still some definite lists of equipment 
may be suggestive and helpful, particularly to teachers who have not had 
a wide experience and who have no very definitely fixed ideas on the 

In equipments for woodworking, especially, there is great diversity 
both as to the number of tools used, and as to the division into individual 
and general tools. There are certain tendencies, however, along this 
line that seem to be making for greater uniformity, and one of these is 
the inclination on the part of teachers of woodworking to reduce the 
number of tools that are classed as individual tools; and in fact to have 
the least possible duplication of tools throughout the entire equipment. 
The lists of equipment given here are made out in accordance with this 
idea. The reduction of the tools to the least possible number lessens 
the cost of equipment and also makes it easier for the teacher to take 
care of the tools and keep them in good working order. It is greatly to 
the teacher's advantage to have as few tools as it is possible to use and 
still do good and effective work. 

Teachers of little experience, when called upon to order and install 
equipment for this sort of work, are very likely to make the mistake of 
ordering more tools than are essential, thus unnecessarily increasing ex-, 
pcnditures. This has been done many times and the extra tools after- 
wards discarded. It is hoped that the lists of equipment given here may 
prove suggestive and helpful to such teachers and enable them to avoid 
the mistake of over duplication of tools. 

It is intended that these lists shall be merely suggestive. Perhaps 
no teacher would be willing to take them outright. Some will doubt- 
less feel that they are insufficient. They are made out, however, with 
the idea of meeting the needs of the ordinary public school where the 
item of cost is usually so important as to be almost the determining fac- 



tor in the introduction of this work, and it is believed that the equip- 
ments suggested here will meet the needs of such work without being 
excessive in cost. 

Tables I and II give what is considered a reasonably generous equip- 
equipment should be sufficient for almost any work that can be done by 
the pupils in the grammar school. 


24 single benches, 3-ft. 6-in. long, 2 wooden vises $192.00 

24 Bailey's iron jack planes. No. 5 37.00 

24 Disston's back saws, 10-in 26.20 

24 Buck Bros, tanged firmer chisels, j^-in. No. 2 5.00 

24 Buck Bros, tanged firmer chisels, 1-in. No. 2 8.00 

24 try squares, 6-in. iron stock 5.25 

24 marking gauges, beech wood, plated head 2.85 

*24 rules, boxwood, 12-in 3 . 60 

*24 sloyd knives, 25^-in. blade, riveted 6.50 

24 bench brushes, 5-in. block 5.60 

♦24 Bradley drawing kits, 10 x 12-in 7.50 

24 pencil compasses and pencils 3 .00 

*24 bench hooks 3.50 

*24 mallets, hickory 4.00 

Total $3 10 . 00 

In some cases, however, it is not possible to install the work so com- 
pletely, and in such instances it is suggested that the items in Table I 
marked with an asterisk (*) be omitted from the individual tools. 
The rules and knives may be provided by the pupils, and they may make 
the T-squares, triangles, drawing boards, bench hooks and mallets. 

Table III gives a reduced list of general tools which will do very 
well for a class of twelve and may be made to serve for a class of twen- 
ty-four. It is about the minimum to which the general tools may be re- 
duced and still allow of any sort of effective work. 

There are a number of ways in which benchwork may be conducted 
with limited equipment. In the first place there is the possibility of pro- 
viding a small number of benches well equipped, with a reasonable com- 
plement of general tools, and conducting the work with small classes. 
Thus an equipment for a class of six, based upon the lists given in tables 
I and II, might be purchased for about $100.00. 

Again, a larger number of benches may be provided, with just enough 
tools to enable some work to be done, and the number of tools increased 



2 Bailey's iron fore planes, 18-in., 2^4-'m- cutter $ 4.10 

2 Stanley's iron block planes, 6-in., No. 16 1 . 60 

6 Disston's D8 rip saws, 22-in., 8 point 7.00 

2 Disston's D8 cross cut saws, 22-in., 10 point 2.34 

2 turning saw frames, 14-in 2 . 00 

6 turning saw blades, 14x^-in 60 

1 steel carpenter's square, nickle plated. No. 105 85 

2 sliding T-bevels, 6-in, iron stock 40 

3 screw drivers. Champion, 4-in 75 

1 screw driver, Champion, 6-in 35 

1 Coe's monkey wrench, 10-in 65 

2 Barber's ratchet braces. No. 14, 6-in. sweep 1.80 

1 set Russell-Jeanings auger bits 4.25 

1 set twist drill bits for wood, 7 in case 1.15 

1 Rose countersink, 5^-in 15 

1 glue pot, 2 pints 50 

4 Buck Bros, outside gouges. No. 8, handled, 1-in 1.75 

2 Buck Bros, outside gouges. No. 8, handled, ^-in 65 

1 pair Colt's eccentric clamps, to open 3-f t 2.10 

6 Wooden hand screws, 8-in 1 . 70 

12 Wooden hand screws, 10-in 4.05 

6 Wooden hand screws, 12-in 1 . 70 

2 winged dividers, 5-in 40 

1 winged dividers, 10-in 32 

6 half round wood files, open cut, 8-in 1.35 

6 hammers, Maydole, No. 13 3 . 00 

4 nail sets, assorted sizes 40 

2 cabinet scrapers, 3 x 5-in 40 

2 India oil stones, 7x2xl-in l.C) 

1 oil can ,10 

1 Washita oil stone slip, 4 x 2-in 20 

1 smooth mill file, 8-in 20 

1 grindstone in wooden frame, 24 x 2-in 4 .40 

8 iron spoke shaves, adjustable 1 . 80 

1 New Langdon Mitre box. No. 22 7.30 

1 scraper steel 20 

1 Goodell's geared hanJ drill, No. SVz 2.25 

1 Jones' ratchet coping saw O 

12 coping saw blades 15 

2 Buck Bros, tanged firmer chisels. No. 2, '/4-in 50 

Total '. $65 .21 

as the funds materialize. If a special teacher is employed, this method 
may be the more economical as more pupils may be given instruction in 
the same length of time. 



1 Bailey's iron fore plane, 18-in, 2'^/i-'m. cutter $ 2.05 

3 Disston's D8 rip saws, 22-in. 8 point 3 .52 

1 Disston's D8 cross cut saw, 22-in, 10 point 1.17 

1 turning saw frame, 14-in 1 . 00 

3 turning saw blades, 14 x ^-in 30 

1 steel carpenters square, nickel plated, No. 105 85 

1 sliding T-bevel, iron stock, 6-in 20 

3 screw drivers, Champion, 4-in 75 

1 Coe's monkey wrench, 10-in 65 

1 Barber's ratchet brace, No. 14, 10-in. sweep 90 

1 set Russell-Jennings auger bits 4.25 

1 Rose countersink, ^-in 15 

6 hand screws, 8-in 1.70 

6 hand screws, 12-in 2.40 

1 pair winged dividers, 5-in 20 

6 half round wood f.les, open cut, 8-in . 1.35 

4 Maydole's hammers, No. 13 2.50 

1 nail set, 1/16-in. point 10 

1 cabinet scraper, 3 x 5-in 20 

1 India oil stone, 7 x 2 x 1-in 60 

1 oil can 10 

1 smooth mill file, 8-in 20 

1 grindstone in wooden frame, 24 x 2-in 4.40 

6 iron spoke shaves, adjustable 1.35 

2 Buck Bros, tanged chisels, No. 2, 34"in ^0 

Total .$31.39 

In any case, the teacher ought to be able to make some combination 
of the tables given here so as to suit the conditions under which he must 

The figures given are not absolute, but may be taken as very nearly 
correct on the whole. The totals may be slightly reduced by special 
discounts on large orders. 

In all cases, a high grade of tool is specified and quoted, as it is be- 
lieved that, in the purchase of tools for this purpose, the best are the 
most economical. The cost of the equipment may be materially reduced 
by using a cheaper grade of tool, but this is not recommended. 


Frank A. Manny. 

THE American who studies German and French schools is im- 
pressed by the attitude of these peoples towards participation in 
processes. One meets with a remarkable provision for object 
lessons in the better equipped schools, but there is a conspicuous absence 
of opportunities for students to enter into other than visual relations with 
the objects. Initiative and self-activity are no more evident than they 
were in American schools of a generation ago. Dean P^ussell pointed out 
in his "German Higher Schools" that very often the few laboratories 
that he found were unused. During the last year I have visited several 
laboratories which showed little sign of wear after having been in opera- 
tion a number of years. A few minutes with the program suggested the 
reason for this and consultation with science teachers confirmed the sug- 
gestion. In many cases the habit of the old scholastic method and phil- 
osophy had succeeded in practically controlling the newer materials and 
ideas, even as it did the new treasures of Latin and Greek after the first 
bloom of the Renaissance. 

An extreme instance of this I found in an interview with the direc- 
tor of a Realschule in one of the larger cities. There chanced to be a 
workshop where apprentices were to be seen at benches and lathes in a 
building adjoining the school. I asked whether the workshop was con- 
nected with the school and received a very decided negative reply. Later 
I asked to see the laboratories when the director turned to me and said, 
"We have no workshops and no laboratories. In Germany these are 
intended for the training of those persons only who cannot escape manual 
labor." I am glad to say that this is not true of some of the schools. 

But before the American takes too great pride in the extent to which 
his country has made use of these forms of experience in the education of 
non-manual workers, he ought to learn what he can for his country's 
needs from the splendid equipment that some German cities have made 
for trade and industrial training. Here 4S not the place to discuss this 
subject. I will only name a book which has appeared this spring by the 
leading exponent and demonstrator of this side of education, Dr. George 
Kerschensteiner of Munich, "Grundfragen der Schulorganisation" 
(Teubner, Leipsic). Through this work one will get into touch with 



the most definite statement I have found of the function of productive 
labor in education, from the social as well as from the physical stand- 

I referred above to the similarity in some points between the situa- 
tion as regards Latin and Greek a few centuries back and the newer 
subjects in some quarters today. But two important facts distinguish 
the modern problem from its predecessor, ( 1 ) Empirical science and 
philosophy have a very different standing and efficiency in this century. 
(2) There is a greater division of labor in the school world today than 
there was at that time. A mistaken habit in one contineni; can be cor- 
rected by better practice in another and vice versa. 

One of the evidences of this more social development is to be found 
in the benefit that has come from the various international expositions. 
Indirectly, also, these have advanced the problems through the visitors 
who are brought to a closer study of conditions in a particular country 
after seeing the material exhibited. 

One of the visitors to the St. Louis Exposition made a brief but 
very fruitful tour of our country and has embodied the results in a little 
book also published by Teubner. It is entitled "Folksschule und Lehrer- 
bildung in den Vereinigten Staaten" and is by Dr. Franz Kuypers, direc- 
tor of the F ortbildungsschulen in Cologne. It is a thoughtful study of 
what our schools can contribute to present German needs. Naturally 
the interests of the author and the present status of our schools lead him 
to dwell particularly upon topics related to those I have referred to in 
this article. I give a translation of a few pages which may be of interest 
in showing how we appear to a careful, progressive, German schoolman. 
It is to be hoped that Dr. Kuypers will be led later to give us a work in 
which he will discuss German conditions and possibilities at first-hand. 

I do not attempt to comment on what I quote from him. He may 
be extreme in some particulars but it is well to bear in mind that if, in 
the European schools, there is too much of the symbol and of memoriter 
work and too little of doing, it is quite possible that we, at times, become 
so absorbed in keeping pupils doing that we, too, fail in getting at the 
motive power, meaning, and so we do not come to real use. 

Personal rights play a greater part in the political and social life of 
America than in any other country of the world. They were the chief factor in 
the history of the country, and national and local institutions, as well as all 
social and legal relations, are based upon these same rights. No wonder then 
that the idea exercises a decided influence in the school. The American system 


of instruction takes into consideration to an extraordinary degree the inclina- 
tions of the child. This tendency may be traced from the play things in the 
kindergarten to the elective courses of study in the higher institutions of learn- 

In the elementary school this adaptation of instruction to the needs of the 
child appears conspicuously in his participation in the process. It does not 
consist in merely looking at pictures, apparatus and other means of illustration, 
but much more in explanation by means of drawings. The picture is not hung 
before the pupils, it is developed in their presence. The school meets the native 
activities of the child in a remarkable way and for that reason prefers that the 
pupil should make his own observations. 

Thus there arises a method of doing, as it were, a sort of process which 
even in purely theoretical branches, if one can speak of such in America, re- 
quires a physical activity in connection with the mental. This reaches a climax 
in the manual training lessons where the pupils construct by means of tools the 
objects which have formed the subject of instruction. 

The tendencies of the child are naturally toward breadth rather than depth 
and so too the instruction. It is suggestive and many-sided rather than ex- 
haustive. The principles, 'from the easy to the difficult', 'from the simple to the 
complex' are subordinated to the effort to interest — one might sometimes say, to 

Through the disregard of the didactic principles just mentioned. Young 
America, who aspires to the new and the great, more than the European youth, 
is given tasks which a systematic pedagogue of the old world would precede by 
a well ordered series of preparatory exercises. Furthermore, the American would 
lack the whole scale of formal steps and also the all-round working out of the 
subject and the drill ; to be sure, on the other side, he lacks the weariness. 

A happy venturesomeness without overlong deliberation and analysis — a qual- 
ity which must have inspired the whole people, when they were bringing their 
vast country under control — appears also in the school system. That which is 
very soon made clear to the foreigner on the streets and railways, is also found 
in the school classes, — self-reliance and no dependence upon leading-strings or 
guardianship from others. A desire for novelty and the self-help {Selbsthilfe) 
of youth are necessarily accompanied by superficiality. Even this happy school 
dilettantism is the outcome of the restlessness of the entire people, to whom 
speculative or profound deliberation is foreign. The instruction therefore will 
be absolutely nothing else. It follows naturally then that the school cannot im- 
part an organically related and united store of knowledge, but it stimulates the 
young citizen and shows him the path which "he can follow later by himself. 

What I have seen in general of pictures for illustration, maps, physical and 
other apparatus — apart from stereopticons — was very meager compared with 
what the German exhibition offered and what is found in our city schools. * * 



One can see that it is not due to economy merely if in other schools (than 
the manual training high schools) less illustrative material is to be found; for 
here in the room for woodwork, the smithy, the foundry, and the machine shops, 
the fortunate boys have the use of a mass of material for which thousands of 
dollars have been paid. And they are materials not to be looked at merely but 
to be actually used. 

The Americans never tire of praising the bright side of such a training. 
The real or supposed advantages may be summed up as follows: physical; adroit- 
ness, a strengthening of the nerve and muscle forces ; social ; the equal claims of 
physical and mental labor and an understanding, of their economic values, the 
possibilities of adorning the home one's self, an introduction to frugality; intel- 
lectual ; a training for clear definite expression and a quick and exact carrying 
out of ideas, a knowledge of tools, adaptation of form and matter ; ethical ; the 
forming of habits of exactness, attention, reflection, the employment of time in 
useful occupations, character building through productive labor, a strengthening 
of confidence in one's own ability and a feeling for the beautiful. Such pupils 
as show little inclination or ability for theoretical instruction can be interested 
in this way and gradually led to the other subjects. Finally, a practiced eye and 
a practiced hand are a better equipment for industrial life than the memorized 
knowledge of many secondary matters. "Learning by doing" should complete 
the dull theory of book knowledge. 

The necessity of forming one's own world in the solitudes of nature or 
among a wild confusion of strange peoples and conditions has led this new na- 
tion to an educational ideal which approaches in a remarkable manner the old 
Hellenic ideal of beauty — the harmonious development of physical and mental 


Solon P. Davis. 

THE third international congress for the advancement of drawing 
and ait education is to be held in London in the month of 
August, 1908. The first international congress on art educa- 
tion was organized at the Paris Exposition in 1900. Its success, and the 
interest shown by the several countries represented, led to a second con- 
vocation at Berne, Switzerland, in 1904. At this meeting a permanent 
organization was effected. The representatives from the United States 
and the art educational exhibits from Boston, Springfield, New York, 
Pratt Institute, Teachers' College, The Massachusetts Normal Art 
School, the State Normal at Hyamis and other places, won for this 
country a strong position; in fact, many European educators conceded 
to America the leadership in elementary art education, and the exhibits 
were loaned, upon request, to several foreign countries. It should be 
said, however, that the organization of the exhibition at Berne was not 
such as to make it thoroughly representative of any of the countries 
participating, and that a comparatively small number responded to the 
invitation to exhibit work from their respective schools. 

Preparations for the coming Congress are on a much more compre- 
hensive scale and there is every reason for alert and patriotic interest on 
the part of American educators in order that the United States may be 
adequately represented at London. 

The American Official Committee, Mr. James Hall of New York, 
chairman, and the Advisory Committee appointed by that body, began 
work upon the problem a year ago and have been assiduously urging the 
enterprise forward. 

A co-operating Committee of One Hundred has been organized to 
assist in raising the requisite funds for the exhibition proposed, the pub- 
lishing of a conspectus setting forth the history, present aims, statistics 
of the movement in this country, and the arousing of wide interest in the 
coming meeting at London. This committee includes representative 
educators from all parts of the country in art educational lines. 

The Official Committee for America appointed by the Congress at 
Berne is as follows: 



Arnerican Official Committee. — 

James Hall, Chairman. Director Art Department, Ethical Culture 
School, 63d St., and Central Park West, New York City. 

Chas. M. Carter, Director Art Education, Denver, Colo. 

William Woodward, Prof, of Art, Newcomb College, Tulane Uni- 
versity, New Orleans, La. 

Advisory Committee. — 

Solon P. Davis, Hartford, Conn., Chairman of the Co-operating 
Committee of One Hundred. 

Mrs. Matilda E. Riley, St. Louis, Mo. 

Miss Wilhelmina Seegmiller, Indianapolis, Ind. 

Miss Mary C. Wheeler, Providence, R. L 

John S. Ankeny, Jr., University of Missouri. 

Henry T. Bailey, Secretary, North Scituate, Miss. 

Cheshire L. Boone, Treasurer, Montclair, N. J. 

J. Frederick Hopkins, Baltimore, Md. 

Leslie W. Miller, Philadelphia, Pa. 

Walter S. Perry, Brooklyn, N. Y. 

Walter Sargent, Boston, Mass. 

James P. Haney, Chairman Sub-committee on Publication, New 
York .City. 

These committees have decided on the following plan of representa- 

1. A national representative exhibit of work in drawing, design 
and handicraft from all grades of public schools, colleges and industrial 
art schools, to present clearly the American ideal. 

2. A conspectus of American art education ; a volume containing a 
sketch of its history, an outline of its philosophy, a statement of its 
organization, equipment and methods and a table of statistical informa- 

To gather, classify, mount, label, ship, install, guard and return this 
exhibit, and to collect the required information, print and distribute this 
volume will demand a working fund of several thousand dollars. 

A gratifying interest is being shown in schools throughout the coun- 
try and readiness to help is evinced by replies to the invitations to take 
part in the exhibition, various enterprises to secure contributions to the 
fund for the prosecution of the work, and inquiries regarding arrange- 
ments for travel, accommodations at London, etc. It is confidently ex- 
pected that many educators interested in this phase of instruction will 


avail themselves of the opportunities offered by the Congress. Arrange- 
ments for travel, accommodations, etc., are in competent hands and 
public announcements regarding them will be made at the earliest 
possible date, 

Mr. Henry T. Bailey, v^-ho was the delegate of the American Official 
Committee at the recent meeting of the International Committee at 
London, is authority for the statement that Dr. Henry T. Lund, who 
has in charge the securing of reduced rates of travel in England, is very 
sanguine as to the outcome ; these rates may be reduced one-half in favor 
of the members of the Congress. 

Several parties will be organized to visit various European coun- 
tries and to arrive in time for the Congress, under the auspices of the 
Bureau of University Travel, and others will be conducted by individual 
teachers of experience, such as Professor William Woodward of New 
Orleans, and Professor Arthur H. Chamberlain of Pasadena. After the 
Congress, excursions will be arranged into Scotland, Wales and Ireland 
and it is hoped that all American teachers may return by the same ship 
reaching New York on Labor Day, 1908. 

Mr. Bailey's report of the London Conference is substantially as 
follows : 

A meeting of the members of the Committee of the International 
Federation was held at the Royal College of Art, South Kensington, 
London, August 3d, 1907. England was represented by the Rt. Hon. 
Sir John Gorst, K. C, Mr. J. W. T. Vinall and Miss Ethel M. 
Spiller; France — Messrs. Guebin and Francken of Paris, and Mile. 
Truffot; Germany — Prof. Dr. Kerschensteiner of Munich and Herr 
Gotze of Hamburg; United States — Mr. Henry T. Bailey, Boston; 
Bulgaria — Mr. Palacheff; Russia — Miss Palivanova of Moscow; Can- 
ada — Prof. Armstrong of Toronto. 

The Third International Congress will probably be held during the 
week of August 3d, 1908, final decision in the matter being left to the 
British Committee. The reasons for placing the Congress so early in 
the month are: that certain influential people would then remain in 
London to participate in the Congress; the annual exhibition of the 
drawings from the British art schools entered in the national competition 
will then be on view; the Anglo-French exhibition at Earl's Court, in 
which all the art and technical schools of France will be represented, will 
be open to members of the Congress; and the annual exhibition of the 
Royal Acadamy will not have closed. The exhibition of drawings, etc., 


in connection with the Congress will be open a week or two earlier 
than the Congress and close a week or two later. 

All the papers will be printed in the final report of the Congress. 
A resume of each paper Mall be printed in the three official languages 
upon slips for distribution immediately preceding the delivery of the 
paper. The papers so far as possible will be illustrated by means of 
charts, prepared in advance, or by means of blackboard drawings made 
at the time of delivery. 

The program of the Congress will be run as a whole without sec- 
tions. The sessions are to be held on Monday, Tuesday, Wednes- 
day and Thursday from 10 a. m. to 1 p. m. only. This will leave the 
afternoon and evening of each day free for the inspection of the exhibits, 
for receptions and entertainments and such excursions as may be planned 
by the British Committee. Friday is to be a free day, during which if 
groups of especially interested people wish to discuss certain questions 
which the previous sessions have raised, free discussion of these questions 
may be had without interfering with the regular program of the Con- 

Provision will be made for a wall exhibit and for the display of 
handicraft and bound volumes of class work upon tables immediately 
beneath the wall exhibit. It is planned that each nation shall provide 
for interpreters to be present at certain specified hours to answer ques- 
tions concerning their exhibits, in German, French and English, at least. 
It was voted that the color, size, and arrangements of mounts and the 
character of the labels be left to the decision of the British Committee. 
After the meeting the principal member of that committee requested that 
the American Committee plan its exhibit according to its best judgment, 
submitting a diagram of its arrangement, including explanatory sheets 
and labels, that the British Committee migh recommend that arrange- 
ment to all other exhibitors. 

The American plan for a representative national exhibit, supple- 
mented by special exhibits, from the more important institutions, was 
highly commended, and recommended to the attention of other nations. 

Sir Aston Webb, the architect of the new buildings for the Royal 
College, has promised the British Committee to do all in his power to 
have one floor ready for installing of the International Exhibition on 
June 1st, 1908. 

Upon recommendation of the American delegate, it was voted to in- 
vite the British Publisher's Association to organize a trades exhibition 


to be held at the time of the Congress and to invite art educational 
dealers in other countries to contribute; the management of this exhibi- 
tion to be entirely distinct from that of the Congress itself. 

Sir John Gorst announced that the British Government had con- 
sented to transmit through its Foreign Office invitations issued by the 
Duke of Devonshire to other governments, to co-operate so far as possi- 
ble in recommending delegates to attend the Congress. 

During his visit to England, Mr. Henry T. Bailey secured inter- 
views with a number of prominent artists and critics, among whom 
were Messrs. Walter Crane, Edward F. Strange, Richard G. Hatton, 
Alexander Fisher, and E. T. Ewen. They all promised to co-operate 
heartily to make the Congress a success and to take part upon the pro- 
gram upon receiving an official invitation from the British Committee. 

Germany will make the strongest possible showing at the Congress 
(having an additional incentive in the Anglo-French exhibition to be 
held at Earl's Court at the same time). The French will have a 
creditable showing in addition to the complete showing to be held at 
Earl's Court, M. Guebin promised to urge Prof. Hists (one of the 
best demonstrating teachers of art in Paris) to appear upon the program. 

A local treasurer has been appointed in each nation to represent the 
British treasurer. Mr. Cheshire L. Boone, Montclaire, N. J., was 
elected local treasurer for the United States. 

Any evidence of interest in the success of the Congrss, on the part of 
American educators will be cordially welcomed by the Official Com- 



Once upon a time many children were gathered together 
in a big school building in a city by the river. And there 
came to this building from a city by the sea a young 
man to teach the boys the art of working in wood. Now 
this young man had made his grades in a famous school 
where psychology is taught, and was, therefore, reputed 
to possess great pedagogical skill. 

One day a wise and kind old man with silver grey hair 
came with joy to this school to see the learned young man 
teach the boys. No sooner had he entered the workroom 
than he saw a sketch upon the blackboard in front of the 
class which surprised him greatly. Instead of being well 
drawn, it was ill-proportioned, the lines were ragged, 
and the figures uncomely. Indeed, the whole seemed so 
unworthy of a man of much learning and skill that the 
kind old man could scarce believe his eyes. 

In order to relieve his mind of this burdensome thought, 
he said to the learned young teacher, "Who made that 
drawing on the blackboard?" "I did," said the teacher. 
"What!" said the kind old man, now more disturbed than 
ever, "Can't you make a better drawing than that?" "O 
yes, certainly," was the reply, "but I didn't want the 
boys to imitate my drawing, and so I just made that 
rough sketch. I expect them to make good drawings." 

The old man was undone, for he had thought highly 
of the young teacher. A cloud passed over his kindly 
face, and then drawing himself up to his full height he 
said firmly but kindly, "Young man, don't you know that 
the boys are sure to imitate your drawing whether you 
want them to or not?" 

Moral : Untwist your psychology before you apply it. 

C. Alpheus. 
'If this were fiction the author would doubtless declare 

it to be fact, but since it is fact he me ely insists that it 

is pure fictiou. 



Skillful The formal school arts work of a few years ago had at 

Expression in jg^gt the virtue of demanding of the pupil a high order of 
sicill in execution. In the transition from this formal 
work to a freer expression, the tendency has been to discredit skillfully 
executed work and to lay all of the stress upon the originality of the 
thought involved. The early work carried the demand for skill to the 
extreme; in the later work skill has been overshadowed by the emphasis 
given to originality. The result is that freedom often becomes license 
and our school arts departments are responsible for an appalling amount 
of work that is poor in design and atrocious in execution. 

Such a situation has no parallel in other school subjects. In every 
department of work originality is emphasized, but the best expression of 
which the pupil is capable is demanded. In number work, absolute 
accuracy is the standard. In penmanship, neatness and legibility are 
insisted upon. In spelling, reading, grammar and language, the pupil 
is urged to the highest possible degree of attainment. Criticism, sugges- 
tion, correction, every device of the skillful teacher is used to inspire 
him to the highest ideals. The capacity of the teacher is very largely 
measured by the standard of ability to lead the pupil to thoughtful, 
accurate, methodical expression. Loose, careless, unsystematic methods 
are alwaj^s the mark of the inefficient teacher, and their results are 
always manifest in the pupil. 

It is claimed by extreme advocates of free expression that interest 
is diminished by insistence upon careful execution. As a matter of fact 
the pupil feels the deepest interest in his work only when the result is 
good and satisfying to himself and this interest is increased as he realizes 
a growth of power to express himself with greater skill. Interest and 
originality are vital factors in the development of the child, but they 
reach their greatest possibilities only when thoughtfully directed towards 
high standards. Undirected or misdirected, they lead to thoughtless, 
careless, slovenly habits in expression and in living. 

Aside from the purely educational aspect of the question is a hardly 
less important practical reason for development in skill, particularly in 
the higher grades. The great industrial problems of the day are rapidly 
becoming a matter of serious concern to educators, and there is a per- 
sistent demand for practical results from the public schools. 



Pedagogically there is no warrant for a distinction betw^een ideals in 
school arts and other school subjects. The standard by which all of the 
work of the pupil should be measured is the best that he is capable of 
doing. His thought should have his best expression, or it fails of its 
highest possible influence on his life and cnaracter. — R. 

The London We are glad to call special attention to the article in this 
Congress issue on the International Congress which is to convene in 

the city of London during the early days of August, 1908. This congress 
will undoubtedly be the greatest meeting ever held in the interests of the 
teachers of drawing and manual arts. More forces and stronger ones 
than ever before are co-operating to this end, and in this connection it 
is a matter of no small concern to America and American teachers that 
their representatives are taking an important part in this great enter- 
prise. Every patriotic American teacher of the manual arts should find 
reason for gratification in this fact and lend his hearty support. Surely, 
all must recognize the wisdom in the plans of the American committee 
in organizing a representative exhibit and in setting forth American 
ideals in an adequate publication. 

From one point of view it is unfortunate that the United States gov- 
ernment does not help in this enterprise by placing a liberal appropriation 
at the disposal of the American Committee. On the other hand, the 
fact that five thousand dollars, or more, necessary to the successful con- 
sumation of present plans must be voluntary contributed by teachers and 
their friends makes for a more vital interest in the Congress and, there- 
fore, insures a more truly representative exhibit. The undertaking is 
one that every teacher may be glad to have a share in. 

Milwaukee's About two j^ears ago the Merchant's and Manufacturer's 
Public Trade Association of Milwaukee established a trade school under 
the immediate direction of Charles F. Perry, whom they 
called from the engineering department of the University of Illinois. 
Classes were organized in several of the machine and building trades 
which were successful from the first. In a very short time the school 
had grown to such large proportions that it became impossible for the 
Merchant's and Manufacturer's Association to support it. Through the 
efforts of its members a bill was introduced in the State Legislature mak- 
ing it legal under certain conditions for public funds to be expended for 
the support of trade schools. This bill was received with great favor by 



all parties in both Houses, and was gladly signed by the governor. The 
city of Milwaukee immediately seized its great opportunity to take over 
the entire plant of the Trade School, and it is now included in its public 
school system. Nearly every department of the school is now running 
at full capacity. The bill making this possible contains so much of 
general interest that it has been published in full in the third Bulletin 
of the Society for the Promotion of Industrial Education. 

Charles H. Morse, secretary of the Massachusetts Commission on 
Industrial Education is reported to have made the following statement: 

"Out of 2078 boys of eighteen or nineteen years of age, none of 
whom knew a trade, who have recently applied to the state employment 
bureau for positions, over eight hundred testified that had the public 
schools furnished education in a trade they would not have left school 
as they did at fourteen or fifteen." 


William T. Bawden, Editor. 


Re-ivritten from report in the Springfield Republican. 

Miss Virginia Graeff of the Wheelock Kindergarten Training School, 
read a paper before the primary section on "Kindergarten and School Handi- 
craft as a Preparation for Later Industries." Principal Clarence A. Brodeur of 
the W^estfield State Normal School presided. The greater part of Miss Graeflf's 
paper was devoted to explaining the technic of kindergarten and the work in 
the lower grades, and to showing how waste material in the homes, such as 
pasteboard boxes and pieces of wall paper, can be utilzed. Excellent specimens 
of this kind of work, found in different parts of the country, were used to illus- 
trate her point. She laid special emphasis on the fact that children must begin 
handwork early if skill is to be developed, and explained how the work in 
pasting, binding, etc., will help the large field of industry in which that work 
is done. 

M. W. Murray, director of manual training in Springfield, took up the dis- 
cussion, emphasizing the educational value of handwork, and went on to point 
out the fact that manual training falls short of doing what it should for the 
boys who need it most, showing that they never go far enough in the grades 
to get the work which would be of the greatest benefit to them. Mr. Murray said: 
If we consider manual training from an industrial point of view, we shall 
find that many of the boys who need it most, either get none at all, or so little 
that it falls far short of filling the place in an educational scheme which it 
seems to me it should fill. We all know the boys who are not by nature fitted 
to sit at a desk all day and pore over an abstract task. They not only are not 
fitted to do it but they will not do it, and they wait impatiently until they are 
14 years old, when they leave school. Teachers are likely to call these pupils 
stupid and say that while they might do something with their hands, they can- 
not with their brains, when it is often a fact that they have as much real brain 
power as have their teachers, only of a different kind. It is like driving a square 
pin into a round hole to try to educate these boys through books alone, and it 
is positively wrong to drive them from school by trying to give them something 
which they cannot and will not take, when we might give them work for which 
they are better fitted and which would enable them to earn a better living when 
they leave school. This can be done by giving them the maximum of mechanical 
work and as much academic as we can get them to take. It may be said that 
these are just the pupils who can least afford to take the time from the three R'S. 
In reply, I would say that the great majority of boys below the seventh year 
in school who are from 14 to 16 years old, are merely "marking time," and if 



they give half of their time to a well planned mechanical course, they will be 
sure of so much of real worth, and in connection with it, they can not help get- 
ting some reading, writing and arithmetic. The other half of the work should 
be planned with direct reference to the problems which are beinsr carried on 
in the shops. From my experience with hundreds of motor-minded boys, I feel 
sure that this is the only way to reach them. The statistics taken in the Spring- 
field Evening School of Trades seem to me to go a long way toward proving 
that at least from 55% to 66% of our mechanics never go beyond the seventh 
year in school. 

Last Februarj-, we examined 193 boys in the Springfield schools between the 
fourth and eighth grades, not including the eighth grade, who were within a 
month of or over 14 years of age. I wished to determine how many of these boys 
"wanted to go to work," and if possible, to find out if it was a financial necessity 
that they leave, also if they would stay in school if they were given a kind of 
work which would enable them to go out and take a better position in the indus- 
tries. Of the 193, 10+ wanted to leave or would soon do so; five were doubtful, 
and 84 wanted to remain in school. Of this last number, quite a few thought 
that they would like to remain in school longer if they could enter the Technical 
High School. 

This investigation simply confirmed my long-standing belief that these boys 
should have a special course of work planned for them, to include boys from 
the 14th to the 16th or even the 18th years. It has been clearly shown that these 
years are practically unproductive to both employer and employed. An\- city 
the size of Springfield could, and I believe should, support a school of this kind, 
where the work for these boys would be at least half shopwork and mechanical 
drawing, and the rest of the time devoted to what are considered the essentials. 
Such a school need not teach any particular trade, but should give the funda- 
mentals of several trades and make the boys generally efficient in a mechanical 
way, so that at the end of three or four years^. they would be more valuable to 
themselves and to their employers. In the last number of "Charities and the 
Commons" there is an abundance of material which it seems to me should con- 
vince any sane person of the reasonableness of providing for these boys, who 
now leave school, the things which the}' need and want to know, and of the 
fact that they do not leave because of financial necessity-. Dr. Kingsbury, who 
conducted such a thorough investigation for the Massachusetts Industrial Com- 
mission, writes as follows: 

"I believe our interviews give ample proof that two distinct agencies are 
at work impelling the child to withdraw from school — the positive dislike for 
books which comes at the stage of development when it is the tendency of the 
child to do and not to study, and the ineffectiveness of the school to meet that 
demand of the child ; and the desire to follow 'all the other boys.' 

"The appearance of home, of mother, of children, confirmed by statement 
of parent, and proved by calculation of income and expenditure, leads us to 
feel confident that three-quarters of the families could, \-es, and would permit 
their children to continue in school, if we could only convince the child." 

"The parent did not want the child to leave school; the child left from 
choice. The parent is now expending as much on music lessons and commercial 


schools as the child nets to the family over and above carfares and extra clothing, 
ice cream sodas and other amusements." 

"A large majority of parents could and would afford Industrial Training 
for their children." (Based on attitude of 3,157 families.) 

"76% of these families could give their children Industrial Training." 
(Based on the family income per person being more than $2 per week exclusive 
of rent, and on apparent conditions.) 

"66% of the children could have continued in school." (Based on state- 
ment of parents.) 

"55% of the families declared they would send their children to trade 

The mistaken belief is still held by a great many people that the technical, 
mechanic arts or manual training high schools are training for the trades, when 
the statistics of occupations of graduates from these schools show that only a 
very small percent become mechanics and that those who do enter industrial 
establishments become foremen, superintendents, etc., and the rest go on to higher 
engineering schools or enter the so-called learned professions. The same number 
of "Charities and the Commons" from which I have quoted before contains the 
following statement by Prefessor Hanus: 

"The manual training high schools — or so-called technical high schools — 
intended originally to train recruits for the trades — are really in most cases 
institutions for general education, like the academic high schools; but unlike 
them, they serve to give a certain class of pupils a general high school educa- 
tion with the help of manual training, or like them, to prepare their pupils for 
higher training in some college or engineering school." 

There is something decidedly wrong with a school system which allows 
such a large number of pupils to leave school, and it seems to me that the time 
has come when the grammar schools should cease merely to prepare for the high 
school and the high school for college. 

The Cleveland Manual Training Club held its first meeting of the season 
Friday evening, November 1st. Supper was served at 6:00 o'clock, followed by 
the annual business meeting and the election of officers. George A. Seaton, of 
Shaw High School, East Cleveland, was elected president for the ensuing year; 
E. H. Masters, South High School,Cleveland, secretary; and S. O. Champion, 
supervisor of manual training, Lakewood, treasurer. These officers constitute 
the executive committee. 

The program of the evening consisted of an address by James F. Barker 
upon Industrial Work in the Schools of Germany, followed by personal exper- 
iences of the various members who had attended summer school the past season. 

The Society for the Promotion of Industrial Education will hold its second 
annual meeting in Chicago, January 23-25. Here will be gathered manufacturers, 
trades-unionists, and educators to discuss the present problems of industrial 
education. An exhibit is being planned under the direction of Secretary Morse 
of the Massachusetts Commission. 



The County Superintendents' Section of the Illinois State Teacher's Associa- 
tion has a standing committee on course of study for the common schools. During 
the past year their fourth general revision of the course has been completed and 
recently published by C. M. Parker, of Taylorville. This course is copyrighted 
by the County Superintendents' section, but through the kindness of Charles 
Mcintosh of Piatt County and Mr. Taylor, the publisher, we are permitted to 
reprint the outline on woodworking. We do this because we believe that the 
movement toward better organization of the manual arts work in the schools of 
Illinois is of general interest throughout the country, and because this outline is 
to be one of the subjects for discussion at the next meeting of the Illinois Manual 
Arts Association. This outline was prepared for the state course by the follow- 
ing committee; Charles A. Bennett, Peoria; William T. Bawden, Normal; Ira 
S. Griffith, Oak Park; Seymour L. Smith, Dekalb; and L. H. Burch, Macomb. 


The outline given below is intended to be suggestive merely. It is not 
ideal ; it is not even the best that could be devised to meet conditions in any 
given school. The most that can be hoped for it is that it may lead in the right 
direction and be within the realm of practical possibility so far as it goes. 

Any course in woodworking worthy of a place in the eighth and ninth years 
of public-school work should meet the following requirements: 

1. It should arouse and hold the interest of the pupils. 

2. Correct methods of handling tools should be taught so that good tech- 
nique may be acquired by the pupils. 

3. The tool work should be accompanied by a study of materials and tools 
used and their relation to industry. Special attention should be given to the 
study of trees — their growth, classification, characteristics and use. 

4. Drawing should be studied in its relation to the work done. 

5. The principles of construction in wood should be taught through obser- 
vation, illustration and experience. 

6. At least a few problems should be given which involve invention or 
design or both, thereby stimulating individual initiative on the part of the pupils. 

The first course outlined below is intended for the grammar grades, the 
second for the high school. Both courses are arranged in groups, each group 
representing a type of work. These groups are given in the order of procedure 
in the course, though some variation from this order might prove equally good. 
The order given, however, has been found satisfactory. The problems named 
have been tested by use under a variety of conditions, but are not essential to 
the plan of the course. Each teacher should seek to provide problems of the 
greatest possible value educationally. This -means that the things made should 
be worth making and that the process of making them should be interesting to 
the student. And from this, it follows that the things to be made must come to 
the pupil in an order which gives reasonable consideration to the difficulties to 
be encountered in making them. But the course should not be slavishly followed. 
It should be kept flexible enough to meet the needs of the several individual 



pupils. After the first three or four groups have been completed each individual 
pupil may be encouraged to provide his own problems. These vyould be some- 
thing he has invented or designed or selected to make for a definite use. 

From 90 to 120 minutes a week for 36 weeks, or about 60 hours. 


1. First use of saw and Measuring, 
laying-out tools (stock Squaring, 
machine planed when Gaging, 
given to pupil). Sawing. 

Making dowel. 


1. — Marble Bridge. 

2. — Game Board, or 
Countinpr Board, or 
Laundry List. 

IL First use of the plane Planing smooth surfaces, 
(stock in the rough Planing — 
when given to the (a) Side, 
pupil). (b) Joint edge. 

(c) To width. 

(d) To thickness. 

(e) Block-planing ends. 

(f) Chamfering. 

III. First use of spoke- 
shave and turning 

Sawing curves. 
Modeling with the 

3. Swing Board. 

4. Chiseling Board, or 
Solitaire Board, or Hat- 
rack, or Plant Marker, or 
Specimens of Native and 
Commercial Woods, or 
Kite Sticks. 

5. Coat hanger, or Bow, 
or Whisk-broom Holder. 

saw. Laying 





IV. First use of chisel. 

Vertical chiseling. 

6. Bread-cutting Board 


(with semi-circular ends) 


or Sleeve Board, or Tray, 



or Broom rack, or Sail 
boat, or Back for mount- 
ing specimens. 
7. Flower-pot Stand, or 
Foot for Christmas Tree, 
or Weather Vane, or Pic- 
ture Frame. 

V. Construction of 



8. Book-rack, or Brac- 

jects by means 



ket-shelf, or Sled, or Box- 

some form of 



trap, or Glove Box, or 

groove joint or 



Small Hand Loom, or 

butt joint. 


Plant Stand, or Plate 
Rack, or Water-wheel, or 
Windmill, or Tackle Box, 
or Clock Case, or Foot- 




Five 60 minute periods or four 75 minute periods a week for 36 weeks, or 

180 hours in all. 

I. Review. Making butt joint. 

Review of planing, Planing a cylinder, 

sawing, squaring, gaging, Use of screws, 
chiseling, etc. 

1. — Tool-box, or nail- 
box, or window-box for 
flowers, or bench hook. 

2. Towel roller. 

II. More exact work in Gluing. 

planing to make a Plamng joints, 
glue-joint. Clamping. 


3. Drawing Board with 
or without Tee-square. 

III. Construction by- 
means of mortise- 
and-tenon joint. 

Laying out duplicate 
Cutting mortise. 
Testing mortise. 
Sawing tenon. 
Gluing and clamping. 

Weaving Split Cane. 

4. Taboret, or Book 
shelves involving keyed 

5. Stool, or Seat, or 
Chair with cane top. 

IV. Construction involv- Designing a frame for a 6. Framing a picture. 

ing the miter joint, given picture. Note: At this point in 

Planing parallel edges the course, instruction 

and sides in the construe-* may be given in the use 

tion of a miter-box. of the carpenter's square 

Rebating. in laying out and cuttin-- 

Sawing the miter-box. braces and rafters. 

Laying out and cutting 

a brace. 

V. Construction involv- Laying out and cutting 7. Tool-chest or Treas- 
ing the dovetail joint, dovetails. nre-box. or Drawing In- 

Planing corners. strument Box, with or 

VI. Construction involv- 
ing the panel. 






Putting on hinges. 


without inlaid design on 
the top. 

8. Screen, or Music Cab- 
inet, or Plate-rack, or 
Bookcase, etc. 



The fifth annual meeting of the Illinois Manual Arts Association will occur 
at Bradley Polytechnic Institute, Peoria, Friday afternoon to Saturday noon, 
February 7-8, 1908. Problems of courses of study for the elementary schools 
are to receive special attention. The Annual Banquet will be served by the 
Department of Domestic Economy at Bradley Institute. Copies of the printed 
program will be available about January 1st upon application to the Secretary. 

The Executive Committee of the Western Drawing and Manual Training 
Association has decided upon April 8-11 as the date for the coming meeting at 
Indianapolis. The committee has also decided to publish a bi-monthly bulletin 
until the meeting. The first was issued in October and can be obtained on ap- 
plication to the secretary R. A. Kissack, Yeatman High School, St. Louis, Mo. 

The Kansas Manual Arts Association is planning a meeting at the holidays 
in conjunction with the Kansas State Teachers' Association at Topeka. 

The Pacific Manual Training Teachers' Association will hold its first 
meeting for the year some time in December. 

The Manual Training Section of the Southern Minnesota Teachers' Associa- 
tion will hold a session on Saturday, November 2, at Mankato. 

A feature of the Northwestern Iowa Teachers' Association was a round 
table manual training discussion on October 25th, conducted by A. B. Roy, 
of Onawa. 






George A. Seaton, Editor. 


As an example of cabinet construction the small wall cabinet made in 
Mr. Weick's classes at Columbia University furnishes an interesting illustration. 
Considerable opportunity for choice on the part of the student is oflEered as the 
dimensions given are merely suggestive. Ordinarily the necessary stock is issued 

to the students and they are allowed 
to cut it down to suit their own ideas, 
the only point insisted upon being the 
method of construction. The shaping 
of the bottom of the sides and the cor- 
ner blocks can be made a problem in 
design, while most interesting of all is 
the designing and making suitable 
hinges and door pull or escutcheon 
from sheet brass. If care is exercised 
in the design, it will be found possible 
to make the hinges with the simplest 
of tools. A point worthy of notice in 
this model is the use of re-inforcing 
corner blocks at every opportunity. 
Small triangular blocks, not shown in 
the drawing, may be used inside of the cupboard, and if sawed of the right 
length will serve as a stop for the door. The tongue on the door rails is made 
just long enough to fit into the panel groove on the stiles. To strengthen this 
joint two quarter-inch dowels are used at every corner. 


A stool which will prove very 
pleasing but which is so simple that it 
can readily be made in the eighth 
grade or possibly in even lower grades 
is shown in the first drawing. By the 
use of dowel rods for the cross strip 
it is possible to do away with the cus- 
tomary mortise and replace it with a 
simple bored hole. The top is woven from what is known as binding which 
comes in long twists like rattan and is pulled out in the same way from the loop 
end. One twist is sufficient to cover three stools and costs thirty-five cents. The 
winding should be completed lengthwise first and should not be drawn absolutely 
taut as the cross weaving tightens the work considerably. The design can be 
worked out in the cross weaving and may be any of those adapted to "under and 













I I 




.11 _ J 

i;:::]:-]-^ LU 









over" weaving. No needle is necessary and the binding may be used without any 
preliminary soaking. Splicing is done by the use of small brass rings. For 
stronger workers what is known as very fine cane makes a satisfactory seat and 
rush can also be used with success. The material can be purchased from the 
United States Rattan Co., Madison and Eleventh Street, Hoboken, N. J., or 
from the American Reed Co., Kingsland and Norman Avenues, Brooklyn, N. Y. 


The induction coil shown was also submitted in a Manual Training Mag- 
azine competition and gained for Mr. Ira S. Griffith, of Oak Park, Illinois, third 
prize. Concerning it Mr. Griffith says: Experience has shown that pupils of 
grammar grade and high school are alike interested in electricity, a passing inter- 
est, perhaps, on the part of most of them, but none the less intense while it lasts. 

The induction coil shown in the drawing was constructed by two grammar- 
grade boys. Their knowledge of the principles involved was obtained by out- 
side reading and the materials used were of the "pick-up" variety. The expense 
was practically nothing and the assistance received a like quantity. The ma- 
chine was a success in every way. 

One of the boys, though now not much more than a boy, is chief electrician 
of tl e city street railways of one of Illinois' largest towns. This was his first 
electrical work, and the inventiveness and perseverance required on this first 
piece are just the qualities, now well developed, which have enabled him to 
bring his road from one of second rate importance to one of the best, if not the 
best, in his state. 

While this problem has been successfully worked out in the grades, its best 
place will be found in the high school metalworking course where filing, solder- 
ing, turning and founding may be combined with a fuller knowledge obtained 
*rom the study of physics. 

The base is of soft pine. The beveled oblong bread cutting board is often 
used by our boys for such a base. The binding posts are shown in the drawing 
as passing through the board so that the connections shown by dotted lines, may 
be placed in grooves cut on the under side. These binding posts are stoc!: articles 
now and may be bought in any size and style. The original machine had for 
binding posts the brass end fasteners from sash curtain rods. 

The current breaker was cut from the soft tin of an oyster can. One end 
was soldered to the head of a machine screw and to the other end was soldered 
a piece of soft iron got at the blacksmith's. This breaker could well be made 
of sheet brass, though the tin answered the purpose. 

The ends of the spool for the coil were of thin whitewood. Besides the 
holes for the core there were two small holes in each end through which the 
current wire made entrance and exit. These end pieces were fastened to the ends 
of a hollow paper cylinder by means of glue. This cylinder was made of 
layers of coarse wrapping paper cut to a length and wrapped around a lead 
pencil and pasted so as to make it stiflF and strong 

The primary was wound with two layers of No. 12 gauge induction wire, 
the ends extending through the wooden end pieces. A layer of paper was 




wrapped around this coil before a secondary of No. 40 gauge induction wire was 
wound. A piece of paper was wrapped about every second layer of the second- 
ary coil. The secondary coil, after being wound, was neatly covered with 
bro"" paper pasted in place before the coil was fastened to the base. The core 
was of soft iron wire in two parts as shown on the drawing, that the strength 
of the current may be regulated thereby. 

The poles were made by cutting two cylinders off a bioom stick to a length 
of four inches. A brass screw eye was fastened in one end of each cylinder 
to which the wires were attached. The cylinders were covered with tinfoil 
which was also wrapped around the brass screw. A lathe was used in the 
winding of the coils. 

The batteries were unique affairs. Two fruit jars with the tops taken off 
by means of a hot wire, answered for the jars. The carbons were picked up 
under the street electric lights where they had been cast by the lamp trimmers. 
Two pieces of zinc were cast in a mould, a nearby foundry furnishing the sand. 
Four carbons properly insulated from the zinc but connected by a strip of cop- 
per were clamped on each side of a zinc, two bolts passing through wooden side 
pieces, binding the parts together. The solution used was bichromate of potash 
and sulphuric acid, diluted with water: 12 parts (by weight) bichromate of 
potash, 25 parts sulphuric acid, 100 parts water. After the bichromate has 
dissolved in the wate^, mix in the acid slowly. The batteries should be removed 
from the solution when not in use. 


One of the simplest patterns that can be made on the lathe is that of the 
cast washer shown. While the one given is intended for a bolt 1^-in. in diame- 
ter any other size can be made. The bridge builders have determined on certain 
sizes which can be called standard and the main dimensions can be figured from 
the following formulae: 

Dzi^diameter of bolt. 

W=diameter of washer at bottom^=4 D-(-34" 

H=diameter of washer at top=2 D-|-^" 

T^thickness of washer=D — y^" 

Weight=1.8D'-|- .25D' 

Radius of curvature of upper surface as seen in section=D 


The bird house shown is one which received honorable mention in the Man- 
ual Training Magazine Competition No. 3. Harris W. Moore, whose design 
it is, writes as follows concerning it: "In teaching this model the principles 
of box construction may be emphasized, i. e., that the grain runs horizontally in 
the sides and ends and that the sides are nailed onto the ends. After the roof 
boards have been planed to size with square edges, the narrow one is nailed 
in place and the bevel planed to the proper angle by letting the back part of the 
plane rest on the side of the house. In a somewhat similar way the bevel of 




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the wider roof board is planed after it has been nailed in place by allowing 
the plane to rest on the narrower board. Care must be taken to set all the nails 
before planing over them. The large hole may be bored with a center bit which 
is an inexpensive boring tool. If the house is fastened to a branch which sways 
with the wind, the English sparrows will not build in it, though the native 
song birds will." 


In sharpening plane bits it is often convenient to have some sort of clamp 
which will hold the blade at a constant angle. One that can be easily con- 
structed is shown in the sketch. It is made by simply cutting a saw kerf length- 
wise of a heavy board the width of a plane bit and then sawing oflf a portion 

of the under half of the piece. The plane bit will readily fit into the saw kerf 
and be stiffened by the part of the wood that comes above the blade. The other 
end of the clamp may be supported by a cleat properly placed on the wall close 
to the grindstone or if the wall is too far distant a lathe floor stand can be 
utilized. Lacking either of these, another piece of wood can be. attached to the 
frame of the grindstone and the clamp rested upon it. 

If a sort block of wood is fastened at either end of an oilstone and made 
flush with the top of the stone, the end of the stone will be used more frequently 
and it will not become so worn at the center. 


Clinton S. VanDeusen, Editor. 

Luis Florez of Santiago, Chili, who was sent to this country to study the 
manual training work for the benefit of the schools of Chili, spent his time in 
Columbia, Cornell, and the Oswego Normal School, studying the work of these 
institutions. Mr. Florez recently sailed from New York for South America 
by way of London, where he will visit schools and study the manual training 
problem as treated in England. 

When Benjamin Franklin died he left one thousand pounds to Boston. The 
money that has accumulated from that sum, together with an equal amount 
contributed by Andrew Carnegie now amounts to nearly one million dollars. 
This fund will be used in founding Franklin Union, a trade school that will 
afford an opportunity for the practical training of mechanics, draughtsmen, 
engineers and other skilled workmen. The building is to be of brick and stone, 
four stories high, and will be thoroughly equipped for this line of work. Eve- 
ning classes will form an important part of the school work. 

The Department of Forestry in circular 116 entitled "The Waning Hard- 
wood Supply" states that the annual cut of hardwood is a billion feet less than 
it was seven years ago, and that during that time the prices have advanced 
from 25% to 65%. Where is the future supply of hardwood to be found? This 
question is also discussed in the circular. 

Ernest Nelson, special commissioner of education for the Argentine Republic, 
was present at a recent exhibition of manual-training work in Springfield, Mass. 
He was so much pleased with it that he wanted to buy the whole affair, but in 
this he was sadly disappointed for the children would not sell. For one piece 
he offered $50, but without the desired result. Evidently manual training in 
Springfield, at least, has not yet been inoculated with the germs of commercialism. 
Dr. Frank Rollins, principal of the Stuyvesant High School, New York City, 
in his inaugural address as president of the Schoolmaster's Association, declared 
that, with the progress of civilization, the definition of culture had changed ma- 
terially. Formerly it meant the ability to think, and now it has been extended to 
include the ability to do. It being the function of the industrial schools to teach 
pupils how to do things as well as to think, he claimed that these schools are 
fulfilling the requirements of culture. 

The course given by Dr. Haney last year at the School of Pedagogy of New 
York University, on the teaching and supervision of the manual arts was so 
well received that three courses are being conducted by him this year. One 
course is on "Methods of Teaching Manual Arts," one on "Color and Applied 

*The success of this department depends largely upon the number of teachers 
throughout the country who have enough professional spirit to send us items. 
We invite every reader to send whatever he considers of sufficient general in- 
terest to be worthy of publication. Items should reach us on or before the 25th 
day of December, February, April and August. We are grateful for all con- 
tributions, but of course we must be allowed to decide which shall appear in the 
Magazine. — Ed. 



Design," and one on "Principles and Practice of Supervision." Dr. Haney is 
also giving a college extension course at Nev?ark, N. J., on "Practical Lessons 
in Applied Design." 

Secretarj' Charles H. Morse of the Massachusetts Commission on Industrial 
Education has recently announced that it is within the power of the commission 
to co-operate with school boards of cities and towns in the state in the main- 
tainance of evening schools for industrial education. The basis of the co-opera- 
tion is the payment by the state of half the expense of carrying on such schools, 
the commission having a general oversight of the school but acting through the 
local authorities. 

The addition to the Providence Technical High School is completed, but 
much of the equipment is yet to be installed and it will be sometime before all 
departments are again in operation. The building will now accommodate nearly 
a thousand pupils and at the present rate of increase will soon be filled. 

W. C. Hamblin head of the drawing department, Providence Technical High 
School, has accepted a similar position in Jersey City, N. J. A. F. Rose also 
of the drawing department now has charge of manual training in East Boston 
High School. Their places have been filled by Arthur Ray and Chas. Martin. 

The New York Orphanage at Yonkers,- N. Y., has elected David S. McFar- 
land to a manual training position. 

Frances E. Mack is now a manual training teacher under Supervisor Dodd, 
at Trenton N. J. 

Donald S. McGuire is assisting Bradley S. Joice in the manual training de- 
partment of the Maryland School for the Blind at Baltimore, Md. 

Herbert F. Rodgers, a graduate of McGill University, was recently elected 
to a position in applied electricity at Mechanics Institute, Rochester, N. Y. 

Anna L. Hamm has been appointed to a manual arts position in the public 
schools at Batavia, N. Y. 

F. H. Wing, formerly vice-principal of the high school at Gowanda, N. Y., 
and James E. Seaborn, from the Rochester Schools, are two recent additions to 
the force of manual training teachers in the Buffalo schools. 

Carl F. Cotter has been selected to succeed James F. Barker as director of 
the Hackley Manual Training School. He was formerly instructor in mechanical 
drawing in the same school. 

A new manual training and domestic science building was formerly opened 
Oct. 24, at Onawa, Iowa. President Storm, of Ames College gave an interesting 
address as part of the program. This building is one of the best in the state 
for this line of work and was the gift of one of Onawa's public spirited citizens. 

Mrs. Alice D. Feuling, formerly of Bradley Institute, Peoria, 111. has ac- 
cepted a position as head of the domestic science department at the Iowa State 
Agricultural School at Ames. 

The St. Louis Manual Training School has introduced the study of the auto- 
mobile. The new course is open to boys who have completed the wor!: of the 
first three years. A first-class machine is mounted for testing and students 
make an intensive study of its mechanism. 

Anna Cron, formerly in charge of manual training at Emporia, Kan., spent 


the past summer at the Columbia University and is now in charge of manual 
training in the ladies seminary at Denton, Tex. 

F. R. Abbott has a leave of absence from his work at the Kansas State 
Normal school to attend Columbia University. 

Manual training in the Province of Manitoba, is making steady advances. 
Two teachers were added to the staff in Winnipeg in September and one new 
centre opened. Provision is now made for bench-work in grades five to eight, 
sewing in five to seven, and cooking in grade eight. Training classes have been 
established in clay modeling, basketry and wood carving and it is hoped to 
give the pupils in the lower grades more hand work at a very early date. An 
enthusiastic staff of teachers in the model school have given considerable atten- 
tion to basketry, clay modeling and weaving, with very gratifying results. 
Brandon school board has the subject of manual training under discussion and 
will establish a school there in the immediate future. 

Wm. B. Hamilton, a graduate of Alabama Polytechnic Institute has charge 
of the mechanics arts department of the Louisiana Industrial Institute at 
Ruston, La. He has as assistants R. J. Smith and E. L. Shattuck. Mr. Smith 
has been in the school a number of years but Mr. Shattuck is a new man, a 
graduate of Kansas Agricultural College. Prof. R. W. Selvidge, who has had 
charge of this department for four years is now taking special work in Columbia 


Three new teachers were called to the manual-training department of 
Cleveland just after the opening of school in September: James D. Littlefield, 
Lyman School for Boys, Westborough, Mass., was assigned to the forging 
department of Central High School; John W. Vickerman, from the Manual 
Training High School, Saginaw, Mich., takes charge of the machine work in the 
same school, and Joseph Bayley of Chicago fills a position as instructor of 
woodwork in the grammar grades. 

The foundations of the new Technical High School at Cleveland have been 
laid and the walls are being erected. The main building, occupying a full block 
on E. 5 5th street, is to be three stories high with wings in two side avenues. One 
of these wings, two stories high, is devoted entirely to shops. The other wing, 
three stories high, and the main building are devoted to class rooms, laboratories, 
art and domestic science. A large auditorium occupies the center square with a 
gymnasium below. The building is to be of chocolate-colored shale brick with 
terra cotta trimmings and dark red Spanish tile roof. The architecture is the 
English Gothic style. The property occupied by the building was secured at a 
cost of $55,000. The contracts for the building, exclusive of equipments, amount 
in round numbers to $300,000. The building will accommodate 1000 pupils. 

The Board of Education at Dayton has set aside $168,000 with which to 
build and equip the west wing of a Manual Training High School. This build- 
ing will eventually cover a lot whose dimensions are approximately 167x216 
feet. The building will soon be under way. If present plans do not miscarry 
the completed building will cost about $350,000, including equipment. George 
Buck, principal of the East High School, will be the principal of the new 
Manual Training High School. 


Denison University is making a beginning in manual arts this year. Miss 
Laura Parsons, the instructor in art has organized classes in art metal work. 
Next year it is the intention to introduce benchwork in wood. Considerable atten- 
tion has been given to the fine arts for a number of years and the authorities are 
finding a large demand for manual training. 

W. S. Carter, who has had charge of the manual training work at Green- 
ville for several years, is supervisor of manual training at Hamilton this year. 
Charles J. Gould comes to Greenville and the work will be enlarged. Sheet- 
metal work, applied dsign and mechanical drawing will receive considerable at- 
tention. Heretofore benchwork and wood-turning have constituted the manual 
training work given the boys. Greenville is distinctively an agricultural center 
and, through the eflForts oi Supt. W. S. Rowe, considerable attention has been 
given in the schools to school gardening. The pupils are much interested in 
their work and many of them continue the garden work during the summer 

"School Life," a new educational monthly published at Dayton, is devoting 
several pages each month to a discussion of manual training problems. Elemen- 
tary agriculture is also receiving attention. 

Under the leadership of A. B. Graham, of the Ohio State University, and 
Dr. B. M. Davis, of the Ohio State Normal College of Miami University, the 
State is coming to the front in school gardening and elementary agriculture, 
especially in the rural schools. 

Among the beginnings of rural manual training in the State, a little one- 
room school house near Thackery, in Champaign County, has had an important 
place. Here in 1896 the teacher placed a work-bench on one side of the room, 
together with a foot-power scroll saw to which was attached a small turning 
lathe. At odd times the larger boys made brackets, match safes, mallets, etc. 
and the girls made a number of articles out of cardboard. During the summer 
of 1903, a two-roomed school building was erected at Thackery. Later a Town- 
ship High School was established in the building. Harry E. Roberts was elected 
principal of this school. He wished to keep up the "spirit of '96"; so last fall 
a manual training club was organized, a work-bench was made in the basement 
by teacher and pupils from lumber furnished by a local grain dealer. The old 
scroll saw, used ten years before, with three others, were installed. Tools and 
lumber were secured by private donation — the board of education was at no 
expense except for drawing paper. The club was composed of three divisions each 
having a special time to work. The only time the teacher had for instruction was 
at recesses, noon hours and after school. The enthusiasm became so great that 
some worked at night. The manual training work did not detract from the 
other school work. Not one tardy mark was made during the year and the 
average attendance was more than 95 per cent. Parents manifested more than 
ordinary interest in the work of the school.- In the final examinations only one 
pupil failed to pass. At the close of the year the best of the work was collected, 
with a few of the pieces made in '96, and sent as an exhibit to the Jamestown 
Exposition. This is an illustration of what may be done in rural and other 
small schools with little or no expense to school authorities and without in any 
way lessening the effectiveness of the other school work, but rather increasing it. 


All over the state there is a remarkable awakening to the value of the 
manual arts in the school curriculum. Dozens of schools are introducing the 
work this year. The usual method of making a start in the smaller school sys- 
tems where a special supervisor is not possible, is for the drawing teacher to 
take charge of the handwork in the lower grades and a principal of a building 
or an upper-grade teacher to have charge of woodwork for the boys in the 
seventh and eighth grades. 

The Cincinnati schools have added several new teachers this year. Hartwell, 
St. Bernard, Lockland and other suburban towns have installed manual training. 

O. P. Kimmel introduced manual training at Eaton this year; E. L. Steen- 
rod has similar work at St. Marys. E. H. Petry is an assistant in the manual 
arts department of Miami University. Fred C. Whitcomb. 


Hans W. Schmidt has been appointed supervisor of manual training at St. 
Paul. C. A. Medlock, Asa E. Karns and E. H. Sitzer are also new men in the 

Red Wing introduced manual training into its public schools at the begin- 
ning of the present school year and pupils from the seventh and eighth grades 
and high school are taking the work. A room thirty by forty feet in the high 
school building has been fitted up with twenty benches and the other necessary 
equipment. E. B. Dillingham formerly of Minneapolis has charge of the 
department. This city is looking forward to a manual training and g>'mnasium 
building in the near future; the high school alumni have already raised a sub- 
stantial sum as a starter. 

Winona put in manual training this fall with a work room in the high 
school also one in the Madison and Washington grade buildings. V. I. Sandt 
has charge of the work. 

Woodwork and machine design are given to the boys in the high school and 
sewing to the girls in the seventh and eighth grades at Anoka. Max F. Pitman 
is in charge of the work for the boys. 

Montevidio started manual training this fall in the high school and the 
grades. Equipment is provided for sixteen pupils and the work is in charge 
of Earl Udell. 

Kenyon and Fergus Falls are two other places in which manual training 
has been started this year. 

Sewing has recently been started in the seventh and eighth grades of the 
Faribault schools and a course of forge work has been added to the manual 
training work. A. K. Grube recently resigned from the department to take up 
farming and his place is now filled by Merton I. Lyon of Menosha, Wis. 

George G. Green has left the Moorhead State Normal School and is now 
manager of "The Craftsman's Guild, a company of workers who try to do little 
things well." at Highland Park, Illinois. His place in the Normal School has 
been taken by A. P. Laughlin, formerly supervisor of manual training at La 
Grange, Illinois. 


Manual training high school facilities are being extended in Chicago. In 
addition to the Lyman Trumbull Manual Training High School, which has 
already been provided for, plans for two other manual training high schools — 
one at South Chicago and the other at Irving Park — have been prepared by the 
architect and are now in the hands of manual training supervisor, Robert I.I. 
Smith, who is working on the equipment. These two schools, however, will not 
be provided for until next j'ear's appropriations are available. 

Ten more manual-training centers have been added in the Chicago elemen- 
tary schools. Sixteen years ago there was not a single manual training or house- 
hold arts center in the city. Today there are in active operation 172 elementary 
schools which have a manual training equipment, 38 elementary schools which 
have a cooking department, and three manual training high schools, while several 
other equipments are under way. When it is recalled that the total number of 
elementary schools in the city is only 253, this proportion is significant. 

Supervisor Smith says that the difficulties in the way of extension of these 
departments do not usually arise from any disinclination of the people to approve 
of them; on the contrary, there exists an earnest desire in many quarters that 
these branches be included in the curriculum. The main obstacles seem to be 
(1) necessary expense of equipment, (2) difficulty in providing suitable accommo- 
dations, and (3) the scarcity of qualified teachers. Regarding equipment he 
says: "It should be remembered that efficiency, stability and permanence are the 
only tests of cheapness. The best would always be found the cheapest, and in 
many cases the saving of a few dollars in the initial cost of equipment has been 
found to entail a much greater cost later on in the way of repairs, adjustment 
and alterations." 

The University of Illinois was opened in 1867 with an enrollment of seven- 
ty-seven pupils and four instructors. In 1906 at the close of its 40th year it had 
four thousand and seventy-four students and four hundred and eight instructors. 
One of the newer departments of the university is the school of education. Its 
function is to co-ordinate all the forces of the university that can be utilized to 
prepare teachers for work in high schools and for positions as superintendents. 

The annual exhibition of Art Crafts at the Chicago Art Institute is an- 
nounced from Dec. 10 to Dec. 22, and the annual exhibition of the Society of 
Western Artists from Dec. 10 to Dec. 29. 

Lawrence A. Flagler formerly in charge of manual training at Marquette, 
Mich., is now supervisor of manual training at Peoria, P. W. Thompson having 
resigned from the position to take up the study of law. 

Miss Helen Day formerly instructor of domestic economy at Teachers College, 
New York, is now assistant professor of domestic science at Bradley Polytechnic 


Two well equipped manual training shops have been opened this year at 
the State Normal School, Chico. Maude Crouch has been elected shop teacher, 
and a special course in mechanical drawing and manual training has been added 
to the curriculum. 


Natie P. Clark has been elected director of domestic science at Oakland and 
Ada M. Bailey takes Miss Clark's place at Santa Anna. 

The following appointments are announced at Throop Polytechnic Institute. 
Hettie Anthony from Illinois Wesleyan University, head of the domestic science 
department; Frank C. Bodine, assistant professor of architecture and machine 
design; Margaret Donaldson from the McKinley High School, St. Louis, instruc- 
tor in art; Alfred Guillou, education and normal manual training; Howard 
Foster, instructor in machine shop practice and pattern making; Louise K. Willits, 
instructor in domestic art. 


The making and flying of kites has long been an important feature of 
Japanese sports and "Kite Fetes" are often held in which kite makers contest for 
supremacy in the art of kite flying. Naturally enough it was on the Pacific 
coast that the idea was first made use of in this country, and as this was in con- 
nection with the public school work, manual training teachers will be especially 
interested in a report of the experiment. The idea was worked up last year by 
Chas. M. Miller, assistant supervisor of manual training at Los Angeles, Cal., 
and in carrying out the idea he had the enthusiastic co-operation of Dr. E. C. 
Moore, the superintendent of schools. 

The plan involved the scientific construction of kites by the children and the 
holding of a kite field-day on which kite flying contests were held. Definite in- 
structions on kite making were given as part of the manual training work, and an 
early announcement of the details of the contest were made. The contest was 
sucessfully carried out on Field Day and was witnessed by about fifteen hundred 
children. The following instructions as sent out to the various schools will make 
clear the methods of carrying out the plan. 

To the Principals: — Please read the following announcements to your classes. 

The weather permitting, there will be a general contest and exhibition of 
kite flying, on Saturday, May 4, 1907, beginning at 2 o'clock. The exhibition will 
take place on a tract at Stevenson Ave. and Lorena street, Boyle Heights. The 
place is accessible to both the Los Angeles Railway and Interurban lines. 

A number of feats will be carried in contest, but a general exhibition will 
follow in which anyone may take part, so all bring a kite. 

Each school must decide who the contesting party shall be for each of the 
contested feats, and should send in the names of such contestants to Chas. M. 
Miller. 512 S. Boyle Ave., not later than Monday, April 29th. Please write 
names on postal cards or cards that size so as to keep a uniform size for easy 

Each school may appoint a substitute in case of failure of the first person 
named. Each contestant is entitled to a helper. 

It is suggested that a captain be appointed by each school to be recognized as 
general manager for that school. 

The ground will be plotted out in squares 100 f t. x 100 ft. and these running 
spaces numbered. The captains may select their plot any time after 1 o'clock. 
A banner, pennant or other means of designating ownership of that plot should 
immediately be placed in the center to avoid further misunderstanding, but the 




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number and name of the school, with the captain's name, should also be brought 
to the judges' stand at once. 

Each school must appoint a judge for its own feats, such as timing flights, 
and recording pulling power. A teacher is desired for this, but in case a teacher 
cannot be present, the captain may act, or some other appointee. 

A swift messenger should carry the record to the judges' stand as soon as 
the result is known. 

To add color to the occasion, it is recommended that scarfs of colored cloth, 
etc., be flung across the shoulders of participant. 

Each school will need a correctly set time-piece, and some spring scales, 
showing pounds and quarter pound. The latter can surely be borrowed for the 

The name of the school should appear in conspicuous letters on the kite. 
Some of the strips of gummed paper may prove useful for this purpose. 

Make your space as gay as feasible. Streamers on the kite-strings, banners 
floating, and all such will add much to the occasion. 


1. — Quarter mile dash, being the quickest playing out and winding in of 3^ 
mile string. The string must be accurately measured and a report card 3^4 "x 
6 J/4", with the principal's signature on the back wound at the inner end. The 
first two rounds over the card should be, one length wise, the other across. This 
compels each contestant to unwind the entire length of string to obtain the card, 
which must not be torn, and which must be sent with record to judges' stand. 

2. — ^The same as number one, for girls only. 

3. — Best decorated kite (to be exhibited on 600 ft. string.) Any shape or 
kind may be used. 

4. — Most artistic kite (on 600 ft. of string). Any kind of combination, or 
color or outline. Set pieces or single construction. 

5. — Strongest single kite puller. Record to be taken within one minute from 
a given signal. It is suggested that the heavier kites be avoided, for we have 
had very few days that the breeze has been sufficiently strong to carry up the 
heavy frames. 

6. — Best tetrahedral kite. If there is insufficient breeze to carry kites, they 
will be judged by the appearance and construction on the ground. 

7. — Yacht race, 34 ™ile and return. (To be timed). The size should be as 
shown in the diagram. 

8. — Highest flyer, in which the decision must rest on the judgment of the 
judges. Thirty minutes time will be given for this feat. Tandem and other 
combinations may be used. 

9. — Curious messenger. Everybody. 

10. — Display of parachutes. Everybody. 

11. — Display of flags. Everybody. 

It will not be necessary to pull down the high flyers for the last three, as 
no decision will be necessary for these, but any specially brilliant accomplishment 
will be given recognition. 


Handbook of The Trees of the Northern States and Canada, East of the 
Rocky Mountains. By Romeyn Beck Hough. Published by the Author at Low- 
ville, N. Y., 1907. 7^x91/^ in.; pp. 470+X; price in cloth, $S.OO, in half 
leather, $10.00. 

This is the first really satisfactory handbook of trees that we have seen. 
Indeed one feels like congratulating the author on having produced the perfect 
book on trees for the great majority of readers. It is not, however, what is often 
known as a "popular" book, for it is equally valuable to the professional botanist, 
the nature lover, the forester and the lumberman. Coming from one of the lead- 
ing American authorities, the author of "American Woods", it should be scien- 
tifically correct, and being so well arranged and so fully illustrated with the 
best of photographic reproductions, it is both convenient and attractive. 

Each species is given two opposite pages. On the left is a full-page illustra- 
tion of its leaves, winter twigs and fruit placed on a background laid out in one- 
inch squares. Thus one immediately forms a correct idea of sizes. Not only 
this, but instead of showing one leaf and one specimen of fruit, several are 
shown — large and small. This is not only interesting, but exceedingly important 
when one is trying to identify such trees as the sassafras, tulip or mulberry. On 
the right-hand page is a photograph of the trunk of the tree upon which is fas- 
tened in a horizontal position a two-foot folding rule. These illustrations are ad- 
mirably clear and show the character of the bark and often peculiarities of 
growth, as in the case of the dotted thorn, for example. On this page also there 
is a map shaded to show at a glance In which states and provinces the tree may 
be found, a condensed description of the tree, and In many cases a magnified 
transverse section of its wood. 

At the end of the book about forty pages are devoted to a synopsis of the 
families and genera represented in the book with analytical keys leading to the 
species. To this Is added a glossary and an Index. 

One use of the book Is well Illustrated in the following experience: A few 
days before receiving a copy of Mr. Hough's book a nature-loving friend of mine 
was conducting me on a long walk through the woods, when we came across a 
kind of tree that I had seen several times before but did not know its name. So 
I said to my friend, "What do you call that tree? It's trunk looks like an oak 
but the leaves do not." Now my friend has a rare appreciation of beauty of 
form and color, moods and music in nature, but he is not an expert botanist. 
However, he said, "I think it may be a laurel oak." As the leaves were long 
and somewhat glossy I accepted his suggestion as fact until I received a copy of 
"Handbook of Trees." The moment I turned to the pages of laurel oak I saw 
by a glance at the map that the laurel oak is found only along the Gulf and the 
South Atlantic coast. On turning the page over, however, I found that the 
shingle oak grows in Illinois and, upon looking at the shape of the leaves again, 



I was convinced that my friend and I had been enjoyinj the company of shingle 
oaks instead of laurel oaks. 

This incident illustrates only one of many ways in which this admirable 
book will prove useful to anyone who wishes to know the trees. 

A Course in Structural Drafting. By W. D. Browning. The Industrial 
Magazine, Collinswood, Ohio, 1907. 6 x 9-in., pp. 64-|-15 double-page plates; 
price $1.00. 

This contais a description of material used in structural design, tables com- 
piled from handbooks used in standard drafting-room practice, cefinitions of 
terms used in strength of materials, simple rules and illustrations on beams and 
girders, columns and lacing, and diagrams with explanations of modern trusses. 
There are fifteen plates of drawings, such as are made in structural design work, 
to be done by the student. The book is simple, clear, practical, and well adapted 
to beginners in structural drafting. Frederick H. Evans. 

The Making of a Teacher. A contribution to some phases of the problem of 
religious education. By Martin G. Brumbaugh. The Sunday School Times 
Company, Philadelphia, 1905. 53^x8-in. ; pp. 351; price $1 net. 

This book discusses religious education in the light of the principles and 
methods of modern pedagogy. Every Sunday-school teacher should find it not 
only stimulating and instructive, but very readable. But few of the technical 
terms of the psychologist are used and the author's points are made clear by 

The following have been received: 

Bulletin of the Art Institute of Chicago. This is the first number of a quar- 
terly publication which will give announcements of exhibitions and lectures, and 
information of general interest to the thousands of people who habitually visit this 
great democratic art center. Last year the attendance of visitors to the galleries 
(exclusive of students) was 522,095. The price of the Bulletin is 10 cents. 

Report of the Massachusetts Commission on Industrial Education, 1907. 

All who were interested in the report of the preliminary commission which 
was published little more than a year ago and made such a "profound impres- 
sion upon educators and public-spirited citizens generally" will welcome the first 
annual report of the permanent commission of which Professor Paul H. Hanus 
is chairman and Charles H. Morse is secretary. In this report the Commission 
defines its position, outlines future work and gives the present situation with 
reference to industrial education in the different cities of the state. Appended to 
the report are statistics, courses of study and several interesting papers bearing on 
the general subjects of industrial education. 

Exercises in Elementary Agriculture — Plant Production. By Dick J. Crosby. 
Bulletin 186, U. S. Department of Agriculture, Washington 1907. pp. 64, illus- 
trated. Every teacher of school gardening or elementary agriculture should send 
for a copy of this bulletin. It contains fifty-four graded exercises or experi- 
ment' in plant production with introductory notes and an appended list of text- 
books and works of reference. The illustrations add much to the value of the 


Course of Study in Manual Training for Boys of the District Schools, St. 
Louis, Mo. Revised June, 1907. Contains drawings for seventh and eighth 
grade models. 

The Man Who Works iviih his Hands. By Theodore Roosevelt. An address 
delivered at the semi-centennial celebration of the founding of agricultural col-, 
leges in the United States, at Lansing, Mich., May 31, 1907. Circular No. 24, 
U. S. Department of Agriculture, Washington, D. C. 

Production of Red Cedar for Pencil Wood. By L. I. White. Circular No. 
102, Forest Service, U. S. Department of Agriculture. 

Catalogue of Manual Training High School, Indianapolis, Ind. Contains 
outline of course of study and half-tone illustrations of equioment and students' 

Domestic Science Course. The course used in the grammar school depart- 
ment of the Toledo, Ohio, public schools. Published by the Board of Education ; 
price 25 cents postpaid. 

Annual Report of the Inspector of Technical Education, Canada, 1906. By 
Albert H. Leake, Toronto, Canada. Contains many half-tone illustrations of 
work done in the Canadian schools. 

Teachers College Record, September, 1907. This number deals with the 
curriculum for the seventh year of the elementarv school, and contains an article 
by Egbert E. McNary on manual training for boys. It deals especially with the 
study of modern transportation as taken up by a seventh-grade class in the 
Horace Mann School. This number also contains an article on manual training 
for girls by Laura B. Whittimore. 

National Society for the Promotion of Industrial Education. Bulletin No. 3. 
— A Symposium on Industrial Education. Bulletin No. 4. — Industrial Training 
for Women. Edited by James P. Haney. Copies can be obtained by addressing 
the secretary of the society, Charles R. Richards, Teachers College, New York 
City. Both of these are valuable contributions to the present discussion of indus- 
trial education. The former is made up of opinions from many of the represen- 
tatives of both labor and capital; the latter is the work of a sub-committee on 
industrial education for women, headed by Mrs. Mary Morton Kehew of Boston. 

The Interlaken School. Announcement of a boarding school for boys at La- 
porte, Indiana, patterned after Dr. Cecil Reddie's famous school at Abbotsholme 
in England. 

Elementary Turning. — For use in manual training classes. By Frank H. 
Selden. Rand, McNallv & Co., Chicago, 1907. 434x7 in.; pp. 197 with many 
illustrations of tools, processes and models; price $1.00. Reserved for later notice. 



JANUARY, 1908 


Henry Turner Bailey. 

THE influence of public school work in the graphic arts wherever 
it is well done, is fourfold. First, it tends to develop the power 
to see. The average man sees imperfectly and images dimly. 
As Prof. James says: "His images have broad fringes." He cannot 
tell, for example, where the ordinary Roman letters are shaded, nor the 
shape of his own boot, nor the color of his friend's eyes. His observation 
with regard to all material things is loose and unreliable. As Walter 
Smith used to say: "His testimony in court concerning any material 
fact is not to be trusted because he has not a trained eye." Asa Gray 
used to say to his students when studying sedges : "Unless you draw, you 
will not see." "A pencil is one of the best of eyes," said Agassiz. 
Graphic representation helps to focus the eyes upon the object, as the 
thumb-screw focuses the camera, or as an adjusted lens corrects defective 

Clearer vision of natural objects enhances one's enjoyment of nature 
and enriches the content of life. The contours of leaves, the articula- 
tions of plant stems, the curves of unfolding petals, the outlines of insect 
wings, the modeling of shells (which Tennyson calls "miracles of de- 
sign"), the lines of health and movement in birds, in animals, in the 
human figure ; the subtle tints and shades, sharp glints and darks, which 
objects under sunlight present to the eye, the exquisite gradations of tone 
and hue, not only in objects everybody recognizes as colored, but in the 
gray and unobtrusive features of any view, become sources of keen 
pleasure to him who sees with trained vision. 

^Excerpt from an address given at the University Convocation of the State of 
'"lew York, Albany, Oct. 18, 1907. 



For lack of the close observation which a training in representation 
would supply, the average man has no clear images of his own with 
which to read or think. Consequently the stimuli which cause a satis- 
factory reaction in his brain must be intense. His music must be brass- 
band music, his color thrill can come only from a gorgeous sunset or 
the Berkshires in October. Even his news must be served up by yellow 
journals in flaring headlines and dramatic pictures. He can be reached 
only by colored posters and advertising signs ten cubits high. His recre- 
ations even must be highly artificial. At the coast the sweep of sand 
and sea, the dim horizon and the grace of the breaking w^ave mean so 
little to him that he must plant on the crest of the beach his merry-go- 
round, his roller-coaster, and all the other noisy and vulgar attractions 
a perverted ingenuity can invent. The majesty of Julius Caesar and 
King Henry as they walk through Shakespeare's printed pages, and the 
calm beauty of the old king who wrote the Shepherd Psalm, are lost on 
the man whose power of imagination is atrophied. He must have, in- 
stead, the noise and the glitter, the reality and vulgarity of vaudeville. 

The importance of clear-cut, three-dimensioned images for the im- 
agination and the reason to use can scarcely be over-estimated. The 
minister who reads the matchless w^ords of the Bible in droning fashion 
so reads because he sees nothing. Booth, Jefferson, any man with power 
of imagination could not read that way. The man who fails in business 
or in the social world fails largely for lack of "grasp," as we say, the 
power to image and forecast conditions, to see through to the other 
side of the problem, to hold the totality clearly in his mind and read it 
through and through. As Dean Shailer once said, "The value of draw- 
ing in all departments of science, not only as a language but as a dis- 
cipline of the mind, can hardly be over-estimated. ]\Iany students 
entering Harvard University can think in one dimension, some few 
in two dimensions, but those who can think in three dimensions are 
exceedingly rare." Every department of human activity offers un- 
limited opportunity to men of vision. 

But in the second place the study of graphic art as pursued in the 
fchaols develops the power of expression. It is unnecessary to review 
in detail the value of this power in almost every human occupation. 

In a conference at Harvard University on the relation of the high 
school to the college in 1903, President Eliot said: "I have recently 
examined all the courses offered by the university, and I find but one 
(the course in theology) in which a knowledge of drawing would not 


be of immediate value (and even there I think it might help in some 
cases!). The power to draw is greatly needed in nearly all the courses 
and absolutely indispensable in some of them. A very large propor- 
tion of studies now train the memory, a very small proportion train 
the power to see straight and do straight, which is the basis of indus- 
trial skill." 

Whether a carpenter remain a carpenter or become a foreman or 
contractor depends largely upon his power to read a working drawing. 
Whether a machinist remain a machinist or become a master, depends 
largely upon his power to put down with a pencil his ideas of mechanical 
construction. Whether a printer remain a printer or become a designer 
of fine printing depends largely upon his power to lay out a job with 
his pencil. The advancement of anyone in his profession, — of the 
designer, the illustrator, the architect, the house-furnisher, the landscape- 
gardener, not less than the painter and the sculptor, depends primarily 
on this power of graphic representation by means of line and color. 

But aside from this fact, there is in the mere power to express one- 
self grapically a source of legitimate pleasure not to be despised. The 
craving for self-expression is universal and insistent. The love of self- 
expression graphically, lies at the basis of amateur photography. The 
pleasure which thousands of people derive from the camera is immense. 
Only one other class of people who enjoy nature, get greater pleasure 
from making pictures, namely, those who can make them with the pencil 
and brush, who can record what they wish to remember without record- 
ing the confusing details which encumber it. Representation is to 
the artist re-creation, and is accompanied with a passionate pleasure such 
as only those can appreciate who have had the experience. 

In the third place, the practice of graphic art develops the power of 
appreciation. We are the children of the race intellectually and spirit- 
ually as well as physically. The world is full of good people who in 
the realm of the arts are bovine. They cannot tell one tune from 
another. They do not know Turner from a Teniers, or a Botticelli 
from a Burne-Jones. They pass and repass the far-descended venerable 
ornament exquisitely cut upon the porch of a colonial house, and know 
nothing of its presence, much less of its eventful history. They sit on 
Sunday in a church where the sacred symbols, first scratched with 
trembling hands on martyrs' graves, blaze forth their messages from 
glowing windows, or whisper them from font and table and altar; 
but having eyes they see not, and having ears they hear not. The great 


world of art is to them a nonentity. A Latin grammar, a Greek text, 
an algebra, a geometry, a bank book, a mill sheet, a financial report, or 
perchance a flock of hens, is the measure of their horizon and the arc of 
their sky. A man submerged in business, entombed in a shop, buried in 
a book is an intellectual and spiritual bankrupt. 

The child never attains manhood until he secures the keys to the 
great treasure-house of literature, music, architecture, sculpture, paint- 
ing, and the other arts, which record the experience, the aspirations and 
the ideals of the brightest and best of those who have gone before. The 
work of these men is another source of pleasure and of satisfaction 
which the man who would live the larger and more abundant life cannot 
ignore. Every attempt to represent a blade of grass, a leaf, or a flower, 
every attempt to catch the movement or gesture of any living thing, 
prepares the mind, as nothing else can, for the appreciation of the work 
of Diirer and Landseer, of Rosa Bonheur and William Hamilton 
Gibson. Every attempt to represent a tree or the sky, a body of water 
or the sweep of hills, will enhance one's appreciation of Claude and 
Turner, of Corot, Mesdag, and Fritz Taulow. Every attempt at il- 
lustration and pictorial composition will open the eyes to the almost 
marvelous skill of the old Italian masters, of Millet, Burne-Jones, and 
Whistler. Every attempt to put down the color of a flower, of a shell, 
of a spray of autumn fruit, of a spring landscape, of a moonlight night, 
will enhance one's enjoyment not only of the work of the Venetians, 
but of the rug-makers of the orient, of the potters of China and western 
Europe, of the great jewelers from the days of the Etruscans to the 
present moment, and of all those who have wrought in fabrics with 
the loom or the needle. All this appreciation of the work of men will 
send the happy spirit to nature again with keener eyes. The man of 
the anointed eye will see her as the artists and poets have always seen 
her, so beautiful that the shadow of a mountain daisy on a stone will 
inspire a poem; the glint of light on rind or fur or feather, inspire a 
picture ; and the gloom of a calm night, inspire a symphony. 

And lastly the influence of graphic art in public education is im- 
portant because by means of it, when our pedagogical machinery is 
perfected, we shall be enabled to discover every particle of talent pos- 
sessed by the children under our charge, and to develop it for the good 
of all. 

The heart of man is never satisfied. We shall go on demanding 
illustrated books and papers, paintings to hang upon our walls, pictures 



out of doors spread before our eyes, beautiful garments and jewels, 
beautiful temples, civic buildings and homes; and the men and women 
who will produce all these in each generation are among the boys and 
girls in the public schools of the preceding generation. The character 
of the art which men and women produce depends very largely upon the 
amount of training they have received, and the extent to which they have 
been made familiar with what genius has done before them. We can- 
not too early discover the precious vital elements of genius in children 
and begin the salutary discipline which shall enable them to carry the 
artistic triumphs of the race to yet higher levels. 


Edwin L. Taylor. 

NO small part of the evolution of these latter days is the evolution 
of educational thought. As the product of this we have what 
we call "The New Education." Just what this "new educa- 
tion" is, it is difficult to define. However, in spite of absurdities and 
enormities that may parade beneath its banners, its manifest mission is 
simply the conforming of methods of education to the law of "the eternal 
fitness of things," The "new education" does not consist in the high 
handed ruling out of time-honored educational practices, or the depos- 
ing of old and essential subjects. It only seeks to recognize that a new 
epoch in human society demands a corresponding evolution in the school, 
and would modify the old, and, if need be, introduce the new that the 
curriculum may conform to present day conditions. Resulting from this 
new attitude of educational thought, we find, pervading the school of 
today, a subtle, potent principle that has radically changed the atmos- 
phere of elementary education. One of the ways, in which this principle 
finds outward and visible expression, is a quaintly varied array of activi- 
ties which, owing to the paucity of our English language have been 
christened manual training. This is a most unfortunate name because 
it is so well adapted to mislead the uninitiated "general public." What 
the school world knows as manual training is not manual training, 
the training of the hand, as the popular conception defines it, but mental 
training through experiences gained by manual activity. 

To carefully define and defend, upon broad social and educational 
premises the place of this new element in the elementary school shall be 
the purpose of this consideration. 

Obviously at the outset it will be needful to clearly state these basic 
premises. These are also products of the revised educational thought, 
the most fundamental of which is that conception that recognizes the 
school as an institution of society, and that primarily in educating it is 
not the needs of the individual but of society that must receive attention. 
This theory contends that the highest good of the indlvual can only be 
served in the light of his social environment, and discovers that "the 
bread and butter aim," "knowledge for knowledge's sake", "general cul- 
ture", "harmonious development", "moral character", — in fact, that all 



the old, formulated aims of education are included in the more compre- 
hensive aim of "social efficiency". Social efficiency then we shall take 
as the real end of all education. With this premise firmly in mind let 
us proceed with the consideration previously stated. 

In the first place the manual activities that we should select as of 
educational value, must embody the principle of work as distinguished 
from play. The ability to do work is a demand that society lays upon 
all that are able, without deference to the eminence or humbleness of 
their station in life. The humbler ones must not be a burden ; those 
who have no need to take thought for themselves must labor for the 
race. The child then, must be trained to do work. Now work is activ- 
ity, demanding sustained attention to a task that leads to an end more or 
less remote. Sustained attention requires will power, the lack of which 
denotes a low order of intelligence. Play, on the other hand, is activ- 
ity leading to no ultimate aim, the activity being the end itself. Play 
requires no effort of the will to sustain attention. The child from its 
earliest infancy is active and play is nature's safety valve. The school 
need not concern itself about an outlet for child activity. The business 
of the school is to direct this innate quality of childhood toward ends 
acknowledged to be good, for it is by this means that will power is best 

We say that the child is a little savage; that his life from the cradle 
to manhood is an epitome of the experience of the race. This is what 
we mean : — the child starts with the same equipment with which the 
race began, namely a great abundance of practically aimless activity. 
From this condition, through dire necessity and bitter experience, very 
slowly and painfully, from very simple beginnings through stages more 
and more complex, the race has developed the ability of systematic and 
sustained effort. Likewise, through experiences selected wisely and ar- 
ranged in the proper order of difficulty, the child must attain, in the span 
of a lifetime, this same ability that has been a race long growth. 

Primarily, then, in the educative process must come the control and 
direction of child activity. The old education sought to obtain this end 
by systematic suppression. Truancy bore witness to its failure. The 
new education said, "Let us train the child to control and direct his ac- 
tivity even as he gains control of his muscles, not by idleness but by use." 
Then manual training found its sphere and became a necessity. If this 
be the function of manual training, then it defeats its own purpose when 
it consists of forms of busy work given the child to amuse him, to keep 


him out of mischief, to put him "hors de combat" as a source of annoy- 
ance. These things have no virtue that does not belong to play. Better 
far turn the child loose for a grand, healthful romp. No project, model, 
nor occupation may ever be made use of in the name of manual training 
that does not lead to some ultimate end, or serve some actual use or pur- 
pose which the child sees and acknowledges to be good, and to attain 
w hich he will give his active attention to the necessary work. 

The process of development from the passive attention sufficient for 
play, to the active attention that labors to accomplish remote ends, must, 
at first, be very slow indeed. Models selected for the first grade must 
be simple and, at first, within the scope of a single lesson, the aim being 
easy of access before the untrained mind demands a change. But al- 
though our rate of progress must, at the outset, be restrained, there still 
must be an unwavering, unfaltering forward movement toward our aim, 
viz: the development of the child's power of attention, — reasonable, non- 
compulsory and interested attention to work. This is the same kind of 
attention that we, as adults, give to any labor, the result of which will 
satisfy some keenly appreciated need. The opposite kind of attention 
has but a meager place in the elementary school. We use it as a form of 
punishment when we detain pupils "after school" to do sums that they 
have slighted. However, there still exists a species of educators who 
propose to inflict this non-voluntary attention upon the young as the only 
means of developing a mental backbone. They would convince us that 
there is no educational virtue to be obtained otherwise than by com- 
pelling one's self to give attention to some old, dry thing that has no 
part nor parcel in our life that now is or is to come. Such as these have 
our profound sympathy. They do not believe in manual training. 
They have completely forgotten their childhood, and have never enjoyed 
that peculiar pleasure derived from giving strict attention to a dull ser- 
mon when they were very sleepy. 

To recapitulate briefly. Manual training develops the power of 
the will, the power of attention and the power to do work. Truly it 
occupies a powerful place in education, but cannot other subjects do 
these same things with success? Yes, but manual training is better 
adapted to the purpose, for they must ge,t the child still and passive be- 
fore they can operate, while manual training makes capital of his very 

If manual training is valuable as means of developing the capacity 
for work, it logically follows that it must occupy a large place in the 


tantalizing problem of discipline. Outside of the personality of the 
teacher, the whole discipline situation is tersely stated by the old, familiar 
adage, "Satan finds some mischief still for idle hands to do." Evidently, 
then, idleness and mischief are allies, — so very evident that it is axio- 
matic. Laziness and crime are boon companions but industry is ever a 
co-partner with uprightness. The application of this law to the school 
problem is doubly emphatic. Industry is a primary quality of social ef- 
ficience, not only because it enables the individual to carry his own 
weight, but what is more important, it develops in him those great, noble, 
sterling attributes of true manhood, that render him a help and not a 
hindrance to the progress of the race. In other words, the industrious 
man is the truly disciplined man. There need be no waste of social 
energy to make him behave properly. Because of this demand of society 
the school has introduced manual training that she may develop habits 
of industry as an antidote for the most dangerous forms of social ineffi- 
ciency. Considered in this light, industry is an end to be attained. In- 
dustry must also be emphasized as a means of no insignificance in the 
educative process; a means for solving the discipline problem in school 
as well as after. 

Now industry is not to be confined to manual activity. In fact the 
highest forms of industry are those that are the most purely mental; 
those requiring the keenest perception, the greatest thought activity, the 
highest development of the mind. Of what value, then, is manual train- 
ing in the solving of the discipline problem when the curriculum is al- 
ready overcrowded by worthy subjects, demanding for their mastery an 
industrious application of mental power? Let us answer this question 
quite carefully, for it is likely to reveal several principles that, deal 
directly with the place of manual training in the elementary school. 

Discipline, like attention, is of two kjnds: the one when the individ- 
ual is controlled by forces acting from without^ the other when the 
source of control is from within, or the individual is self-controlled. 
The one is slavery, the other is liberty. To destroy the one and attain 
the other is the upward struggle of the race. The discipline of the 
schoolroom, then, must be the discipline of self-control. Some one says, 
"But this cannot be so in actual practice." It is true that it is not so, 
but is it not our cherished ideal? What an ideal condition we would 
have if all the boys and girls — the ones that make our hearts ache so 
sometimes — were only industrious in their studies; industrious of their 
own volition without the pleading and driving of the patient teacher or 


the severe and oft-administered chastisement of the impatient. "But", 
another says, "you can't expect it. They are only boys and girls and 
cannot see the need of it. If they do not like study for study's sake, 
then what are you going to do with j^our beautiful theory of self-con- 
trol ?" Here is the secret. Simply use a method of education that 
brings the end, othewise too far remote, within the reach of the juvenile 
mind. Make those things the man must know, useful to the boy as he 
learns them. This is one of the functions of manual training. In th:s 
capacity it is not so much a new subject as a common-sense method of 
teaching the old ones. It is a form of expression that deals with actual 
materials instead of their soulless symbols; the harrimer that clinches the 
nails that the "three Rs" and their associates drive in the erection of the 
educative structure. It is an educational transformer that changes the 
pupil from a state of passive, recipient lethargy to one of healthful, ener- 
getic activity; from a negative to a positive force in his own education. 
Manual training ought to function, not merely in the construction of 
articles of use, but in a lively interest on the part of the pupil in all his 
subjects, because it proves to him that they are all needful, not in the dis- 
tant future, but now, in the accomplishment of his present plans. Given 
this attitude in the pupil and he has no more need of outside discipline. 
He is self-controlled and his teacher is no longer a police officer but an 
aid, an inspirer, a boon companion of experience. The discipline prob- 
lem is solved, not by catering to the child's childishness, but by furnish- 
ing him with concrete and present incentives to active interest. 

Our answer thus far has revealed something of how manual training 
functions in the solving of this problem ; next, let us discover the forms 
that these incentives to self-control must take. It is evident, if manual 
training accomplish the ends above described, that it must assume some 
form that is attractive to the child. The results achieved by his efforts 
must be things that he considers "worth while." This theory is directly 
in opposition to that class of educators who say that they "have no pa- 
tience with that tendency in education that would make it easy for the 
pupil." These preachers of non-voluntary attention are very logical. 
They claim that the rougher and less attractive we make the road for the 
little travelers the more rapid will be. their progress in the educative 
journey. Pupils, to secure the proper kind of discipline, must be com- 
pelled to do unattractive things simply because the teacher says so. It is 
a matter of conjecture if this class of educators have ever been teachers 
and a positive fact that they never were boys. They have missed the 


point completely, for the pupil will do far more of that which is essen- 
tially work — drudgery, even, will not quench his ardor — if, in the end, 
he may accomplish some cherished aim, or express, in a form of strength 
and grace, some ideal of his imagination. 

The foregoing conclusion forever eliminates from the elementary 
school all those things known as "abstract exercises," such as the planing 
of a board to a given size just to learn the use of the plane, or the hem- 
ming of a bit of cloth, to learn to stitch. No one cares for these things 
when done. In no way do they enter into the life of the maker. Their 
end is under the bench or in the scrap basket. 

Another factor in determining the forms that manual training must 
assume in the elementary school is the imitative nature of childhood. 
This imitation is but the outward expression of an inborn tendency 
to grow up. This may sound a bit paradoxical, but if this tendency 
were lacking the mind would not keep pace with the body, and the 
broad shoulders of maturity would romp in childish play. The child's 
standard of evaluation depends, in a large measure, upon his "grown 
up" ideals. How soon he begins to tell us what he will do "when 
he gets big." He does not want to be a "baby" and do "baby things.'' 
He wants to get in beyond his depth and get out without the least 
possible assistance. Give the boy a paper-knife to make and his efforts 
will adjust themselves to the meager and limited character of the 
model; give him a man's chair and he measures upward to the man's 
stature. He is a man, "for as he thinketh in his heart so he is." 
Much of the reason why the pupil in the upper grades chafes at 
the restraint of school is, that he feels that his school achievements 
receive but little respect in his idealized, outside world of "real things." 
If the school could represent to him "real things" he would stick by it. 
If it does not he seeks them elsewhere, abandons study and leaves school 
the first day that he passes school age. Just as the race produced at 
first with the hands so must the youth. With the normal boy and girl 
the value of manual accomplishments must, at first, dominate the value 
of the mental. The mental must serve the manual before the develop- 
ing mind can grasp the full value and true supremacy of mental ability. 
"Real things," measurable by manual standards, must then be selected 
as forms of manual training, for the presence of such in the school world 
acts like the discovery of a lost chord — the vital chord in the harmony of 
the school with what, in the pupil's immature judgment, are the truly 
essential things in the out-of-school world. 


Given, then, this essential chord, let us complete our harmony. Plan 
the construction work so that it contains a maximum of thought content ; 
give to the pupil his constructive problems unsolved; compel him to use 
his knowledge of arithmetic and drawing; interest him in the geography 
of his materials; let the exposition of his manual processes demand a 
better command of his mother tongue; in short, associate what he looks 
upon as mere "school things" with those, that are to him the "real 
things," and, presently, the whole school has for him a new meaning. 
It has been revealed to him that the trained mind lies behind, and is the 
real source of all the products of the skilled hand. 

Much of the effectiveness of manual training in the elementary 
school is lost if it be not closely associated with the other subjects of the 
curriculum. This conclusion obtaining, it follows that the eminently 
successful teacher of the immediate future is he who most thoroughly 
comprehends the vital association of manual activity and mental training. 

It is a universally accepted fact among educators that one of the 
most valuable results of the introduction of manual training is its uni- 
fj^ing effect upon the curriculum, furnishing as it does a sort of nucleus 
around which all the other subjects may group themselves into an 
effective, natural unit}". The child comes to the school a living unit. 
It is not logical to educate him in sections. 

Happiness is another factor in social efficiency which demands the 
investigation of its relationship to the place of manual training in the 
elementar}' school. True happiness is one of the great ends, toward the 
achievement of which, the race has labored. It may truthfully be said 
that happiness is the one great end of human societ}'. It follows then, 
that the school, if true to its sacred trust, must impart that kind of train- 
ing to the young that will enable them to live happy lives, or as it is 
oftener ex-pressed, "to get the most out of life." To completely analyze 
this ideal is not intended, but there are tvvo factors in its composition 
that are pertinent to our line of thought. These twain are thrift and 
good judgment. Their negative equivalents are want and foolishness. 
These great prime factors of social efficiency compel the attention of the 
public school. Her graduates must be equipped to earn a livelihood, and 
statistics tell us that for ninet}' per cent- of them, this must be done in 
the elementary school. 

The time was when the "three R's" were all sufficient for this end, 
for the educative nails they drove during the winter's school, were 
effectively clinched by the imperative needs of the home life. That time 


is past. Comparatively few children now have home tasks, the per- 
formance of which is essential to the common good. In the days when 
our grandparents were j'oung, practically all the family needs were sup- 
plied by home production. Beneath the home rod, the children learn 1 
the rudiments of nearly every native industry. Now the product of the 
home is consumed outside ; is exchanged so that those things consumed in 
the home are produced outside. The child, instead of learning some- 
thing of many industries, knows scarcely anything of even one. These 
conditions at home produce a handicap on future happiness that the 
school must alleviate. 

For this purpose came manual training into the curriculum, that the 
doors of opportunity might be opened. The old adage has it that "there 
are no two alike." Conditions conducive to the success of one individual 
cause the failure of another. If the school fits its boys and girls for 
happy useful lives, it must aid each to find the niche in the world of in- 
dustry for which he was designed by nature. In keeping with this de- 
duction the subject matter of manual training should be the elements of 
the world's industries, — and the more of them the better, for every addi- 
tional industry into which we are initiated is another open door to 

"Good judgment," the second factor in human happiness to which 
the school must give attention, let us define as the ability to correctly 
evaluate the things of life. The flagrant lack of this ability is constantly 
in evidence in all strata of society. The little home, the haven of 
seclusion and rest, is mortgaged, that the possession of a gorgeous red 
automobile may render Smith, socially equal to his neighbor Jones. The 
curly headed lad in knee trousers sticks a vile roll of street pickings 
and paper between his teeth that he may be, forsooth, a man. The 
indecent and immoral theatre production packs the house with an appre- 
ciative audience while Victor Hugo's "Les Miserables," plays to empty 
seats and idiotic "sniggers" and "titters." The existence of these visible 
tokens of foolishness is nothing new under the sun. It was deplored by 
the prophet Isaiah who said, "Wherefore do ye spend money for that 
which is not bread, and your labor for which satisfieth not?" This 
crowning imbecility of the judgment produces a waste of time and money, 
and waste and want are partners in the business of unhappiness. In 
dealing with this hindrance to social efficiency the school should find sub- 
stantial aid in the reactions arising in manual training. Obtaining, as 
he does by actual experience, correct concepts of the value and dignity 


of human labor, the pupil learns to know and appreciate true workman- 
ship. He grows to love the beautiful, the artistic and genuine, to shun 
the vile, abhor the sham and taboo the cheap. 

Our pupil in general has learned to work, has been properly disci- 
plined, and has acquired the requisites of happiness. To pass through 
this highly educative process he has necessarily acquired a variety of 
habits. Now a habit, the student of psychology will tell us, is one of 
nature's tricks of economy, whereby she relegates to unconscious or sub- 
conscious reactions, any process, either mental or manual, with which 
the mind has become so familiar that the process no longer requires 
active thought. The number and quality of our habits then, materially 
modify our efficiency, for the relegation of fundamental processes to sub- 
conscious direction leaves the mind free to investigate and master that 
which is new and more complex. Because of this truth, the function of 
the school in the formation of correct habits, though often sadly neg- 
lected, cannot be too greatly emphasized. It therefore becomes us to 
note the relation of manual training to these potent factors of social 
efficiency. This line of thought is a natural summary of what has gone 

It has been shown that manual training develops the habit of self- 
control. One phase of this habit, not commonly included in the popular 
concept, is important in this connection. This is self-control as func- 
tioning in dexterity of the hand, or skill. Unless there be an exception 
to that great law, that action and reaction are equal and opposite in 
direction, nimbleness of the fingers reacts as nimbleness of the mind. 
1 he truth of this is evidenced by the constant coincidence of awkward- 
ness and clumsiness with a low degree of mentality. 

It has been further shown that, through manual experiences, the 
habit of attention may easily be developed. No less an educator than 
Bishop John H. Vincent has said that "The habit of voluntary, inter- 
ested attention is the great secret in education." What an educational 
waste would be reduced by the prevalence of this habit. If it was never 
necessary to recall "Thomas" from the land of dreams; if his attention to 
his school work was a thing of habit, a thing spontaneous, how smoothly 
and easily would run the educative process. 

Likewise we have seen manual training functioning in habits of in- 
dustry, in habits of perseverance in the face of discouragement and diffi- 
culty. An industrious perseverance that gives the human soul the glor- 
ious satisfaction, that "Something accomplished, something done, has 
earned a night's repose." 


The habit of activitj^, which in its fullest development becomes that 
personal initiative so essential in coping with the tremendous pressure of 
modern competition, is another direct reaction of the manual element in 

The habit of honesty, of straightforward noble purpose is still an- 
other of its immediate results. Many subjects are so elusive in their na- 
ture as to enable the pupil to fool, not only his teacher but himself, as to 
the thoroughness with which the subjects have been mastered. Even the 
dread examination is no absolute criterion. Manual training is not so. 
f the box cover be "a fourth of an inch too small at one end" it is a 
frank, open failure, undeniable and chagrining. There is no question 
in the mind of the maker but that h ^ r ff >rt and through application 
ire the price of success. This conclusion becomes his "Apperceptive 
mass," and as such, influences his future conduct. 

The habit of personal neatness which, with one's associates and one's 
English, constitute a young man's passport to success, may have its be- 
ginnings in manual training. Permit me to illustrate: A mother once 
said to me, "It is wonderful how Richard has changed since he began 
this work. He used to be so careless with his things. His hat and coat 
were always thrown down, no matter where. Now they must be hung 
up just so and everything in his room he keeps in such nice order. How 
do you explain it?" 

I replied, "Where does he hang his hat and coat?" And the secret 
dawned upon her as she said : 

"Upon that little coat and hat cleat that he made at the beginning of 
the term." 

Work! Discipline! Happiness! Habit! These four great factors of 
human character have we carefully examined as they relate to social 
efficiency. The study of this relationship has defined and justified the 
place of manual experiences in the elementary educative process. In 
consistent keeping with the place of the human hand in the grand 
achievements of human history, must be the part of that great ally of the 
human mind in the training of youth for efficiency in human society, 
which, after all, is but the prelude to that larger life, potential with the 
possibilities of eternity. 



John H. Jinks. 

MUCH thought is being given to industrial education and there 
is a great deal of discussion as to what extent, if at all, the 
common school should contribute toward teaching industries. 
Many educators contend that the common school curriculum should 
include some instruction along industrial lines, inasmuch as the vast 
majority of the boys who graduate from them will eventually follow 
industrial pursuits, and in most cases will finish their schooling in the 
grammar grades. They also maintain that the State may be expected 
to prepare for life's work the ninety per cent of the boys graduating 
from the grammar school who will engage in the trades, as well as the 
ten per cent for the professions by providing high school and university 
courses. This differentiation is made on the ground that a candidate 
for the high school seldom, if ever, enters it with a view to following a 

On the other hand there are those who believe that the common 
school should be employed for academic purposes only, that the manual 
training should simply assist in the general mental development and have 
no connection whatever with industrial life. Hampton Institute takes 
the former view and stands firmly for industrial education. 



The definite policy of the school is to give each student an education 
which \vill help him most in his life's work. In most cases this work 
will be of an industrial nature whether in the workshop or in the rural 
school. This policy was expressed thirty-seven years ago by its founder, 
General Armstrong, in the following words: "To train selected youth 
who shall go out and teach and lead their people, first by example by 
getting land and homes ; to give them not a dollar that they can earn for 
themselves; to teach respect for labor; to replace stupid drudgery with 
skilled hands; and, to these ends, to build up an industrial system, for 
the sake not only of self support and intelligent labor, but also for the 
sake of character." 

In describing the manual training and industrial work the subject 
will be considered under four heads. 

1. What the manual training work is. 

2. Its relation to the trade work and agriculture. 

3. What the trade work is. 

4. The effect of the manual training upon the trades and agricul- 

Before doing this, and in order that a proper understanding may be 
had of the general situation it will be necessary to state a few of the 
conditions governing the two courses of instruction, the academic course 
and the trade course, and also such other features of the school as neces- 
sarily Influence the manual work. 

The course for the day classes is arranged for four years. It in- 
cludes agriculture, manual training and a course of training for teachers. 
The day classes are for those students who wish to take academic 
studies without learning a trade, and also for those who have already 
finished their trades and attended night school and wish to finish their 
academic course and obtain an academic diploma. Students in these 
classes attend school four or five days in the week and work for wages 
one or two days. Students who are not tradesmen can earn from one 
to six dollars a month according to their ability and the kind of work 
that they can do. This money Is used to pay their board and other ex- 
penses and what is lacking must be paid In cash. A student's board Is 
ten dollars a month which Includes washing, heat, light, medical attend- 
ance, and a limited quantity of drugs. A new student requires from 
seventy-five to eighty dollars in cash during the year for school ex- 
penses. All students taking this course devote two eighty-minute periods 
a week to manual training. Candidates for admission must be at least 



seventeen years of age and must pass an entrance examination in acade- 
mic subjects. 

Students who are learning trades or who are employed in remunera- 
tive labor by day — those of the work class — attend night school. Two 
years in the night school are required to do the work of one year in the 
day school. Manual training is not included in the night school course, 
as the ground is more than covered by the hand work during the day. 


Students who enter the work class for their first year are given an op- 
portunity to work for wages for six days in a week for twelve months 
and attend night school for eight months, the length of a school term. 


The following schedule is provided for regular day school students: 
(a) ]VIanual Training for Boys, (except those taking agriculture 
or trades.) 

Time — Two eighty-minute periods a week for four years. 
First year. Elementary mechanical drawing. 

Second year. Wood-turning. 

Bricklaying and plastering. 
Third year. Tin-smithing. 

Advanced mechanical drawing. 



Fourth year. Elective. Methods of house construction. 

Special work in teaching manual training in the In- 
stitute or neighborhood schools and special work in 
the Trade School. 
Forging, harness repairing, house painting, printing, shoe repairing, 
tailoring, upholstering, and wheelwrighting, may in special cases be 
substituted for the regular 
\\ork of the course- 
Owing to the constant 
interchange of students from 
one department to the other, 
due to beginning or finishing 
a trade, this plan is changed 
to suit individual cases, es- 
pecially when a student has 
finished a trade and enters 
the day school to complete 
the academic course. Fur- 
thermore, if a trade studen' 
so entering the day school is 
weak in any academJc subject 
he is excused from manua 
training and devotes the time to strengthening the weak subject. 

In the first year instruction is given in the use and care of simple 
woodworking tools. The articles are simple and such as are needed in 
a home or in the various classrooms of the school. Repairing furniture 
forms an important part of the work, and such repairs about the school 
that come within the range of the student are attended to. Problems in 
carpentry and house construction are taken up by those who intend to 
take the carpentry course the following year. If no aptitude is shown 
for this trade, they are otherwise advised. If another trade is selected 
they may then devote all the manual training time of this year to the 
trade chosen. 

The other forms of the manual training of the second and third 
years are taken in the trade school under competent trade instructors. 
Practical business methods are employed by the manual training student 
who works side by side with the trade student. 

The third and fourth year students include those who have finished 
a trade and have entered the day school to complete the academic course. 




Such students are expected to spend all their manual training time at 
their trade unless special academic work is considered more desirable. 

The work of the senior year is entirely elective. It may be any form 
of the regular manual training best suited to a particular case or it may 


be special work with a view to teaching. This special work includes 
practice work in teaching manual training in the Institute or in the 
public schools and evening schools of the neighborhood. It also includes 
short courses of practical manual training suitable for the rural schools, 
such as chair repairing and caning, corn-shuck mat making, and repairs 
to the fences and homes of the old people in the vicinity. 

(b) Manual Training for Girls, 

Time — Two eighty-minute periods a week for four years. 

The principal object of the manual training for the girls is to enable 
them to make good homes and to prepare them for industrial teaching. 
The time is equally divided between cooking and sewing for the first two 
years. Apart from this class work, all the housework in the girls' dormi- 
tories and teachers' rooms, including chamber worjc, sweeping, dusting, 
and scrubbing is done by the girls. In the school's steam laundry the 



girls do all the washing and ironing for the Students' Boarding Depart- 
ment and the Teachers' Home. 

During the first two-and-a-half years each girl has received a good 
training in hand and machine sewing and in general housework and 


cooking. Half of the third year is spent in household handicrafts. 
These include simple carpentry, glazing, painting, paper-hanging, and 
whitewashing. The object of this course is to make it possible for girls 
to do ordinary repairing, and enable them to keep their homes neat and 
attractive. Mattress making, chair-caning, and other branches of up- 
holstery may be added to the above subjects if required. 

The work of the senior class is drafting and dressmaking. Every 
young woman who graduates from Hampton is capable of drafting and 
making her own dresses and garments. 

Girls in the upper classes, all of whom have had instruction in cook- 
ing, are detailed on their work days to the teachers' kitchen where they 
assist in the preparation of the food for the teachers' dining-room. 


It will readily be seen from the foregoing plan of work that the 
manual training bears a very close relation to the trades, — so close indeed 
that the work of the two departments differs in degree only. A manual 
training student actually learns a limited amount of each trade he en- 



gages in during the academic course, which must add to his industrial 

In regard to this close contact between the academic work and 
trade work the school authorities and those in charge of the manual 
training are in perfect agreement with the expressed views of General 


Armstrong. They believe that in its adaptation to practical life lies its 
chief value to the student. 

The height of industrial usefulness is the possession of a trade — the 
term being used in its broadest sense, — therefore the more practical and 
useful the manual training becomes the nearer it must approach to trade 
work in its nature. The students go into the different trade shops, work 
side by side with the trade students, have the same instructor and have 
similar instruction. In this way they see and apply good trade methods 
and work with the actual thing and not a substitute as must often be 
the case in the academic classroom. 

In answer to those who may question the pedagogical and ethical 
value of such instruction it may be said that mental and moral develop- 
ment is as much a part of the trade course as of the academic course, 
since character building is the chief aim of each department. In this 
respect, also, there is the closest relationship between the manual train- 
ing and the trades. 




The trade school is for boys only. All students in the trade school 
receive instruction in their trade eight hours each day and attend the 
night school. When necessary, one day each week may be taken for a 
work day. A student beginning his trade upon entering the school is 
likely to need during his first j^ear, besides his entrance fee of twenty 


dollars, from seventj'-five to eighty dollars in cash for school expenses. 
Student labor is paid for according to its value and the earnings of the 
students are held as a bond for the fulfillment of their purpose of getting 
an education at the school, and can be used only for their support vvhi e 
there. As it is impossible for trade students to earn money at their 
trades during the first part of the course the work day is allowed which 
can be spent in unskilled labor outside the trade school. 

The trade courses are blacksmithing, bricklaying and plaster'n >„ 
carpentry, cabinet-making, harness-making, machine work, painting, 
printing, shoemaking, steam-fitting and plumbing, tailoring, tinsn^t ling, 
upholstery, wheelwrighting. 

Students taking full courses in 1906-7 248 

Students taking special courses 7 

Agriculture students taking special courses 9 

Manual training students 71 

Each trade course requires three years. Lectures are given on 
topics connected with each trade. On completing the course a certifi- 
cate is given for attainment of skill, rather than for length of service. 
To the postgraduate students who are taking a three years' course in 



scientific agriculture, short courses are given in those trades most needed 
by the farmer. Included in these are carpentry, harness-mending, wheel- 
wright and blacksmith work, bricklaying and farm mechanics. 

Nearly all of the work of the Institute and much outside work is 
done by the trade students. This includes the erection and repair of the 
school's buildings, numbering sixty-five in all. The outside work con- 
sists chiefly in cabinet work, wagon and truck building and harness- 


making. The uniform suits for about four hundred students are made 
in the tailor shop. All this work is valuable to the student as it brings 
him into keen competition with the various industries. A trade course 
includes, in addition to short courses in kindred trades, some work in 
mechanical and freehand drawing bearing especially upon the trade en~ 
gaged in. 


The effect of the manual training upon the trades is felt in several 
ways. The most noticeable one is the s"pecial help it gives to a student 
who afterwards takes up a trade, for the trade instructors report that 
those students who have had manual training can be relieved of much of 
the preliminary work, and in some cases, of the greater part of the work 
of the first year of the course. The trades are affected in no small de- 


gree by the manual training having created a sentiment in the student 
toward manual labor which has directed him to a trade. 

Again, through his manual training a student is often enabled to 
select a trade for which he has special ability instead of following one 
from mere fancy. A student seldom changes his trade after starting 
it, and the facts warrant the belief that this is largely due to his con- 


tact with the trades through the manual training. If we may include 
agriculture and animal industry under the head of trades, the effect upon 
these subjects is just as pronounced. A knowledge, limited though it 
be, of painting, glazing, machine and harness-repairing surely makes a 
more intelligent and self-reliant farmer. 

A problem worked out by a former class in agriculture may empha- 
size the point. The class was studying incubation at the time and an 
incubator seemed to be a suitable though ambitious thing to make. 
Disused materials were obtained wherever possible and a few things 
bought. With these and their manual training experience, the students 
completed an incubator and brooder. The metal bars for the thermostat 
and a few simple things cost one dollar and twenty-five cents — the entire 
cost. The incubator held sixty-three eggs, fifty-five of which were 
hatched and forty-eight chickens grew to broiler size. This practical 
application of the knowledge gained through the manual training must 
have had a good effect upon these students by showing them what could 
be done with cast-off materials. If these methods were applied to their 
farming, the manual training might justly claim a part in their success. 

So far we have been dealing with the Institute proper, yet a descrip- 
tion of the manual training would not be complete without including the 



work at the Whittier School, a graded public school which is used as a 
training school for teachers. Though a public school, it is mainly sup- 
ported by the Hampton Institute and is always considered a part of the 


The manual training of the kindergarten and the first three grades 
includes clay, wood and paper as mediums of expression. Above these 
grades the work is of the same practical form as at the Institute, 
sewing, cooking, washing and ironing for the girls, mat-making, chair 
repairing and caning, repairing furniture, repairs about the school, and 
bcnchwork for the boys. Every pupil has a plot of land and devotes 
two periods a week to gardening, studying the planting, rotation and 
harvesting of crops. 

In giving this account of the manual training and industrial work 
at Hampton Institute the writer has confined himself to the narration of 
simple facts, leaving to the judgment of the reader the wisdom of teach- 
ing this practical kind of work. The emphasis given to its useful side 
does not in any way diminish the attention given to mental and moral 
training, all of which must be combined in order to produce a properly 
educated student. While this practical training is considered the best 
for the students at Hampton, it is clearly seen that such instruction can- 
not be given in all schools. The Hampton manual training student is 
especially fortunate in having a trade school under the same administra- 
tion where he can obtain such valuable experience. 


Gilbert B. Morrison. 

IT WILL be the purpose of the present article to call attention to 
the drawing of the mechanical arts course as shown in outline 
in the tables accompanying the series of exercises in the mechanical 
arts, to touch briefly the development of drawing from its educational 
side, and to present, with a few comments, an outline of work as at 
present done in forging and sheetmetal work which occupies the whole 
of the third year. 

The tendency to draw has. manifested itself -ever since we have 
any history or record of the human race. The first relics indicate that 
man was a contemporary of the gigantic mammals of the Champlain 
period, a time so remote that we have no record of it in years. The 
stone implements such as arrow heads, hatchets, shells, and ivory had 
upon them markings, carvings, and rude drawings. These illustrations 
were mostly of animals and men contemporaneous of the pieriod. 
While rude and primitive, some of these drawings show considerable 
artistic ability. In the cave of La Madeline in southern France was 
found a good representation of an elephant of the period (elephas primi- 
genius) engraved on ivor)^ The lines of this engraving show that the 



knack of draw ing possessed by the born artist, and which appears occa- 
sionally as an untaught instinct in man, revealed itself in the earliest 
human relics. This drawing was probably made during what is known 
as the reindeer era which succeeded the stone, or paleolithic age. 

The spontaneous efforts of primitive men and children to represent 
the actualities within their horizon of observation should furnish us 
a key to the proper method of development of drawing as a means of 
education, but like other subjects and other means, drawing lost its 
spontaneity and naturalness when it got into the schools. This attempt 
to depict striking things furnished an effective means for producing a 
greater accuracy and completeness of observation of real things, but 
instead of fostering this tendency in the schools the subject of drawing 
was introduced by a monotonous and meaningless system of copying 
lines. Instead of encouraging this early tendency of children to gain 
command over their fingers and to acquire elementary notions of like- 
ness without interference, a formal grammar of form was substituted, 
and instead of interesting natural objects the child was given a drawing 
book which consisted mainly of definitions and illustrations of "simple 
lines," "straight lines," "curved lines," "oblique lines," "horizontal 
lines," "vertical lines," etc, etc. This dry abstract analysis of the 
elements of subjects has been a sort of incubus in our schools for many 
years. Instead of natural methods from concrets to abstract the 
order has been reversed. The learning of foreign languages was 
begim by a drill in grammar. Science was introduced by definitions 
and "principles" — by a grammar of natural law. It is not strange that 
drawing was little more than a grammar of form. While these prac- 
tices are not wholly extinct we are happily passing from them to 
natural methods. 

The introduction of manual training called for a new interpreta- 
tion of the function of drawing and there has been a movement amount- 
ing almost to a revolution in the method" of teaching art. In the place 
of the formal method of teaching drawing by rules, and by teachers 
regardless of their qualifications for this work there was substituted 
the artist who carried to it something of reality — some of the spirit 
of art and truth. Drawing became a means of expression and indus- 
trial art took the place of much of the thoughtless copying of classic 
abstractions. This spirit grew and branched out in many directions. 
Adapted to the different grades and the varying ages and capacities of 
children, it appeared as color work, still-life drawing, designing, model- 


ing, decorating, and the various forms of construction work of a non- 
mechanical character. This movement has done much for the children 
of the grades in giving them partial relief from that process of word 
learning which was so much overdone in the schools of twenty years 


ago and which is still in vogue in some schools. Placed under the in- 
fluence of this work the children drew their elements and units of 
design, sometimes from nature, and sometimes from the art and handi- 
craft of the Indians and other primitive peoples. 

It seems proper that this work shoulcf be given to the children of 
the primary schools. They are of an age which corresponds to that 
of the race and to that form of civilization that preceded the mechan- 
ical. It cultivates the taste, the imagination, and exercises the co- 
ordinating power between the hand and the head, and it has a place 
in domestic arts courses in the high school. The spirit of the new art 
movement has taken absolute possession of the schools in some of our 


leading cities, and it will perhaps have to be admitted that like other 
good things long delayed and finally under way, it is being somewhat 
overdone. This is especially true in its attempted application to or 
substitution for mechanical drawing and the mechanic arts. This 
movement, in the ecstacy of its new being, found expression in sayings 
like these: "Teach the beautiful, the useful will take care of itself." 
"It is not so much to make beautiful things as to make things beau- 
tiful." These phrases sound well and properly interpreted convey cer- 
tain truths; but as they have been employed to depreciate and belittle 
certain essentials and processes not in themselves related, to art as a 
conception, they have done their share of mischief in beclouding and 
obstructing progress, and in diverting the attention from the larger 
significance of manual training. It is, of course, admitted that the 
artistic spirit pervades all good work taken in its aggregate. But it 
cannot be admitted that all processes in mental or constructional 
acquisition can be accompanied by art. at the time they are performing 
their true educational function. The chief value of manual training 
lies in the skill acquired in the mechanical operations aS I have before 
pointed out. The real use of art in its application to the mechanic 
arts is in designing the form, and in decorating the surfaces of the ar- 
ticles made. As this is very important, we give one period a week to 
designing throughout the course. The illustration of finished projects 
shown in these articles and the accompanying designs will give some 
idea of what we are doing. 

Thus far considered the purpose of drawing is aesthetic. The love 
of beauty, of harmony, and of proportion is a constant stimulus in mak- 
ing everything as beautiful as we possibly can, and how much effort in 
this direction is needed is only too plainly revealed everywhere in the 
commercial articles on sale in our stores and shops. 

I now turn to another kind of drawing through which runs a dif- 
ferent purpose. Mechanical drawing like that of art and freehand 
drawing has had an interesting evolution. From mere thoughtless 
copying from a model drawing, which has little value beyond the prac- 
tice given in handling instruments, the mechanical drawing course has 
so developed that it now combines several distinct functions. 1. It 
furnishes a training in the use of drafting instruments. 2. It gives 
the student interpretive knowledge and skill in making and applying 
constructional drawings which necessarily precede all his exercises in 
the mechanical arts of which they form an essential part. 3. It gives 



practice in freehand sketching of objects to be constructed or to be 
remembered — a function indispensible to the practical man who needs a 
ready and effective medium of expression and communication in the 
making of plans and specifications etc. 4. It furnishes weekly practice 
in constructional and decorative design which is constantly applied in 
the workshops. 5. It gives a developmental course in descriptive 


geometry by a series of logical steps which makes this a very easy 
instead of a very difficult subject. The problems and exercises outlined 
in the accompanying tables are worked out with comparative ease by 
all pupils taking the work. As this phase of mechanical drawing is 
not usually seen in a secondary school, and as its practicability is liable 
to be questioned, it may not be improper for me to say that I am not 
describing a theoretical course but am giving only what is actually 
being done. 

These drawing problems are to abstract descriptive geometry what 
empirical or constructional geometry is to demonstrative geometry. 
All transitions in education should be made incidentally and not for- 
mally, and the relationship to constructive art should always be main- 
tained. A pupil who has had constant practice in dealing with 
relationships of form and quantity will come later to the demonstrations 
of Euclid or to the problems of descriptive geometry with faculties well 
disciplined for abstract reasoning. 


For the development of this phase of our course in mechanical draw- 
ing credit is due to Mr. Arthur J. Burr. As it will be of some interest 
to teachers of mechanical drawing, I shall present a brief description 
of it substantially as directed by Mr. Burr. 

First Year. Since lettering occurs on all drawings, only about two 
or three weeks are given to a small sheet of simple freehand and instru- 
mental lettering at the beginning of the course, after which no special 
sheets on lettering are introduced, though many styles of instrumental 
lettering are given on the blue-prints used in the second and third years. 

Following the lettering, freehand orthographic sketches of simple 
geometrical objects and shop exercises are made, and from these, prac- 
tical working drawings are executed in ink. The "third quadrant" 
(which is previously explained to the pupil by means of drawings and 
"co-ordinate planes,) only, is used in the first year. As soon as the 
pupil has acquired suflficient ability in working out orthographic projec- 
tions, he is required to make assembly and detailed drawings of a simple 
tool, globe valve or other simple mechanical device, and finally to 
design some simple thing which he may or may not construct in the 
shops. This completes the first half of the first year. 

Isometric and cabinet projections are taken up during the third 
quarter of the first year in w^hich the pupil's drafting desk is drawn 
in cabinet projection, tinted and grained. The last quarter of the year 
is given to freehand drawing in pencil and charcoal from objects. 

Second Year. In the second year, an elementary course in descrip- 
tive geometry (the basis of all mechanical drawing) is given. It is 
introduced by means of simple isometric drawings which show the 
relations between planes and their traces, and between points and lines 
and their projections upon the co-ordinate planes in a sort of picture 
form, and from this they are developed into the pure orthographic form. 
Three sheets cover this method of treatment, after which simple descrip- 
tive geometry problems are taken up, followed by conical sections, inter- 
sections of curved surfaces, line shading (treated in a new and somewhat 
rigid way) shades and shadows and linear perspective. 

All problems in this year are presented on incomplete blue-prints 
which are supplemented by models when necessary. This method pre- 
sents the problems with the minimum amount of laborious lettering, 
aids the pupil in getting started, saves time in arranging the drawing 
upon the sheet, saves paper, prevents the pupil from blindly copying the 
results required, gives the teacher an opportunity to explain the problem 



before the pupil begins, and furnishes the teacher something tangible 
to explain. This second year work is the most important in that it 
gives the theory and principles of mechanical drawing, and hence a 
broader view of the subject. It prepares the pupil for the most difficult 
practical drawing he may be called upon to make and gives him an 
excellent preparation for any subsequent and more advanced college 
course in descriptive geometry. 

Third Year, (a) Machine Drawing Course. At the beginning 
of the third year, the cycloid, the spirals (including the involute) and 
the helix are given preliminary to the drawing of such elements of 


machines as cams and gears, which require special treatment, and which 
depend upon these curves for their construction. These are presented 
in a manner similar to that employed in the second year. This ar- 
rangement makes it possible for the pupil to understand and draw al- 
most any machine or part of same that may be required of him. This 
phase of drawing completes the third year's work. 

(b) Architectural Drawing Course. At the same time the ma- 
chine course begins, the architectural drawing course is taken up by 
pupils who prefer it to the machine drawing. This course consists of 
architectural lettering, pen-and-ink rendering, brush rendering, draw- 
ings illustrating methods of representation of plans, elevations and 
details as used in architectural practice. The classic orders are taken 
up in the last portion of the year. 

Fourth Year, (a) Machine Drawing Course. At the beginning 
of the fourth and last year, working drawings — both assembly and de- 
tail — are made from machines selected by the teacher. The last part 
of the year is given up to machine design. 

(b) Architectural Drawing Course. At the beginning of the 
fourth vear the classic orders are continued while the remainder of the 



TABLE VII.— Forging.— Third Year. 





Illustrating: the 


Form of Design 

applicable to 

Process and hxercise 

I. Lectures on 

2. Management of 
Forge and Fire. 

General Black- 

3. Drawing Out. 

Stock Reduction. 

General, in Appli- 

Enlarging Stock. 


4. Bending. 

Meat Hook, Span- 
ner Wrench, 
Split Link, Gate 
Hinge, Staple. 

Gate Hook, Poker. 


5. Twisting. 

6. Upsetting. 

Bolt Heading, 
Angle Iron. 


7. Splitting. 


Eyes and Small 

Spreading out 
Stock. Stock re- 
duction. Round- 

Fork, Drawer Pull, 


8. Punching and 

Hasp, Chain Hook, 
Trace Link, Fin- 
ger Plate Hinge, 
Door Plate. 

Eye Bolt, Hat 
Hook, Door Plate, 
Door Knocker, 
Shoe Scraper. 


9. Fullering and 


10. Use of the 

Power Hammer. 

Heavy Forging. 

Tongs, Connecting 
Rod, Crank Shaft. 


11. Use of Power 

Shearing Stock. 

Plates and Similar 
Sheet Metal Work- 


12. Welding. 

Joining, Building 

Rings, Ring and 
Eye Bolts, Chains, 
Grapnel Clevis. 

13. Case Hardening 
and Annealing. 

Hardening and 
Softening Sur- 
faces of Iron. 

All Steel Work. 

Screw Threads, 
Small Castings, 
Small Forgings. 

14. Lectures and 
Notes on Steel. 

All Steel Work. 

15. Tool Making 
and Dressing. 

Working with 

Four Hand Tools, 
Seven Lathe 


16. Hardening and 

Metal Working 
Tools, Bushings, 
Rock Drills. 

Four Hand Tools. 
Seven Lathe 

17. Assembling. 

Putting together 
Work composed 
of several parts. 

Chain and Hook, 1 
Lantern Hanging, Constructive 
Bracket and Design. 
Table Lamps. 



TABLE VIII. — Art-Crafts Metalwork. — Third Year. 
(Tin, Copper and Iron.) 







Exercises Form of Design 
Illustrating the applicable to 

Process Process and Exercise 

1 . Lectures on the 
Materials and 


All Exercises. 

2. Development o^ 
Flat and Curved 

Sheet Metal Work. 

Stretching and 
Forming Sheet 

Tin Cup, Tea Pot, 
Match Safe, 
Stamp Box, Box 

Tray, Ladle, Por- 
ringer, Ink Pot- 


3 . Beating out. 



4. Cutting and 

Cutting Openings 
in Sheet Metal, 
Stock Preparation. 

Escutcheons, Hinge 
Tails, Drawer 
Pulls, Box Cor- 
ners, Finger 

Blotter Block. 

Match Box, 
Sconce Stamp 
Box, Bonbon Box, 
Venetian Iron 


5. Forming and 



6. Riveting and 

Joint Making. 
Art Metal Work. 


7. Finishing and 

All Exercises. 

year is given up to the design of a house or other building, working draw- 
ings of plans; elevations and details being required with perspective 
drawings also in some cases. 

On account of the wide difference in the ability of pupils, two 
courses known as "major" and "minor" are given. The major course 
is as above described, while the minor course consists of the first three 
years of the major course completed in four years. 

The accompanying cut shows a few decorative designs for the "book 
rack" and "pin tray" on which the classes are at the present time 

The work in forging which occupies the student's time during the 
first three quarters of the third year is shown in Table VII. As this 
work gives free play to all the student's faculties it is probably the 



TABLE IX. — Drawing.— Third Year. 





Illustrating the 





1. (a) Linear 


Principles, and 



^»»m^ « -^^1. 


(b) Design. 

Metal Work. 
Screws, Cams, 

Design of Hasps, 
Door Knocker, 
Shoe Scraper, 
Finger Plate, etc. 

Ellipse, Cycloid, 

Form Design. 

.... ^. ^ 

2. {(a) Special 


Gears, etc. 

Spirals, Helis, etc. 

used in 




(b) Design. 

Metal Work. 

Design of Hat and 
Coat Hooks, 
Door Knocker. 

Form and Decora-, 

3. (a) Parts of 

Machine Drawing 

Cams, Cycloidal, 


and Design. 

Involute, Bevel, 


and Worm Gears. 



(b) Design. 

Metal Work. 

Design of Lantern, 
Hanging Brackets 
and Table Lamps, 
Cups, Pots, Match 

Constructive and 


Safes, Box Cor- 

ners, Stamp Boxes, 

Trays, Ladles, 

Porringer, Ink 

Pot, Blotter 

Blocks, Sconce, 

Bon Bon Box, 

Venetian Iron 



most valuable part of the course. With hammer, tongs, anvil, and a 
forge fire the student must express himself through a refractory iron 
medium. After the requirements laid out in the shop drawing are 
studied and understood, the vi'orlc on the exercise requires concentrated 
attention, alertness, quick and steady movement, vigor and physical 
strength. The life at the forge is stimulating, interesting and stren- 
uous. The boy must "strike while the iron is hot" and strike right or 
he will not reach the desired results. All the exercises in the forging 
course are practical, useful articles. This fact secures interest at the 
start. From a simple wedge, staple, hook or poker to ornamental 


lanterns, brackets and lamps the course furnishes a complete, flexible 
series of exercises which gradually increase in difficulty and complexity. 
There is something particularly human in the work of the forge, and 
its articles when artistically designed and skillfully wrought are always 
in demand when aesthetic effects are desired. No machine-made hard- 
ware can take the place of forged trimmings in giving pleasing effects 
to articles of household furniture. They always suggest enduring 
strength, and can be exactly adapted to the particular place and func- 
tion for which they are intended. 

The work of the fourth quarter consists of exercises on sheet metal. 
Though not equal to forging in its educative value, it has many points 
of merit especially as it requires skill in constructive design. 

The last number of this series will contain, along with tables of 
fourth-year work, a discussion of industrial education in its relation 
to the high school. 

Charles R. Richards, 

PROBLEM IV. The proportions of a box are of course deter- 
mined largely by the nature of its intended use — its contents 
and the place it is to occupy. In the case of small boxes, such 
as those often made in schools, it is nevertheless generally possible to ad- 
just the relative dimensions within a greater or less margin without 
affecting the functional result. 

The fundamental form effect of a box, or chest or table or any other 
piece of furniture, is first a matter of the proportions of the front or 
commonly seen view and then the relation of this outline or mass to the 
other views of which one or both are generally seen in conjunction with 
the first. Here as in the wainscot or door panels an agreeable effect is 
gained by a harmonious relation of spaces accompanied by variation in 
form. A box with a square end is not as pleasing as one with varied 
dimensions, not only because of lack of interest in the end view but be- 
cause of the sameness in top and front views. 

In the case of a box resting on a table, bureau or desk, the relation of 
the top and front views is evidently of the most consequence. The pro- 
portions of the end however are important not only in connection with 
the other views but on account of the influence these proportions exert 
upon stability of appearance and consequent restfulness of effect. These 
qualities are often lost by making our boxes too high in proportion to 
their depth. 

The Japanese with their endless variety of boxes for all manner of 
purposes are very happy in this matter and turn out countless specimens 
that seem quite independent of surface ornament for their charm. 

For the sake of concreteness this problem is given as the design of a 

'The first article in this series was published in the December number. 



box for some specific purpose such as a glove box, a jewelry casket or a 
box for drawing instruments with a definite cubic capacity. Students 
designs are shown in Figures 15 to 17. 




Problem V. This problem deals with the design of a small box 
suitable for pencils or brushes with overhanging cover and bottom piece. 
The special elements in the problem are the thickness of the top and 
bottom pieces and the amount of overhang. 

It is apparent from a comparison of cornice and roof projections in 
Greek temples and other low buildings and in those of modern office 
buildings that the amount of overhang in these features is a matter of 



relation to the height and width of structure — the long low building 
demanding shallow far projecting eaves and the tall office building a 
high but relatively narrow cornice. 



These features perform the same aesthetic function as the overhang- 
ing edges of a simple box and although it seems a far cry from such a 
structure to a classic temple the proportions of the latter may be studied 



with much profit in this connection. By comparing the effect of equal 
projections on the front and end views of a long and narrow box the 
above form relation will be very evident. When there is much differ- 


ence m the width of the two views a projection suitable for the front 
will almost invariably be too great for the end. 

Variation of overhang is a refinement rarely attempted in small boxes 
and one that is practically not important because the box is seldom seen 
directly on end but the comparative study of the two views serves a use- 
ful purpose in bringing out the relation of overhang to the primary form. 



In the case of tables, however, where the amount of overhang both 
front and side is an important item in the effect the desirability of varia- 
tion is generally recognized and in long tables the projection of the top 
at the ends is almost always greater than at the sides. 


Problem VI. ' This problem considers the modification of the square 
edges of the previous box by mouldings suitable for soft wood and for 
such a simple piece of construction. It is evident that such modifications 
to be appropriate must be very simple. It is also evident that the treat- 

\ / 

ment of the cover should be in harmony with that of the base and yet 
not simple duplication. Various combinations made up of simple cham- 
fered and rounded edges are possible and a few of these are illustrated 
by the designs shown in Figures 20-22, 

In Figure 20 the attempt has been made to secure unity through 
equal depths of chamfer with a result rather formal and rigid for such 
a small box. In Figure 21 harmony is sought by employing equal 



angles. In Figure 22 an agreeable relation of outlines is secured 
but with a treatment of the upper moulding that is perhaps over delicate 
for such a simple structure. 

Problem VII. A chest with corner posts and panelled front presents 


additional elements of space division: vertically — the cover thickness, 
top rail, panel, bottom rail and clearance; horizontally — overhang of 
cover, posts, panel and style divisions. 

To secure a pleasing front mass is the first consideration and then an 


agreeable breaking of this space by posts and rails and panels. The old 
form of Elizabethan construction that presents a post much wider than 
deep lends itself materially to this effect. A square post is almost in- 
variably too narrow to balance satisfactorily the weight of the large cen- 
tral rectangle. 

To avoid equality in the width of the two rails and the clearance 
space and yet preserve friendly relations is a nice problem of adjust- 
ment. The mouldings on the lid, which would be exposed to much 
wear, should evidently be simple and without projecting angles. 






Problem VIII. In a seat or large stool many of the elements of the 
previous problem are present. The proportions and division of the 
main rectangular mass are of course the chief consideration. 

In a rectangular space broken by a heavy top rail and a lighter lower 
rail, a condition presented also in tables and chairs, a general similarity 



of proportion between the two rails and their underlying voids may add 
a pleasing element of rhythm and consequent unity to an otherwise 
meager design. 

Many simple refinements may be introduced in the outlines of such 
seats which serve to relieve their plainness of effect and geometrical 
quality. 7"he lower side rails for example may be placed at a different 
height from those of the front as in Figure 25, or divided into a number 
of parts as in Figure 26. 


Slight variations in contour in the upper rail and simple articulations 
of foot and top of the posts may be employed to good advantage. The 
main point to be considered in all such modifications is that the funda- 
mental structural outline be preserved and that all variations be made 
distinctly secondary in eiifect and not of such eye-compelling quality as to 
become the prominent features of the design. The shaping of the feet 
in Figure 26 perhaps approaches the danger line in this direction. 

Problem IX. A table with straight-line members for a small study 
or library. 

Every piece of furniture has a certain dominant quality of form, pro- 
portion of parts, color or surface treatment which gives, or should give, 
a key for the treatment of every detail. 








In the table suggested by the problem it is evident that the signifi- 
cant qualities are simplicity, strength and obviousness of structure. In 
such a table or other piece of furniture composed mainly of straight sided 
and square ended members interest of effect will depend more than ordi- 
narily upon niceness of proportion and agreeable relation of spaces. 

With such simple structures it is often desirable however to make use 
of other appropriate effects in order to develop greater character and in- 
terest of appearance. In the first place a strong grained wood such as 






oak may be used to add a pleasing texture effect to the broad flat sur- 
faces. Furthermore the expression of structural details such as project- 
ing tenon ends and keyed tenons may be made use of to add spots of in- 
terest to the plain surfaces and regular contours. And again an exagger- 
ation of certain details such as the projection of the top may be employed 
to further escape the commonplace and gain strength and individuality of 

Problem X. A center table without lower rails or stretcher, suita- 
ble for a small living room. 

Such a lighter table will be characterized by greater delicacy of pro- 
portion and refinement of detail. The exaggeration of parts and the 



constructive expression appropriate in the last problem would here be 
out of place. 

With the lower rails omitted the tapered leg becomes necessary and 
w ith the reduction of surface areas the use of strongly marked woods is 
no longer so desirable. With straight sided members and the use of an 
even-grained wood like mahogany, narrow lines of low toned inlay have 






commonly been almost the sole means employed to add further richness 
of effect to such tables. Figure 30. 

In Figure 31 other elements of refinement have been introduced. 
In this design a one or three-part panel division of the rail might be used 
to advantage in place of the two-part arrangement shown. 

When the contour is modified by a slight curved treatment the out- 
line becomes the character-giving element and inlay is no longer appro- 
priate. When any suggestion of curved outline is introduced into the 
rail and legs, the problem becomes largely one of flow of line and con- 
sonance of movement in the inner rectangle. The expression of this par- 
ticular problem is of course seen at its best in the finer tables of the 
Louis XV period which stripped of their surface ornament remain in 
many cases exquisite examples of pure outline design. 

Problem XI. In the ornament or plant stand there is less necessity 
for rigid adherence to structural form and more opportunity for inven- 
tive fancy than in more important constructions. Various pleasing 



modifications of contour especially in the supports may be made without 
losing the essential structural character of the outline. Figures 35-37. 
In the type with sunken shelf above and a second shelf below, oppor- 
tunities are presented for a rhythmic arrangement of the rails and also 
for a treatment of the enclosed void by connecting splats. In this latter 
connection care is necessary to avoid overheaviness 
of effect by the introduction of members either too 
numerous or too large for the space. 

Problem XII. A chair with straight lined 

In even the simplest form of the conventional 
chair there are presented the two distinct problems 
of body and of back ,-=-, f=>, 

and at the same time 
the problem of rela- 
tion between these two. 
In the under body 
in all common types 
there are four legs con- 
nected by four top 
rails and by lower side 
rails and either with or without lower front 
and back rails or stretcher. This is a prob- 
lem similar in most respects to the seat and 
the table. 

In the back the rear legs are continued 
upward and in the straight lined types 
joined either by rails alone or by a combi- 
nation of rails and splats. These members 
must be so placed as to give comfortable 
support to the back of the sitter and at the figure 39. 

same time to offer a pleasing space arrangement of this upper rectangue. 
In Figure 39 a chair of equal width is shown (a form that must al- 
ways be heavier and more set in effect than the usual type) in which one 
deep rail is carried across the low back. To balance this heavy member 
the seat rail has been dropped and a shelf seat and cushion introduced. 

To relieve the squareness and solid quality of the effect the surface 
has been broken by grooved lines and a strong finial placed at the top 






of the supports. The effect of this design would perhaps not be lessened 
if the bottom stretcher was omitted. 

In Figure 40 a design of the more usual type is shown. 

Such designs do not of course suggest the poetry of chair design. 
Thii is reflected in the exquisite and subtle relation of curved lines as ex- 





pressed in the creations of Chippendale and Heppelwhite and the French 
designers of the 18th century. Such problems are however far beyond 
the range of a course of such limited character as the one under consider- 


Cheshire Lawton Boone. 

THE play house which was discussed in the first paper, is a typical 
first-year project. It loses much of its intierest for children by 
the second or third year. They can do more difficult and 
varied exercises, and their interests have multiplied. 


The most adaptable and useful constructive agent during the primary 
period, is the sand table. Its possibilities are practically unlimited for 
any one of the first three grades because it introduces so many kinds of 
manipulation. In the first grade children have to learn the use of their 
fingers, of scissors and paste, and to learn to follow directions easily. 
As a beginning very simple buildings, as houses, barns, stores or 
churches are cut from stifif paper. These may be colored and details, 
as windows and doors, indicated with crayon or pencil. Figures, ani- 
mals, wagons, lamp posts, etc. are cut out in the same way and a selec- 
tion from all this material assembled on the sand table to represent a 
street, a house and yard, a chicken yard and the like. One can arrange 
in the same way illustrations of skating and sliding, the railway station, 
and representations of "Red Riding Hood," "Cinderella," or "Over 
the River and Through the Woods." 

'Copyright, 1907, Cheshire L. Boone. 


With alert or advanced classes the cutting is supplemented with or 
even supplanted by objects in three dimensions, constructed by folding, 
cutting and pasting or by modeling in clay. (Eskimo Village.) 

Sand table work introduces certain fundamental ideas in a direct way. 
It emphasizes the relative sizes of things — which is scale — and their 
relative positions, two items which are all important in the making of 
illustrative drawings. All drawings at this time should be of the illus- 
trative kind and deal with the same subject matter as does hand work. 
For the second and third years, problems are desirable which will 
involve measurement and accurate workmanship, and which possess 
also the invigorating pictorial or story element; these exercises are in 
fact illustrations. Sand table work combines the two qualities. 

For the present purpose a village street is chosen as a type, as it 
presents most of the possible exercises useful at the time. The project 
is worked out in paper. 

As has been already suggested the topic must be presented by the 
class teacher, a bit at a time, studying first, buildings, then vehicles, 
fences, people, animals, etc., in order to build up a conception of th^ 
street as a unit by becoming familiar with the details of that unit. 

In practice, typical exercises are taught in great detail, as dictational 
lessons. The class is encouraged to make then as many variations or 
additions as it can. These may be produced either in or out of school 
as seems feasible. As soon as enough material is on hand, the table is 
arranged and the houses, for instance, placed in position with proper 
surroundings — fences, sidewalk, trees, etc. As succeeding objects are 
finished, additions are made to the picture, changing parts of it if neces- 
sary to accommodate the new elements, but keeping before the class all 
the tirrve the one idea — street or farm, etc. Moreover the detailed 
arrangement of the picture may be left so far as can be, to the class; 
they are to choose where the stores are to be, and the houses and church. 
It is their street. 

The most satisfactory way to present these separate problems to the 
class is to place the drawing for any chosen one on the blackboard in 
the position in which pupils can most easily make the measurements. 
Each measurement should then be indicated by a dotted line, and then ex- 
ecuted by the class, one line at a time, until the diagram is complete. 
The cuts are finally indicated by heavy full lines or by colored lines, 
the class following the building up of the drawing. In this way chil- 
dren learn to follow directions and follow them rapidly. As the class 


becomes familiar with objects developed on paper, it quickly comes to see 
how the construction is accomplished and to see that each fold has a 
definite use. 

Once embarked on a sand table project the work should be kept mov- 
ing until the task is completed. Every lesson need not be dtevoted to it, 
but every lesson ought to contribute toward the enthusiasm which the 
group of lessons inspires. Any normal class of primary age handles 
the sand table with skill and delight and the existence of apathy suggests 


an indifferent presentation of the subject or an unfortunate choice 
of topic. 

Whenever it seems desirable other media than paper may be used for 
all or part of the project. Clay is very necessary for figures, animals, 
for sidewalks, curbs, steps, foundations, etc. Sand and gravel may be 
needed for the road. White cotton or cloth makes splendid snow. 
Any evergreen will supply the material for trees and bushes. — The kind 
of material used is of slight importance. Any medium by which the 
expression of the idea can be facilitated is allowable, if one is careful to 
choose lines of work which will require media that are constructive in 
kind — that can be measured and used for accurate building. For this 
reason the Indian Village is poor matter for constructive purposes. It 
suggests very few exercises for school work, which can be made in a 
sensible way. The problems cannot be laid out easily. 

The drawings and illustrations herewith offered give details necessary 
to carry out the work as indicated above. The diagrams admit of 
innumerable modifications. Many other problems may be devised along 
the same line. All buildings and all vehicles are very much alike as 
to the essentials of construction, but it is most desirable that the designs 








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used, be the best possible for the locality. Local custom and local 
architecture may not be ignored, and the present drawings ought to be 
modified if necessary to make the objects characteristic/ 

One caution should be given. Sand table work is fascinating and 
profitable only so long as the subject matter is changed from year to 
year, and new topics introduced at more or less regular intervals. If a 

i Ql 
US'! 19 


'the maid was in the garden. sand table work. year I. A STILL 



village street — the same street — be manufactured time after time the 
conception becomes crystalized and lacks vigor. Some new and 
interesting material must be worked over from time to time and another 
point of view considered. 

This corollary point is also to be noted. As children pass from one 
grade to the next, becoming a bit older, and having more experience, 
their constructive work should also change to include the new outlook 
of the children. The village street will do very well about the second 

^The Year Books of the Council of Supervisors of the Manual Arts, con- 
tains much material that is useful. See "Constructive work in the Primary 
Grades" by Miss Cremins. Book 1904. The outlines of the Director of Manual 
Training for New York City are full of suggestion. 

The diagrams which accompany this paper are in scale as to measurement 
indicated, but the drawings themselves are made of the size most convenient for 
showing construction and for arrangement on the page. C. L. B. 


year in an average school, but the next year something must be added to 
it or a new phase considered, as a railway station with trains, cabs, etc., 
or an entirely new topic used. The work becomes more and more com- 
plex until about the fourth year. Then having about reached the limit 
of sand table construction another kind of hand work is employed and 
the second constructive period begun, dealing with the simple crafts 
and design. 

The exercises for the street should be carried out in some heavy paper 
like tag or 50-lb. cover paper of suitable tone. Tag is a shiny buff 
in tone and does not take color (crayon or paint) well, but it is tough, 
folds easily, and is durable. The paper should be cut to size convenient 
for handling but not the exact size for use. Measurement is part of the 
study and as much as possible, the pupil should measure and cut his 
own pieces as they are needed. 

Henry W. Hetzel. 

THE amateur or student in woodworking, intent upon making 
furniture from his own designs, has always found the chair 
a somewhat difficult undertaking. The strength necessary to 
withstand racking at the joints, combined with lightness of weight, is 
not so hard to secure in the case of tables, benches, chests or desks. But 
with that most useful and necessary article, the chair., the case is dift 
ent. No other piece of furniture in proportion to its size is so severely 
treated while in use. To meet these exacting demands most chairs are 
built of many pieces and fastened together with many joints,^too 
many for the novice to make use of without rendering the finished 
article either heavy and clumsy, or else too weak to be serviceable. 

I have been for several years interested in this problem of simple 
chair construction and it has seemed to me that its solution lay in the 
substitution of one member for several glued up members. The back, 
for instance, might be made of one solid piece; and similarly, the front 
and back legs can be of two pieces altogether instead of the four used 
in the ordinary framed-up construction. It is not especially a new idea, 
to be sure, and chairs on this general principle have been built for cen- 
turies, but the method of connecting the parts has apparently not been 
sufficiently simplified to suit amateur ability. 




The loose-key method of construction has several advantages in con- 
nection with this class of furniture. It enables one to tighten up 
instantly members which have worked loose; a broken part may be re- 
placed by a new one without injury to other parts, and the whole may 
be "knocked down" to take up less space in moving. But the greatest 
interest in this manner of joinery is perhaps a sentimental one. A chair 
or table thus constructed has an air of self-sufficiency that is appealing. 

Scale "/ Inches 
\ h. \ \ \ 

«— * 

Without glue, nail or screw such an article suggests the ways of the 
primitive workman, who, finding but one material at hand, used it for 
fastenings as well as for the larger parts of the structure. Much of the 
popularity of the styles variously known as "arts and crafts," "mission" 
and others, it Is well known, is due to this directness and sincerity in 
construction which these styles evidence or simulate. So far has the 
rage for the loose-key gone that manufacturers have sought to catch the 
public eye by using many ke5^s, and big ones too; even putting them 
in where they have no earthly function. 

Fig. 1 shows a simple all wood stool. The two boards forming the 
legs (which may be cut to a pattern of any suitable profile) are held 
together by a rail passing through a large mortise in each and held in 
place by a key through the projecting tenon. All this is old enough, 
but the method of fastening the seat is perhaps original. The legs 
extend by two tenons, dovetail-shaped, into corresponding mortises cut 
in the seat and the legs are sprung apart at the top into these dovetailed 
mortises when both keys are tightened. 

Fig. 2 shows a modification of this stool in which the legs are in- 
clined to the floor. The tenons at the top of the legs need not be 
specially formed dovetail-wise as the shoulders on the rail below can be 
so cut that the action of the wedges will spring the two legs together 



at the top and pinch the seat between them. In this and the previous 
stool one of the legs has a mortise somewhat larger than the tenon of 
the rail which pierces it. This enables the legs to rock sufficiently to 
allow the seat to be put in place or removed when only one key is loose. 

From Fig. 2 to a design including a back — in other words, making 
a complete chair — may seem an easy step. We may imagine a longer 
tenon to one end of the rail and have it pierce the back as well as the 
leg, and have the same key tighten both. But the necessity of extending 
the back well down upon the rear leg for support has a tendency to turn 
the leg away from the shoulder on the rail when the key is tightened. 
This is contrary to the direction taken by the leg in Fig. 2, and con- 
sequently in our chair shown in the next illustration, no dovetails at 
the top of the rear leg are needed, the seat being prevented from lifting 
by a short tenon set into a shallow mortise in the back. The first effect 
of tightening the large key is to pinch the seat between the rear leg and 
the back of the chair; further tightening compels all three members 
rocking on the lower back shoulder of the rail, to ride forward against 
the front leg, where two tenons appropriately dovetailed secure the seat 
and prevent its rising. True, the student must form his joints with 
care and observe the proper distance between shoulders or he will find 



some disappointment in the way things tighten up — or fail to; yet, at 
Girard College in Philadelphia where a number of these chairs were 
made recently, boys of fourteen or fifteen years of age found none of 
these requirements to be too exacting. 

To be sure, a chair thus engineered is not capable of the endless 
variations in design which a many-pieced, framed-up chair allows. Still, 
the proportion of the parts may be varied indefinitely and any number 
of profiles may be used for the four boards which mainly compose our 
simple chair. The seat may be made of a thicker board and hollowed 
out to make the "saddle seat" which many consider necessary to com- 
fort. The angles which the seat and the back make with the floor are 
also matters of opinion, and the opportunity for carving is obvious. 
While it is next to impossible to make an armchair in this our screwless, 
glueless fashion, there is no law against upholstery. Yet I think that 
those who have made or used such a chair properly shaped have found 
smooth, hard boards sufficiently restful and waste no sighs for cushions. 




Charles H. Bailey. 

EQUIPMENTS for woodworking and mechanical drawing for 
the exclusive use of high school pupils will differ somewhat from 
those planned for the grammar grades.^ It is possible to make 
the same equipment serve for both, and this is very commonly done, 
but in many places a separate equipment is provided for the high school. 
This is probably the more satisfactory way. The lists given here are 
suggested as being suitable for the ordinary high school, and represent 
about the minimum to which such equipments can be reduced and still 
remain satisfactory. Many high schools will install much more elabo- 
rate and costly equipments than these, but it is not such schools that 
most need suggestions, or which meet the most difficult problems in this 
connection. It is the school that has only a small amount of money 
to put into this work that presents the hardest problem, and it is there 
also that the teacher of little experience is most often found. It is for 
such schools that these tables have been formulated. They may also 
serve as the basis of a more extensive equipment and may be added to 
or modified to suit the special conditions. 

Some of the items in the accompanying tables need a little explana- 
tion and discussion. 

The question of the selection of a bench and vise for high school 
work is an important one. The bench and vise specified will prove quite 
satisfactory and may be had at a small cost, but one having some kind 
of rapid-acting, iron vise will be much better. The addition of two 
such vises will increase the cost of the bench by from seven to twelve 
dollars. Benches without drawers will probably give the best satisfac- 
tion. The bench is the basis of the equipment and a good substantial 
one sould be provided even if it is necessary to reduce the number 
of tools. 

The tools should be first-class in every respect. It does not pay to 
furnish for this purpose tools of an inferior grade. Standard tools 
should always be specified. 

'The first article of this series on equipments was published in the Decem- 
ber, 1907, number. 



If power is available, it will be more convenient in every way to have 
a power, grindstone in the bench room. This will cost about $26.00. 
In cases where the bench room and wood-turning room are in the 
same building and adjacently located, some of the equipment, such as the 
power grindstone and other power machinery may be used in common. 
In the equipment for wood-turning, the Reed lathe is specified as it is 
a high grade machine and a general favorite with manual-training 
teachers. There are other good machines, however, some of them 
materially lower in cost, that may be substituted without greatly reduc- 
ing the efficiency of the department. The bench and equipment of 
tools specified here may be dispensed with if the bench room is con- 
veniently located and available for use in the preparation of stock, 
otherwise it will be found to be almost a necessity. 

The size of the motor required will depend upon the amount of 
additional machinery that is provided. For the number of machines 
given in the table, the 7^ H. P. motor will be large enough if a first- 
class machine is purchased. 

The cost of shafting, hangers and belting will depend upon local con- 
ditions and therefore can be only approximated here. Well designed, 
self-oiling hangers should be provided. 

If electric power is not available, a gas or gasoline engine will be the 
most satisfactory source of power. 

For mechanical drawing in the high school, a regular equipment of 
tables and instruments should be provided. In the lists given here, it 
is assumed that every thing except pencils and thumb tacks is furnished 
by the school. The cost may be lessened somewhat by requiring the 
pupils to furnish paper, drawing boards, triangles, T-squares and scales. 

All figures given are the regular trade prices and are very nearly 
correct. From five to ten percent may be deducted from these figures 
for large orders. 


24 Single benches with two wooden vises, 4' 6" long $192.00 

24 Buck Bro's tanged firmer chisels, Yz" 5.50 

24 Buck Bro's tanged firmer chisels, \" 7.20 

24 Marking gauges So. 161 1-80 

24 Disston back saws, 12" 26.00 

24 Bailey iron jack planes, No. 5 36.00 

24 Bailey iron block planes, No. 9^ • 14.40 

24 Try-squares No. 12, 6" '^■^^ 


24 Rules, 24", non-folding 1.70 

24 Sloyd knives, riveted handles 6.50 

24 Counter brushes, 9" 6 . 00 


Bench hooks and mallets may be made by pupils. 


6 Disston cross-cut saws, D8, 22", 9 point $ 7.00 

6 Disston cross-cut saws, D8, 22", 7 point 7.00 

6 Stanley bevels. No. 25, 8" 1 .20 

6 Maydole Hammers, No. 12 3.00 

6 Wing dividers, 8" 1.20 

6 Buck Bro's tanged firmer chisels, Y^" 1.10 

6 Buck Bro's tanged firmer chisels, Y" ■" 1 -20 

6 Buck Bro's tanged outside gouges, l" 2.50 

6 Stanley cabinet scrapers, 3" x 5" 1.10 

6 Nail sets, assorted .50 

3 Spofford bit braces, 8" '. 2.40 

6 Spoke shaves, Stanley No. 53 1.50 

24 Hand screws, 8" 6.00 

12 Champion Screw drivers, 5" 3 . 60 

6 Small screw drivers 1 . 00 

1 Stanley ratchet brace No. 921, 10" 1.50 

3 Screw driver bits, assorted .45 

3 Rose Counter sinks, %" .45 

2 Buck Bro's paring gouges, regular sweep, ^4 " 1-20 

1 Buck Bro's outside gouge, J^" .65 

1 Buck Bro's inside gouge, yi" .65 

1 Set Russell-Jennings auger bits 4.25 

1 Set gimlet bits 1 . 00 

1 Yankee drill No. 41 1.10 

1 Clark's expansive bit. No. 2 1 . 00 

1 Auger bit file 15 

6 Half round wood files, 10" 1.00 

1 Framing square No. 100 1.00 

1 New Langdon miter box No. 22 with saw 7.50 

1 File card and scores .20 

1 Pliers and wire cutters, 6" 25 

1 Coes Monkey wrench, 10" 65 

1 L. & J. White drawing knife, 8" 65 

2 Turning saw frames, 14" ' 2.00 

6 Turning saw blades, 14" x y^" 60 

3 Brass oilers, J/^ pint 1 .00 

3 India oil stones, 6" x 1^" x M" 1 .20 

1 White's hand axe, No. 5 1 . 00 


1 Stanley plow set, No. 45 6.50 

1 Grindstone in wooden frame, 24" x 2" 4.50 

1 Pair Colt's eccentric clamps to open 3-ft 2.10 

1 Scraper steel 20 

1 Smooth mill file, 8" .20 



24 Adjustable Favorite tables $192.00 

24 Drawing boards, 19"x26" 15.60 

24 T-squares, 26" 4.80 

24 Triangles, 30 degree 4.80 

24 Triangles, 45 degree 4.80 

24 Sets instruments 120 . 00 

24 Stools, 24" 18.00 

6 Assorted irregular curves 1.50 

1 Blue print frame, 18"x24" 8.00 

1 Ream paper. No. 4 universal 12.00 

1 Roll blue print paper .60 

1 Roll tracing cloth 7.60 

1 Roll tracing paper 1.25 


24 Reed lathes, 4-ft. bed $1080.00 

24 Buck Bro's chisels, Yz" 8.40 

24 Buck Bro's chisels, l" 13.20 

24 Buck Bro's parting tools, ^" x 5^" 12 . 00 

24 Buck Bro's gouges, y\" 9.60 

24 Buck Bro's gouges, Yz" ' 10.80 

24 Buck Bro's gouges, l" 16.80 

24 Starrett's outside calipers, 6" 12.00 

24 Wing dividers, 6" 3 . 60 

24 Boxwood rules, 12" 1.70 

24 Counter Brushes, 9" 6 . 00 



6 Round nose chisels, Y^" $ 2.40 

6 Brass oil cans, Y2 pint 1 .44 

3 Oil stones, 7"x2"xl" 2.75 

3 Slip stones, assorted .45 




6 Starrett's inside calipers, 6" 3.00 

1 Drill chuck with machine bits, ]/()." to l" by 16ths 15.00 

1 Mounted grindstone, 4" x 30", with truing device 26.00 

1 Coe's monkey wrench, 10" .65 

6 Champion screw drivers, 6" 1.75 

1 Single woodworking bench with tools 12.00 

1 Combination saw bench, cross-cut and ripping 190.00 

1 Electric motor, l]^ H. P 175.00 

Shafting, self-oiling hangers, belting, etc., about 125.00 



College We are glad to welcome the movement toward college 

Credits in the credits in drawing and manual training because it means 
Manual Arts. , . . , , , . • i , . , , , 

better organization or these subjects in the high schools 

and ultimately in the elementary schools also. We are especially encour- 
aged to learn that several state organizations of teachers of the manual 
arts are now working in harmony with the larger sectional or national 
associations in a determined effort to define units of subject matter with 
reference to college credit. This is exactly what the manual arts teach- 
ers should do, and the more active they are in formulating these defini- 
tions the better it will be for the subjects they represent. 

A few years ago it was feared that the universities would arbitrarily 
set standards in the manual arts, which would be detrimental to the high 
school work, but we believe that danger is now past (at least so far as the 
Central and Western states are concerned), and we know that several 
of the universities are not only encouraging the high school teachers to 
take the responsibility of standardizing their courses in the manual arts, 
but they are practically assuring them that the universities are ready to 
adopt whatever the high school teachers, after due deliberation, have 
agreed upon. This is well illustrated by the attitude of the university 
in one of our Northern states which has been expressed thus: "We are 
ready to give the credit as soon as you can agree upon courses for which 
credit should be given". The experiences of the past few years in stand- 
ardizing other high school subjects with reference to university credit, 
has made it clear that co-operation rather than dictation is the policy of 
the college and university with reference to the high rchool. For this 
reason, the setting of standards in the manual arts, which nearly every- 
body recognizes as important in the immediate future, is more fully in 
the hands of the teachers of the manual arts than they seem to realize. 
It is therefore essential that such teachers — not merely the superintend- 
enl': and principals of schools — get together on certain fundamentals of 
subject matter and formulate these in a manner satisfactory to themselves. 
When this has been done there is no reason for doubt that due credit will 
be given by the universities. 

We see no reason why any teacher should stand aloof from this 
movement, but many why he should give to it his best efiforts. The 
thorough study of subject matter values that is necessarily involved in 



making the needed definitions will result in the elimination of questiona- 
ble elements from any teacher's course and the substitution of better 
ones ; it is sure to stimulate enrichment in many directions. Moreover, 
such study helps in giving the teacher a more intelligent grasp of his 
yjbject — a grasp that too many teachers have not acquired in their hasty 
preparation to teach manual training. 

But perhaps the most popular reason, though we think not the most 
important one is that university recognition would place drawing and 
manual training on the same level with other subjects. A unit course 
in manual training, for example, would then be counted just as valuable, 
educationally, as a unit course in Latin or mathematics. It is or is not, 
at the present time depending upon the enlightenment or openmindedness 
of the principal of the school, and upon the ability of the teacher of the 
manual arts in organizing courses and maintaining a high standard in the 
work. If all principals were openminded and all courses were well 
organized and all teachers were skillful, we would not have to worry 
about the place of our subject in the curriculum, but with conditions as 
they are, we know of nothing that will tend to reform principals, courses, 
and teachers alike in greater degree or in less time than the pushing for- 
ward of the movement for college entrance credit in the manual arts. — B. 

Industrial The general interest in the great problem of industrial 

Education in education is particularly manifest in Cleveland. The 
Board of Education, the Chamber of Commerce, the labor 
organizations, the Builders Exchange and other employers' associations 
and the Y. M. C. A. are all in sympathy with the movement and are all 
bending their efforts in practical measures now in operation or in con- 
templation, to bring about the solution of the problem. 

The new Technical High School now in process of construction, is 
primarily the work of the Board of Education, but in the perfecting of 
plans and the arrangement of courses of study, which will emphasize 
more strongly than has perhaps been done in any other secondary school 
in this country the industrial side of education, conferences have been 
held with the Chamber of Commerce, with employers' associations and 
with the Council of labor organizations. 

With the beginning of the new year an evening trade school for ma- 
chinists was opened in the manual training department at Central High 
School. This evening school was established by the Board of Education 
in response to an appeal from the labor organization, and will doubtless 
be the nucleus of public evening trade schools in other industries as they 
are demanded. 


Within the trades unions there is a well defined movement toward 
industrial education. The union pattern makers are conducting a school 
in the interests of their apprentice organization, providing instruction in 
the reading of drawings, the different phases of pattern production and 
in the use of tools. The bricklayers' union has well developed plans for 
a school for its organized apprentices to include instruction in the theory 
of their trade, in the study of plans and applied mathematics. The 
sheet-metal workers are planning a similar school. Some of the unions 
of the building trades have arranged courses of talks and discussions for 
their members upon subjects related to their work, by architects and men 
of broad experience in their trades. 

In addition to its many educational classes in theoretical work, the 
Y. M. C. A. has planned, and has partly in operation, a school of in- 
dustrial education providing facilities for men employed in the metal- 
working trades, in electrical industries, and in charge of steam plants. 
The plan is to oilfer practical instruction in various lines of machine 
shop work, in electricity with its various commercial applications, giving 
an opportunity to specialize in different lines, and in steam engineering 
to those who desire to become licensed engineers. In connection with 
the shop practice, there will be practical instruction in drawing, shop 
mathematics and mechanics. Most of the courses are given in the even- 
ing and the thought is to make them, so far as possible, supplemental to 
apprentice systems. 

The problem of industrial training below the secondary school is 
demanding the attention of the school authorities, and the results of 
some experiments in this direction are looked forward to with interest. 

— R. 

The newspapers have recently announced a gift by David Ranken, 
Jr., of a million dollars for the establishment of a school of mechanical 
trades in the city of St. Louis. This is a noble and timely gift, and we 
hope it will not be diverted to establish another college; of engineering or 
universitj'. Too many endowments have already hit wide of the mark. 
This one should be kept sacred for the original purpose of its donor, and 
so be a pioneer in working out the great problem of vocational training 
for the industries, which is immediately before us. As St. Louis fur- 
nished us the first manual training high school, let her also furnish us the 
correct model for a trade school. 


William T. Bawd en, Editor. 


The fourth annual High School Conference was held at the University of 
Illinois, Urbana, November 21, 22, and 23, 1907, and proved to be a very suc- 
cessful and profitable meeting. According to statement in the published program 
this series of conferences "is undertaking a discussion of all the subjects now in- 
cluded in the high school program with a view to formulating courses or 
syllabi for each subject or group of a rather definite nature as a basis for stand- 
ardizing the high school work of the state. At the same time a parallel discussion 
of the program as a whole is being carried forward with a view to securing 
the best adjustment now feasible of the various courses which may properly be in- 
cluded in the program." 

The conference included three general sessions besides the meetings of six 
sections. The principal address was that on Friday evening by Dean A. Ross 
Hill, Cornell University, on needed readjustments in the high school program of 
studies. The six sections were : English, social science, mathematics, geography, 
agriculture and domestic science, and the manual arts. 

There were two sessions of the manual arts section, Friday morning and 
afternoon. The Committee on Manual Arts which had been appointed the pre- 
vious year, consisting of Charles A. Bennett, Chairman, George W. Eggers, 
C. C. French, J. H. Gill, and F. U. White, presented a report in the form of 
outlines for one-year courses in each of the following subjects: woodworking, 
metalworking, mechanical drawing, and freehand drawing. Copies of these 
outlines, as well as an additional one on "suggestive treatment of problems," 
had been prepared and were distributed at the meeting. 

The chairman of the section. Professor E. J. Lake, University of Illinois, 
introduced Charles A. Bennett who presented the report of the committee. The 
purpose of the committee was not to prepare a fixed course of study, but to 
present something that would be suggestive and that would assist in leading 
to some standard of attainment. It was proposed that two years be spent in cov- 
ering the four one-year courses, as follows: 

1st Year. Woodworking, 5 hours per week. 
Freehand Drawing, 2 hours. 
Mechanical Drawing, 3 hours. 
2nd Year. Metalworking, 5 hours per week. 
Freehand Drawing, 3 hours, 
Mechanical Drawing, 2 hours. 

Two types of work in the manual arts in the high school were distinguished: 

(1) That which is given from the standpoint of general education; and 

(2) That which is intended as technical education. That is, there are courses 



ihat it is desirable to have every boy take whether he is to continue his education 
at the engineering school or the divinity school or to leave school; and, on the 
other hand, there are technical courses, such as pattern-making, which are more 
distinctively industrial in character than most of our manual arts work. The 
former may be considered appropriate subjects for entrance credit, the latter for 
advanced credit. 

The discussion at the morning session was opened by Principal F. D. Thomp- 
son, Galesburg High School, who advocated making a start even if it be but a 
small one. Let the work develop gradually; if you demonstrate that it is a good 
thing you can get the appropriations as you need them. It is much better so 
with the community back of it than to "swallow it whole" and have continual 
grumbling over the expense. 

In response to a question the chairman of the committee differentiated three 
general methods of handling a course in woodworking: (1) The pupil is shown 
a copy of the object to be made, from which he makes a freehand sketch, then 
the working drawing, then the object at the bench. One difficulty is that the 
steps in procedure in drawing are not parallel to those in woodworking; you 
cannot give the best course in drawing and the best course in woodworking 
parallel. This method we may call the school method. (2) The pupil is 
given a drawing of an object he has never seen or at least observed closely, so 
that he is required to read the drawing, and he then produces the object. This 
may be called the artisan method. (3) Given a need, e. g., a sled. The pupil 
makes a sketch of .what he wants to make, which he gradually develops into a 
careful working drawing in which he has, in some sense at least, done some 
creating. He then makes the object in the shop, retaining the right to change it 
at any point until it serves its purpose and is finished. This may be called the 
craftsman method. 

The discussion was participated in quite freely and was at times animated. 
The needed spice to flavor the whole was furnished by a lively tilt between twi 
manual training men present who maintained opposite opinions in a controversy 
about the relative merits of the "joint" or "exercise" and the "useful model." 
One speaker thought that some of the statements that had been made concerning 
the high degree of interest on the part of the pupils in "models" as contrasted 
with "exercises" were unwarranted and misleading. He said, in substance: "If 
the pupil's thought is on a finished article, as a taboret or box, it is not on the 
planing. What I want is thought concentrated upon the thing that is being done 
and not upon some future application of it. A boy can plane down a piece of 
wood to within one-sixty-fourth of an inch and be looking at the rafters all the 
time. The piece might then be good enough for the taboret but not for what I 
call scientific use of the tool. I want him to get the other sixty-fourth of an inch 
— I want him to get it exactly right." The other speaker, who had been advocat- 
ing the taboret, asked: "How do you get that sixty-fourth of an inch?" The 
question was parried, and the second speaker rejoined : "You get that sixty-fourth 
of an inch because you stand over the boy and make him do it ; I get it because 
the boy wants it." 

The attendance at the afternoon session was nearly as large as in the morn- 
ing, about fifty supervisors, principals, and superintendents being present. The 


discussion was centered particularly upon the art side of the work and was 
opened by George W. Eggers, Chicago Normal School; topic: "Design in its 
relation to industry and the manual arts in the school." Art does not necessarily 
mean decoration. The very simplicity of some objects is their claim to beauty. 
In the making of an object the first demand is upon construction, that it be 
strong and suited to its purpose; the first demand upon art in the making of an 
object is that it shall look strong. 

The problem of the whisk-broom holder is regarded by many as an oppor- 
tunity for decoration. We frequently see the design breaking out all over it, 
like a rash. But the presence of decoration implies value — the art put into a 
thing should bear some relation to the value of the thing. 

It is better to teach your pupils to appreciate the art in the things and con- 
structions about them than to talk to them about the "old masters." 

The discussion at this session took the direction of attempting to gather up 
some definite and tangible results from the conference. It was decided unani- 
mously, upon motion, to recommend to the University authorities the adoption of 
these courses of study as prepared by the committee as a basis for work to be 
accepted for entrance credit, it being understood that one year's work in a labora- 
tory subject means a minimum of 120 hours of 60 minutes each and represents 
one-half unit of credit. 

It was also decided, upon motion, to recommend that the Manual Arts Sec- 
tion be continued for another year, at least, and that members be requested to 
report next year the results of their experiments with these courses. 

The committee made it clear that the courses of study offered were not in- 
tended to be rigidly adhered to, but that they are to be considered as suggestive 
merely not only in problems but in the order of processes. 

The outline of the course in woodworking was printed in the December 
number of the Magazine, and it is hoped to find room for the others later. 

— W. T. B. 


The Executive Committee has definitely announced the selection of Cleveland, 
Ohio, for the Forty-sixth Annual Convention, June 29 to July 3, 1908. 

It was a source of regret to the members that it was not possible to hold 
the fiftieth anniversary of the organization of the association in Philadelphia. 
The Cleveland convention, however, will be the fiftieth anniversary of the first 
regular convention of the Association, which was held in Cincinnati, Ohio, 
August 11-13, 1858. It is appropriate that the fiftieth anniversary of the first 
convention be held in the state of Ohio; a state which has been one of the most 
loyal and helpful to the interests of the Association during all those years; which 
ranks third among all the states in the total number of memberships for fifty 
years; and third also in the present number of active members enrolled although 
it has had the advantages of but one convention since 1858, viz., at Cleveland in 
1870. Since Cleveland is near the geographical center of the active membership, 
a large attendance is expected. 

The Department of Superintendence will hold its next annual meeting in 


Washington, D. C, February 25-27, 1908. Special interest centers in a sym- 
posium on "Tlie Place of Industries in Public Education" at the Tuesday after- 
noon session. At this time the following propositions are to be discussed: 

(1) The ideals of a democracy require a system of public education that 
shall provide equal educational opportunities for all; Dean James E. Russell, 
Teachers College, N. Y. 

(2) Equality of opportunity can be secured only by proper recognition of 
(a) individual differences in native capacities and in social environment, (b) 
the requirements of vocational efficiency as well as of (c) general intelligence 
and executive power; Professor Edward C. Elliott, University of Wisconsin. 

(3) The most urgent need of our educational system is an adequate pro- 
vision for the vocational needs of children destined for industrial and domestic 
pursuits; Pres. James F. Mc Elroy, Consolidated Car Heating Co., Albany, N. Y. 

(4) A comprehensive program of industrial education requires: 

(a) Constructive activities as an essential and important factor in the 
elementary school course ; Miss E. E. Langley, School of Education, Chicago. 

(b) Intermediate industrial schools, admitting children at the sixth 
school year and equipping them for specific industrial pursuits; Charles H. 
Morse, Secretary Massachusetts Commission on Industrial Education. 

(c) Technical high schools for the training of industrial leaders; 
George H. Martin, Secretary Massachusetts State Board of Education. 

The general discussion is to be opened by Jesse D. Burks, Principal ol 
Teachers' Training School, Albany, N. Y. ; Arthur H. Chamberlain, Acting 
President, Throop Polytechnic Institute, Pasadena, Cal. ; Carlton Gibson, Super- 
intendent of Schools, Columbus, Ga. 

Other societies meeting with the Department of Superintendence are: Na- 
tional Society for the Scientific Study of Education; Society of College Teachers of 
Education ; Educational Press Association of America ; National Committee on 
Agricultural Education. On Thursday there will be organized the new "De- 
partment of Rural and Agricultural Education.' 

Headquarters of the Department of Superintendence will be at the New 
Willard Hotel. For copies of the preliminary bulletin containing announce- 
ment of hotel arrangements, etc., or for complete program to be issued about 
February 1st, address Irwin Shepard, Secretary, Winona, Minn. 


The Ohio Art and Manual Training Teachers' Association met in Columbus 
on Dec. 26 and 27, 1907, as one of the Allied Educational Associations of Ohio. 
President Thos. K. Lewis, Asst. Professor of Engineering Drawing in the State 
University was in the chair. 

On Thursday morning. Prof. Thos. E. French read a paper on "Mechanical 
Drawing and Lettering for Public Schools." He discussed the subject from the 
standpoint of the college professor. He said that students enter the college with 
all degrees of preparation in mechanical drawing. The manual training high 
schools usually do pretty good work in this subject. He emphasized the impor- 
tance of a thorough mastery of a few subjects in drawing in the secondary schoob 


rather than attempting to cover the whole field in a desultory manner. A good, 
rapidly-made freehand letter is much to be preferred to a labored instrument- 
made one. 

H. W. Lowell, director of manual training in the Columbus, Ohio, schools, 
talked on the work being done in the schools over which he has supervision. The 
opening of the present school year marked the introduction of manual training, 
domestic science and industrial arts in the public schools of Columbus. Every- 
thing has started oif under the most favorable conditions, with fourteen thor- 
oughly equipped centers for the seventh and eighth grades and industrial arts 
for the lower grades. Mr. Lowell has five assistants. Soon the work will 
be advanced into the several high schools. An industrial high school is a 
possibility of the near future. 

Reports showed that in the following schools instruction in manual training 
was begun this fall or an enlargement of the work had been made: Piqua, 
Akron, Youngstown, Mt. Vernon, Troy and Toledo. At Newark, Ohio, under 
the direction of W. E. Painter, a gradual development has been made during the 
last five years. Woodwork for the boys and hand-tooled leather for the girls 
are now carried on in the seventh and eighth grades and high school. Mr. Pain- 
ter has been untiring in his efforts to build up a strong department in manual 
training in his city and results show that he has been successful. While the 
work is optional with the pupils and they pay for all material used, fully one- 
half of those in the grades to which the work is offered elect it. Each pupil has 
a period of two hours per week. 

Prof. F. E. Sanborn in a carefully prepared paper discussed some phases of 
the general manual training movement in the United States. He presented 
reasons for including the manual arts in the curriculum of the schools from the 
first grade through the high school. The kinds of materials to use in construction 
work and the grades in which each is usually used were discussed by the 
speaker. Prof. Sanborn urged the importance of the manual arts being included 
in the education of every boy and girl. At the conclusion of his paper he read 
a bill to be brought before the State Legislature at its session this winter. This 
bill had been prepared by Prof. Sanborn, as the Legislative Committee of the 
Ohio Art and Manual Training Teachers' Association, for the purpose of making 
compulsory the teaching of drawing and manual training in the public schools of 
Ohio. The bill also provides for the compulsory examination of teachers in 

By an amendment to its constitution the Association extended its member- 
shin to include domestic science and domestic art teachers. All teachers of these 
subjects are invited and urged to join the Association. This may be done by 
sending the annual membership fee of fifty cents to the Secretary-Treasurer. 

The Association voted to meet next November with the Central Ohio Teach- 
ers' Association. 

The subject of college entrance credits in drawing and manual training was 
discussed. Definite action in the matter was deferred until later. In the mean- 
time a committee was appointed to report at the next meeting on the present 
status of the subject in the United States. 


The following officers were elected for the next year: 

President, Fred C. Whitcomb, Miami University, Oxford; vice-president, 
Nellie Petticrew, Piqua; secretary-treasurer, Grace C. Sylla, Akron. Executive 
committee, H. W. Lowell, Columbus, chairman; Florence E. Ellis, Cleveland; 
and the officers, ex-officio. — Fred C. Whitcomb. 


The Texas Society of Manual Training Teachers met at Houston on the 
27th of December. A round table was conducted by E. M. Wyatt, director of 
manual training at Houston. Many interesting discussions were heard on sub- 
jects relating to the teaching of manual training. 

In the afternoon the annual business session was held, and the following 
special work was undertaken for the year, committees being appointed to carry 
it on: (1) to work through local representatives in State Legislature for favora- 
ble legislation on manual training and for state appropriations for maual train- 
ing; (2) to take up the question of credits in manual training work with the 
State University; (3) to assist in every way possible the schools in Texas that 
have manual training courses but, on account of lack of funds or good teachers, 
or for any other reason, the results of the instruction in manual training have 
not been satisfactory; (4) to render all possible assistance to any schools contem- 
plating the introduction of courses In manual training. 

The following officers were elected for the year: President, E. M. Wyatt, 
director of manual training, Houston; first vice president, Cree T. Work, presi- 
dent of Texas College of Industrial Arts, Denton ; second vice president, Adolph 
Uhr, director of manual training, San Antonio; third vice president, Laura 
Neale, director of domestic science. Ft. Worth; secretary-treasurer, Arthur B. 
Mays, assistant director of manual training, Dallas. 

The Annual Dinner of the Boston Manual Training Club was held at 
Brigham's Hotel on the evening of December 7th. The Club is making rapid 
strides in membership and about forty members were present. The dinner was 
preceded by a paper on tooled leather, by Frederick W. Ried, of Leominster, and 
was followed by a social hour which centered about a very clever slight-of- 
hand performance. 


Plans are well under way for the fifteenth annual meeting which is to be 
held in Indianapolis April 8 to 11. Everything now indicates that this meeting 
will be one of the greatest in the history of the organzation. Certainly the local 
committee is doing its part to make such a meeting possible. The Shortridge 
High School will have its Easter vacation during that week so as to allow the 
Association to use its ample buildings. The other schools, however, including 
the Manual Training High School, will be in session so that members of the Asso- 


elation will be able to visit the schools. This will give an exceptional oppor- 
tunity. The new Shortridge building is large enough for the sessions of the 
Association and the exhibits. Indeed it is expected that there will be sufficient 
wall space to hang all the exhibits without putting up the usual unsightly 
frames, the exhibits being hung from the picture moulding or placed in cases. 
Details concerning the exhibit can be found in the Official Bulletin for December, 
which may be obtained by applying to the secretary, R. A. Kissack, Yeatman 
High School, St. Louis, Mo. 

It is definitely announced that the next annual meeting of the Eastern 
Manual Training Association will be held in Washington, D. C, April 13-15. 

Judging from the program of the seventh annual meeting of the North- 
eastern Minnesota Teachers' Association held at Duluth Nov. 15 and 16, manual 
training is a live topic in Minnesota. At the general sessions were the following 
addresses: "Industrial Education", by Supt. L. D. Harvey of Menomonie, Wis.; 
"Industrial Education and Social Betterment", by Dr. Fletcher H. Swift of the 
University of Minnesota ; "Preparation of Teachers for Industrial Education", 
by President E. W. Bohannon of the Duluth Normal School; "Problems Met in 
Adapting Manual Training to Grades and High School", by George M. Brace, 
supervisor of manual training in Duluth; and "Problems Met in Adapting 
Domestic Science to Public School Work", by Miss Pettingill of the Duluth 
Normal School. Then there was a joint meeting of the high school and manual 
arts sections, with a manual training program of four addresses. 

The First Annual Convention of the National Society for the Promotion of 
Industrial Education occurred in Chicago, January 23-25, 1908. Report of the 
proceedings of this meeting will appear in the next issue. 

Several very interesting programs showing the work outlined for the school 
year of 1907-08 by associations of teachers have been sent to the Editor. 

The Principal's Meetings of the Minneapolis, Minn., Public Schools are held 
on the first Tuesday of each month from October to May. Each meeting lasts 
one hour and there is an understanding as to how the time is to be divided. 
The reader of the principal paper is allowed twenty minutes and the member 
who opens the discussion is allowed ten minutes, leaving thirty minutes for gen- 
eral discussion. It is expected that the leading'paper will be placed in the hands 
of the one who is to open the discussion at least one week before the date assigned 
for the topic. 

Two of the meetings are to deal with the topic: Educational Values in the 
Elementary Grades, (a) The Informational, Disciplinary, and Cultural Stud- 
ies: Reading, Arithmetic, History, Geography, Music, etc. (b) The Essentially 


Motor Activities of the School: Drawing, Manual Training, Industrial Work, 
Domestic Science. The Second half of the topic is assigned for the meeting 
April 7th, and will be presented in a paper by Miss Gowdy. The discussion 
will be opened by Mrs. Rollins. 

The Manual Arts Association of Allegheny County, Pa., holds its meetings 
on the third Friday of each month from October to May at the Fifth Avenue 
High School, Pittsburg. This is the third year of the Association and its mem- 
bers number seventy. It is a branch of the Eastern Manual Training Associa- 
tion, and its membership fee is two dollars, one-half of which goes to the local 
and one-half to the parent organization. The president is Clifford B. Connelley, 
Carnegie Technical Schools, and the secretary. Miss Alice Henry, 5325 Wilkins 
Avenue, Pittsburg. 

The Year Book is a neat little booklet of fourteen pages in which may be 
found, besides the year's program, a list of the officers and committees, names 
and addresses of members, and the Constitution and By-Laws. 

One meeting is devoted to each of the following general subjects: Exhibits, 
Kindergarten, Primary Manual Training, Design, Domestic Science, Domestic 
Art, Mechanical Drawing and Shopwork. Each general topic is divided into 
sev^eral sub-topics so that in all twenty-eight names appear in assignments to 
program duty. 

The Teacher's Art Club of Pittsburg, Pa., organized in 1902, regularly 
holds its meetings at the Fifth Avenue High School on the last Mondav of each 
month from September to May, with additional open or social meetings at the 
call of the Executive Committee. The President is Mrs. M. E. VanWagonen, 
and the secretary. Miss Agnes E. Lawton, 460 Swissvale Ave., Wilkinsburg, Pa. 

The general topics assigned are : Applied Design, A Lesson in Pottery, Illus- 
trated Christmas Stories, Paper Work, Picture Study, Practical Demonstration 
of Color, Mechanical Drawing and Construction work. One of the meetings is 
to take the form of a visit to the studio of August Zeller, the sculptor of Car- 
negie Institute. 

One unique feature of the organization of the work of this Club is the 
assignment of one member to each meeting to answer questions upon the topic 
that is to be discussed at that meeting. Page six of the Year Book contains a 
list of these assignments accompanied by the announcement: "Members of the 
Club will endeavor to answer all questions pertaining to the lecture of the day, 
if presented in writing two weeks previous to the meeting." 

The Year Book contains the list of officers and committees, the program for 
the year, the Constitution and By-Laws, and the names and addresses of forty-two 

The two Year Books referred to in the foregoing paragraphs are excellent 
examples of their kind. They will well repay examination by those who con- 
template the organization of local associations of teachers. 

The New Jersey State Teachers' Association met at Atlantic City December 
26-28. A number of strong addresses were provided by the program committee: 


Vocational Education, by Paul H. Hanus; Education for Institutional Life, by 
W. E. Chancellor, Washington; A Typical Industry as a Basis for Grammar 
Grade Manual Arts, by Cheshire L. Boone, Mont Claire ; The Industrial Educa- 
tion Movement and the Elementary School, by Henry Turner Bailey. 

The December number of the Manual Training Teacher contains the pro- 
gram of the lectures for the year 1908 by the London, England, branch of the 
National Association of Manual Training Teachers. The meetings are held on 
the third Saturday of each month from January to December in the lecture hall 
of the College of Preceptors. 

"Two of the lectures are to be illustrated with stereopticon slides: Timber, 
and Joinery. Other topics are: Psychological Basis of Manual Training, The 
Manual Training Teacher — A Specialist on the School Staff, Ethics of Manual 
Training, Place of Manual Training in the School Curriculum, Artistic Handi- 
craft in relation to Manual Training, Schemes of Manual Training — Their 
Use and Abuse. One of the meetings will be a visit to Kew Gardens for the 
study of trees. 

The Round Table of Supervisors of Drawing of Western Ohio met at 
Dayton, November 29, 1907. The following program was presented: 

"Art at the N. E. A.," Mary A. Woodmansee, Dayton. "Handwork in the 
Primary Grades," Lillian Bicknell, Columbus. "Drawing in the Primary 
Grades," Clara Velmyr Cosley, Coshocton. "Working Drawings in the seventh 
and Eighth Grades," Ella R. Bartholomew, Springfield. "The Teaching of Art 
in the High School," Mary Kyle, Troy. "Drawing and Construction Work for 
the Month of December," Alice Robinson, Miami University, Oxford. These and 
other subjects were also discussed in an informal way by all members present. 

The following officers were elected for the next year: 

President, Ella R. Bartholomew, Springfield; secretary-treasurer, Anna Bier, 

The second annual meeting; of the Teaching Section of the Lake Placid Con- 
ference on Home Economics was held at Emmons Blaine Hall, the University of 
Chicago, December 31, 1907. Miss Helen Kinne of Teachers College, New 
York, the chairman of the section, presided. 

The Executive Committee of the Illinois Manual Arts Association considers 
itself fortunate in being able to announce for the principal address after the 
Banquet at the Friday evening session, "Some Phases of Our Educational Prob- 
lems with Reference to the Manual Arts," by Mrs. Ella Flagg Young, principal 
of the Chicago Normal School. 

The Association holds three sessions, Friday afternoon and evening and 
Saturday morning, February 7 and 8, at Bradley Polytechnic Institute, Peoria, 
Illinois. Copies of the complete program may be had upon application to the 
secretary, William T. Bawden, State Normal University, Normal, Illinois. 


George A. Seaton, Editor. 
doll's bed. 

The doll's bed shown this month was submitted by Ira S. Griffith of Oak 
Park, Illinois, and is suggestive of the possibilities along the line of doll furniture 
in general. Mr. Griffith suggests that by multiplying the measurements given by 
three a very satisfactory child's bed can be made. The side rails are to be 
fastened with wooden pins thus allowing the bed to be taken apart as a larger 
bed and packed. The construction calls for no comment except where students 
are accustomed to make the mortise by first boring holes. This is impossible in 
this case as the mortises are too narrow. A chisel just the width of the mortise 
should be used. 

The bed shown in the photograph had a particularly satisfactory finish. 
It was obtained by staining the wood with Breinig's brown Flemish water stain 
diluted with an equal volume of water, then filling with Wheeler's No. 5 paste 
filler, and finally covering with a very thin coat of shellac. Care should be 
taken to have the shellac so thin that it will not gloss the wood. 


This problem devised by W. F. Raymond of Bradley Polytechnic Institute 
has proven most satisfactory for second year high school boys just beginning 
hand-tool turning in metals. The steps in the process of making the plumb 
bob are as follows: (1) Select a piece of machinery steel 3^9^ in. long and 
Vs in. in diameter; (2) Center the piece and square it up to 3^ in. ir. length; 
(3) Turn to ^ in. in diameter; (4) Turn the taper of the point making the 
piece 314, in. over all; (5) Drill the hole in the top end; (6) Counterbore and 
tap this hole; (7) Turn the cap to the required form and size; (8) Thread 
and knurl the cap; (9) Drill the larger hole, Is i"-, nearly through the cap from 
below; (10) Screw the cap into the lower part and polish ready for hardening; 
then cut off the screw cap, finish, and drill the h in. hole in the cap; (11) Case- 
harden the lower part, and polish again. 




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Among the exhibits of interest at the last manual training convention was 
the combined frame and plate rail shown from the Cleveland schools. The con- 
struction is comparatively simple for a 
design so pleasing. As shown in the 
working drawing no particular type of 
joint is indicated. This can best be 
adapted to the abilities of the students 
undertaking the work. The top shelf 
is generally made with three narrow 
grooves for supporting plates, though 
the model looks very well where serv- 
ing simply for a picture frame. 


The idea for the folding candlesticks shown was taken from a pair brought 
back from Japan. They furnish an interesting problem in turning and when 
carefully made the two candlesticks will 
pack together in the base portions and 
allow very little motion. To join the stem 
to the base, quarter inch dowels are used, 
in one candlestick the dowel being glued 
into the base while in the other candle- 
stick it is glued into the stem. In this 
way when the candlesticks are packed to- 
gether the dowel which is glued in one 
base will fit into the hole left in the other 
base, thus joining them together. A dowel 
may also be used to join the candle holder 
to the stem, or more simply a quarter- 
inch projection may be turned up as a part of the candle holder. 


Whenever sandpaper is used on a flat surface some sort of block is needed 
around which to wrap the paper. This is generally a piece of scrap to which 
little thought has been given. If a little care be taken with this, a block quite 
worth preserving may be made. As shown in the illustration, grooves ^ in. 
wide and Vj^ in. deep are made down the sides into which loose fitting strips 
can be slipped. When the sandpaper is in place the strips will be held tightly 
in position. As the paper wears out it can be removed and new substituted. 
If the block is made of Jg in. stock ZY^ in. wide and 4 in. long, it will be just 
about the right size for one-sixth of a sheet of sandpaper. All the parts may 
be easily ripped out on a circular saw or the students may be allowed to make 
the blocks for themselves. 



The same idea may be utilized in making the other block shown with a 
circular groove in the bottom. This block is used in sandpapering the top of 
the coathanger and in similar places. The idea is that of Mr. W. A. Van- 
Deusen of Central Manual Training School, Cleveland. 



A simple remedy for falling ink bottles has been submitted by C. E. Mc- 
Kinney, Jr., of Newark, N. J. On the upper right-hand corner of the drawing 
board is screwed a block ^ in. thick, and 2]^ in. square with a hole HI in. 
in diameter. As shown in the illustration this block has been set in a little 
from the right-hand edge of the board in order that the board can be slipped 
into a rack. In a similar way a double holder can be easily made. Mr. Mc- 
Kinney has found the idea particularly useful for night classes or for work at 
home without a regular drawing table and a place for ink. 


Clinton S. Van Deusen, Editor. 

As a result of the work done in the summer school of Industrial Arts, at 
Cape May, the state board of education of New Jersey has passed resolutions 
strongly favoring industrial training in the public schools. One of these resolu- 
tions is: "Resolved, That it is the sense of the state board of education that a 
knowledge of manual training, home economics and elementary agriculture should 
become a part of the professional equipment of each teacher in the public schools 
of New Jersey. 

A committee of the board was also asked to consider the propriety of adding 
these subjects to the list of those in which teachers are examined when securing 
a license to teach. 

A Columbia College Extension Course in sewing has been given in Newark, 
N. J. this fall; instructor, Miss Winifred B. Reininger. The course covered 
sixty hours work. The class was limited to twenty. As it was impossible for 
Miss Reininger to take more than two classes and there were more than seventy 
applicants, a number of people were disappointed. The members are mostly 
teachers who wish to prepare to teach sewing in the evening elementary schools 
or in the summer schools, where specialists do the work. 

The position left vacant last fall by Chas. A. Moore at the Mechanics In- 
stitute, Rochester, N. Y., has been filled by the appointment of Carl H. Au, a 
graduate of Worchester Polytechnic Institute. 

Anne H. Stewart who has had charge of the bench work at the Quincy 
manual training center in Cleveland the past two years leaves her position for 
the remainder of this year on a leave of absence. The vacancy will be filled 
by Bertha F. Gordon of Chicago. 

In November, 1906, a fire seriously damaged the nearly completed building 
of the Isidore Newman Manual Training School at New Orleans. This damage 
has been thoroughly repaired and the building is now occupied by the kinder- 
garten and elementary departments. The liberality of its founder has supplied 
this school with excellent buildings and the best of equipment and an effort is 
made to have as near a rnodel school as possible. Its work extends from the 
kindergarten through the high school and it has a teaching staff of twenty-one, 
the majority of them being college graduates with professional training. 

H. M. Snell, who has been a teacher of manual training in the schools of 
Winnipeg, Canada, left last month to take charge of the organization of man- 
ual training in Sacramento, Cal. 

Although the towns in Idaho are few and far between as compared with 
many states, yet the manual training spirit is quite active and is entering even 
the little log school houses. The State Normal School at Albion has one of 
the best equipped woodworking shops in the northwest and work in clay-model- 
ing, basketry, weaving, paper-folding and cardboard construction are taught 



in addition to the woodworii. Students are required to complete a year's work in 
the shop and one in the elementary vvorii before graduation. H. R. Shepherd has 
charge of the manual training department. 


On the 13th of December, the State Board of Education held an institute 
for superintendents of schools, supervisors and teachers of drawing and manual 
training, in the State Normal Art School. Charles H. Morse, secretary of the 
Commission on Industrial Education, spoke on "Industrial Education in Massa- 
chusetts." James P. Munroe, of the Munroe Felt and Paper Co., Boston, spoke 
from "The Business Man's Point of View''. George H. Bartlett, of the State 
Normal Art School, spoke of "Industrial Education in the Massachusetts Normal 
Art School". Julius E. Warren, agent of the State Board of Education, read 
a paper entitled "What can the Public Schools do to improve Industrial Condi- 
tions". In the afternoon, Charles H. Morrill, of the Hyannis State Normal 
School, and Willis B. Anthony, of the North Adams State Normal School, told 
what their respective schools were doing. Walter Sargent, director of drawing 
and manual training in Boston, described the purpose of the course in drawing 
in that city. Frank M. Leavitt, assistant director of drawing and manual 
training in Boston, described an experiment in industrial education with young 

The Mayor of Boston has at last approved the plans of the much needed 
addition to the Mechanic Arts High School and work has been begun upon it. 

Quite a party of drawing and manual training teachers go from Boston, 
next summer, for an European tour taking in the exhibit of the Third Interna- 
tional Congress for the Advancement of Drawing and Art Teaching, while in 

The Society of Arts and Crafts is making a series of exhibits at its rooms, 
9 Park Street, Boston. Those already held have been devoted to National 
League work, metalwork and jewelry (other than gold and silver), silver work, 
and jewelry and small enamels. The exhibits for the Spring are as follows: 
January 6-18, carved wood, mirrors and picture frames. January 27-February 8, 
lace and fans. February 17-29, leather work. March 9-21, ecclesiastical work. 
March 30-April 11, bookbinding, printing, wood-block printing. April 20-Mgy 
2, weaving and embroidery (other than ecclesiastical). May 11-23, glassware 
and stained glass. 

Arthur Fairbanks, director of the Boston Museum of Fine Arts, invited 
directors and teachers of drawing and manual training in Massachusetts, to a 
meeting at the Museum on the morning of January 4th. Dr. Denman W. Ross 
of Harvard University gave a talk on the Principles of Design as illustrated in 
the museum collections and this was followed by an informal conference. This 
is the second annual meeting of this character and they are found mutually 
advantageous to all. — John C. Brodhead. 


The annual report of the city superintendent has just been issued and con- 
tains various chapters or sub-reports by the different heads of departments. 
That by Dr. Hanev, director of art and manual training in Manhattan and 


The Bronx is a statement of the various means taken to develop aesthetic 
appreciation on the part of the pupils in the elementary schools. Besides the 
work in the classroom it cites the measures taken by means of outside lectures 
and societies and by the Art Museum authorities to aid in this work. 

The City Superintendent in New York was in receipt of a number of gifts 
during the past holiday season from individual members of the Arts and 
Crafts Clubs organized in different schools. Among the really execllent speci- 
mens of handwork thus presented were some beautifully bound books, folded from 
the sheets and various pieces of desk furniture in leather and copper. The 
pupils' letters which accompanied the gifts referred repeatedly to their keen in- 
terest in the work done by the clubs after school hours. 

The Society of Craftsman has just closed its annual exhibition of work in 
the arts and crafts. This was held in the rooms of the National Arts Club and 
was visited by many hundreds of persons including a large number of teachers. 
The latter were, in several cases, accompanied by pupils, members of the various 
school arts and crafts clubs. The exhibition was particularly rich in jewelry, 
weaving and work in clay. 

The New York University has organized a series of practical classes for 
teachers of defective children. The manual work is being given under Dr. 
Haney's direction in two classes — one in woodwork, taught by Albert W. 
Garritt, and the other in cardboard work and other elementary forms of con- 
struction by Julia C. Cremins. More than fifty classes for defective children 
are now in operation in the schools of the metropolis. 


There is a closer relation than ever between the art and manual training 
departments this year. In the sixth, seventh and eighth grades applied design 
is being worked out in the regular drawing work and utilized in the decorative 
treatment of objects worked out in the shop under the direction of the special 
teacher of manual training. The outlines are incised in the wood and stains 
and dyes are used in obtaining two and three tone work. The regular teachers 
are furnished with blue-prints showing typical forms and applications of 
design to wood decoration. A great deal of interest is manifested in this phase 
of the work and the results are excellent. This feature has been worked out 
jointly by Laura A. Williams, supervisor of drawing and Hans W. Schmidt, 
supervisor of manual training. 

In the seventh and eighth grades block-printing is being tried in single and 
two-color blocks. The designs are all original with children. 

The manual training department is making about 1000 small looms for the 
primary work, about 80 card-index filing cases for the offices of the principals 
and 300 large model stands for the drawing department. This work on the part 
of the boys has resulted in a saving of about $350 in the supply department. 

In the new Parental and Detention School, now being instituted by the 
county and the school board, manual training is to be made a special feature. 
The boys will be divided into sections of about ten and they will have one 
hour of woodwork every day. As the classes are to be small, it will allow for 


opportunity to do individual work with the boys and influence them personally 
to a beneficial extent. A special course and methods will be followed in this 


The State Committee for the Promotion of Industrial Education met in At- 
lanta Nov. 15th and organized. George J. Baldwin of Savannah was elected 
chairman and Fred. J. Orr of Athens, secretary. A delegation will attend the 
meeting of the National Society at Chicago in January, and after this meeting 
an active campaign will be inaugurated in this State. 

The Rabun Gap School, which has heretofore been conducted as a joint 
public and industrial school, has recently been incorporated as a thorough-going 
industrial school with men and women of prominence from various parts of the 
state as trustees and A. J. Ritchie as active manager and director of the enter- 
prise. It proposes to reach mountain boys especially. 

Classes in the manual arts department of the State Normal School at 
Athens have planned and will build on the campus a model four-room dwelling, 
designed to meet the needs of the man on the farm who is able to go to a mini- 
mum of expense in providing a home for his family. Included in the plan will 
be arrangements for artistic planting or landscape work about the house, and 
furnishing and decorating the interior. All work will be done by students. An 
attractive bulletin illustrating and outlining the work proposed, may be had by 
applying to Fred J. Orr, director of the department, Athens. 

A number of the district agricultural high schools — all of which offer 
courses in manual training — will open in January. They will fill a long felt 
need in the State. 

The city of Baltimore, Md. is planning to spend $109,000 during the year 
1908 on its new building for the Polytechnic School. When completed the build- 
ing will probably cost about $400,000 and will doubtless meet all present needs 
of this historic school. Many of our readers will recall the fact that this school 
was the first public manual training high school in the United States, being 
established in 1883. 

The first technical school in Nova Scotia has recently been opened at 
Sydney. This is the first step of the provincial government in carrying out a 
comprehensive scheme of technical education. Other schools will be located in 
New Glasgow, Amherst and Halifax. A school will be established in Yar- 
mouth having special regard to fishing Industry, while the Nova Scotia technical 
college, modeled after the Massachusetts Institute of Technology, will be estab- 
lished In Halifax, and work commenced as soon as the building and plant are 
ready. All these institutions will be established and maintained by the provincial 
government, and tuition will be practically free. It Is the most ambitious scheme 
of technical education yet proposed in Canada. 

Within ten years there will be technical high schools in all of the larger 
cities of Iowa, according to the judgment of President Seerley of the Iowa State 
Normal School, as expressed at the Northwestern Iowa Educational Associa- 



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'{in's recent convention at Cedar Rapids. He declared that "The introduction 
of the elective courses, including commercial and other practical branches into 
our high schools, is but the attempt to forstall the inevitable. But the demand 
for technical training upon the part of a great throng of the young people of 
our State in those lines which will fit them for earning a livelihood cannot long 
be ignored." — School Journal. 

At Winneconne, Wis., the Winnebago County School of Agriculture and 
Domestic Economy opened on Nov. 4 in a $25,000 building. P. Anderson, for- 
merly of Madison has charge of the manual training and Grace Harden from 
the Stout Training Schools the domestic economy. 

Three new schools, the Morse, the Colfax, and the Holmes, have recently 
been opened in Pittsburg. These three schools provide facilities for instructing 
nearly six thousand children. As might be expected of such an industrial city, 
Pittsburg has a well attended night course in its high school in which science 
and mechanical drawing have a place in the curriculum. There is also a 
night school in the midst of the mill district where mechanical drawing, shop- 
■. Drk, and mathematics have a prominent place. The night work at the Car- 
negie Technical Schools follows after the high school work and these schools are 
unable to care for all who apply for admission. 

On the opposite page we are glad to reproduce the photograph of Mr. 
Larsson's sloyd training class in Bangalore, India. In this selected class are some 
of the most progressive educators in the province of Mysore, and as soon as they 
have completed the six months' course under Mr. Larsson they will go back to 
their homes to work out the problem of adapting sloyd principles to the social 
life and school conditions under which they live. Mysore is the first province 
in India to make manual training an organic part of its public school system. 

American teachers will be interested in the following recommendation made 
to the educational authorities by Mr. Larsson in an address delivered in con- 
nection with the Educational Exhibition in Mysore City, Oct. 21, 1907: — 

(1) That teachers who have had experience in regular school work, and 
have proved themselves capable of understanding the principles and practice 
of sloyd, should be selected to teach the subject. 

Such teachers should have a special remuneration of about one hundred 
rupees a year, in addition to their regular salary. 

(2) That suitable sloyd rooms, properly equipped, should be selected, in 
or near the regular school buildings. Such rooms to accommodate not more than 
twenty children at a time. 

(3) That to begin with, children be selected from the second, third and 
fourth forms, and that the time given to each child should not be less than two 
consecutive hours a week. 

(4) That when work is satisfactorily carried on in the forms just men- 
tioned, it should be expanded into the lower and higher grades of schools. 

(5) That, in the lower grades, some correlated handwork in clay, card- 
board and thin wood be introduced, and taught by the regular teachers if com- 



(6) That, in high schools, preference be given to advanced woodvyork, 
supplemented by wood-turning and some carving. 

(7) That the objects made should be such as to be readily appreciated by 
the worker and should become his property. 

(8) That work-benches, tools and materials used, should be, as far as possi- 
ble, the product of the country, rather than imported. 

(9) That a sloyd room be fitted up in connection with the Normal Train- 
ing Schools to enable the students to attend the manual training as a part of 
their regular studies. 

(10) That graduates of normal schools who have had manual training 
be selected as pupil-teachers or assistants at the various sloyd centres for at 
least one year. 

(11) That during vacation time courses in sloyd and other handicrafts be 
given under the auspices of the normal schools or colleges, for the improvement 
of teachers. 

(12) That, in harmony with sloyd, educational gymnastics should be taught 
as a valuable instrument for a complete general education. 

(13) That such work as forging, pattern-making and machine work be 
placed in the technical or industrial schools. 

These technical and industrial schools are needed to supply a training to the 
comparatively few boys who intend to specialize in a particular line of work, 
or to make a livelihood in some particular trade; but such work has no place in 
general education. 



Elementary Turning, By Frank Henry Selden. Rand, McNally & Co., 
Chicago, 1907. 4J/^ x 6M-in., pp. 197; price $1.00. 

This book is for the use of manual training classes. The author intends the 
little volume to be used as a text rather than a reference book, for, in the intro- 
ductory chapter he says, "There will be little need for class demonstration. 
Each pupil should have a book at his bench, and should take it home with him 
often enough to gain in advance a definite idea of each day's lesson." The book 
.gives detailed instruction for turning practically all the typical forms in wood- 
turning, and is very fully illustrated. As each exercise is treated by the author 
in a particular "lesson" or chapter it is possible that the pupil with average 
power of application might learn to turn reasonably well if he were allowed 
to follow the old maxim, "If at first you don't succeed, try, try again." But 
the author specifically states that the exercise should not be repeated, though in 
the preface we find this statement: "The aim is not technique, but power — 
mental growth." It is doubtful, whether, after heeding these admonitions, the 
average high school pupil will gain power either to think clearly or do well. 
On the other hand, this book, when supplemented by a few class demonstrations 
and considerable individual teaching, will be a boon to the student of wood-turn- 
ing. Especially would this be so, if, in the demonstrations attention should be 
given to an analysis of each individual cut, in which particular the text is lacking 

The book is divided into three parts. Part I, contains thirty lessons on 
elementary exercises which should be taken without omissions. Part II, is 
devoted to thirty-two supplementary exercises and is for those who have com- 
pleted Part I and wish to gain some technical knowledge of wood-turning. 
Part III is a treatise on tools and fittings. Part I contains the meat of the entire 
text for manual training purposes. Parts II and III are valuable only as sup- 
plements to Part I and are only new in arrangement of material. 

The book as a whole is a contribution to teachers and pupils in its unique 
method of presenting the subject matter rather than in its adding anything par- 
ticularly new to other texts on the same subject. The exercises, both in design 
and construction, are very similar to many which have long been used, for lack 
of something better, as manual training models in turning. — Fred. D. Crawshaw. 

Universal Dictionary of Mechanical Draiinng. By George H. Follows, 
Associate Professor of Machine Design and Mechanical Drawing, Carnegie Tech- 
nical Schools. The Engineering News Co., New York, 1906. 8x11 inches; 
pp. 60. 

This book is the result of an effort to standardize the conventions used in 
mechanical drawing and present them in practical form for the use of students 
and draftsmen. The material was published in the Engineering Neics before 
appearing in book form. It treats of an alphabet of lines, lettering, figures and 
dimensions, projections, sectioning and sectional views, finish marks, dimension- 



ing, titles (or what the author calls the "record strips"), nomenclature and 
written matter, checking, standard data, and closes with a few examples of 

From the school standpoint its chief excellencies are (1) its comprehensiv^e- 
ness, so far as conventions are concerned, (2) the high quality of the draftsman- 
ship it presents, and (3) the clearness with which it illustrates the points men- 
tioned in the text. This is often done by showing Avhat not to do along with 
what to do, as in Figs. 28 and 29. 

One's first impression on turning to the alphabet of lines is that the author 
has made his system unduly complex by adopting too many diflrerent kinds of 
lines — fifteen in all — and as one examines the illustrations he still wonders 
whether so many different lines are necessary. We can agree with the author 
that mechanical drawing is a language and should be exact in statement, but it 
should also be simple and easily comprehended by those who read it. To a friend 
whose education has been limited to the common schools one would not write a 
letter containing French phrases, even if they did express one's particular shade 
of thought better than English alone. So a draftsman should take into considera- 
tion the men who are to use his drawings. It would seem to be a difficult and 
expensive task to educate a shop full of workmen, or even a class of bright high 
school boys, up to the fifteen-line standard set in Professor Follow's book. 

On the other hand, it is evident that the lines most frequently used in the 
drawings shown are in harmony with the best practice among draftsmen gener- 
ally, and that in most kinds of business satisfactory drawings could be made 
without adopting more than eight or ten of the lines shown. 

The book is sure to arrest the attention of all who are interested in the sub- 
pect it treats. — B. 

Education by Plays and Games. By George Ellsworth Johnson. Ginn & 
Company, Boston, 1907. 7J^ x 5 inches; pp 234; price illustrated 90 cents. 

"We have here at last a curriculum of plays and games, graded by age from 
infancy to middle teens, and also analyzed so as to show the chief mental and 
physical activities involved in and developed by each of them. Not only age and 
sex but season as well is taken into account. It is essentially a new book with a 
field of its own." 

The above quotation from the introduction by President G. Stanley Hall 
gives a brief summary of the book. The first part discusses the meaning of 
play, play in education, and the periods of childhood and their relation to a 
course of plays and games. The second part consists of a suggestive course of 
plays and games, dividing the child's life up to fifteen years into five periods. 

The book contains many suggestions for "constructive plays" and for that 
reason, especially, it should receive the attention of manual training teachers. 
But every teacher in the elementary schools ought to be better able to understand 
and interest children after having read this book. 

Syllabus on IVood and Woodiuorking. By William Noyes. Published by 
Teachers College, Columbia University, New York City; price 10 cents. 

This is by far the most scholarly and comprehensive outline of a manual 
training subject that has ever been published. After even a hasty examination of 

RElIEirS 279 

this sjllabus no one could say that woodworking is iaciiing in valuable subject 
matter. Tools, measuring of wood, woodworking, common joints, principles of 
joinery, forms of joined structures, fastenings, wood finishing, structure of wood, 
properties of wood, seasoning of wood, principal species of wood, distribution and 
composition of the North American forest, the forest an organism, the life of the 
forest, natural enemies of the forest, exhaustion of the forest, forestry, uses of the 
forest, lumbering, saw milling — these are the chapter headings. The subject of 
each chapter is analyzed and presented in outline form, followed bv references 
to books and magazine articles for each subtopic outlined. 

A Brief Course in Machine Draiving. By Frank E. Mathewson. Series 
I of Supplementary Notes for Mechanical Drawing. Taylor-Holden Company, 
Springfield, Mass., 1907. 6 x 9-in. ; pp. 23; paper covers, price 40 cents. 

This series of problems has been arranged to meet a demand for a brief 
course in machine drawing for classes where only a very limited amount of time 
can be given to the subject. It may be used in connection with or supplementary 
to the author's book. Notes for Mechanical Draiving, published four years ago, 
or it may be used independently. It seems to be especially suitable for a Y. M. 
C. A. or other class of mature students who are desirous of learning to read and 
make simple working drawings in the shortest possible time. 

So far as quality is concerned, it is sufficient to say that it corresponds to 
, Mr. Mathewson's former publications and these have won merited popularity. 

Peirs' Mathematics for the Machine Shop. By Frank Peirs, formerly In- 
structor in Machine Construction Drexel Institute. Published by the author at 223 
North 20th St., Philadelphia, 1906. 3i/^x6-in.; pp. 78 4-44 blank pages for 
notes; price, bound in flexible cloth, $1.00. 

This is a convenient pocket book for the use of machinists and tool makers. 
It is a small volume intended to help in the solution of those particular problems 
which are most likely to arise in a machine shop. In addition to a great variety 
of problems in pure mathematics it treats of simple and compound gearing for 
screw cutting, cutting spirals on the milling machine, spiral gears, spur and 
bevel gears and worm wheels. It also gives a number of useful tables. 

The following have been received : 

An Arts Course for the Grades. This booklet of sixty-one pages comes from 
the Chicago Normal School and contains the following chapters: (1) Considera- 
tions in the Devising of an Art Outline by George W. Eggers; (2) How Curri- 
cula in the Manual Arts might be Planned in Outline by Frank M. McMurry 
and Oscar L. McMurry; (3) Modeling by Antoinette Miller; (4) Work in Tex- 
tiles by Edward F. Worst; (5) Bookbinding by Oscar L. McMurry and George 
W. Eggers; (6) Elementary Course in Furniture and Apparatus Making by 
Oscar L. McMurry and George W. Eggers. Many of these outHines are illus- 
trated with photographs and drawings. 

The Corner Stone of the Coinniomvealth. A description of the Technical 
High School at Springfield, Massachusetts. A well printed and beautifully 
illustrated booklet. 


Course of Study for the Kindergarten and Grade Schools, Peoria, Illinois. 
Contains outlines for manual training, domestic science and arts. 

An Outline Course of Study on a Scientific Basis. Report of a committee 
of the Superintendents' and Principals' Association of Northern Illinois, Supt. 
W. H. Hatch, Oak Park, Chairman. 

Manual Training Number of the Bulletin of the Northern Normal and In- 
dustrial School, Aberdeen, South Dakota, October, 1907. Contains an article on 
"Industrial Education in the Public Schools" by H. W. Mansfield, and one on 
"Trained Teachers for the Rural Schools" by S. C. Hartrauft, also illustrations 
of furniture, forgings and a model house made by students. 

An Outline of Manual Training for the Grades by Albert G. Bauersfeld, 
instructor in woodworking at the Thomas Hoyne Manual Training School, Chi- 
cago. This is a 22 x 29-in. chart published as a supplement to No. 12 of the 
Ohio State University Bulletin, Columbus, Ohio. It is accompanied by a descrip- 
tive article. The chart is the result of an anylitical study of the several forms 
of manual training now found in the elementary schools, with reference to (a) 
media of expression, (b) fundamental principles and processes, (c) successive 
projects, (d) new tools, (e) materials, (f) design and constructive drawing, and 
(g) correlated work based on social and individual needs. 

Manual Training. By L. H. Burch. This is the title of a series of helpful 
articles for rural schools now running in The School Ne'jjs published at Taylor- 
ville. 111. The article in the December number contains a most interesting letter 
from Etta Knowles of the Oak Grove School giving her experiences in starting 
work in manual training in a district school. After one has read this letter and 
examined the three illustrations accompanying it, he realizes better than ever be- 
fore some of the possibilities, as well as the limitations, of manual training work 
in rural schools. 

Vocational JFork for the Elementary School. By James Parton Haney. A 
reprint from a timely article published in the Educational Review for November, 

Report of U. S. Commissioner of Education, Vol. I. For the year ending 
June 30, 1906. The United States Bureau of Education, Washington, D. C. 





APRIL, 1908 


Graham Taylor. 

THE trade schools must be considered in relation to the public 
schools in order to forecast any appreciable effect they are to 
have upon the social interests of the people. For nothing less 
prevalent and effective than the S3'stem of public education provided by 
law and supported by taxation, or at least that part of it which is made 
compulsory, can be said to have any direct social effect upon the whole 
people. Of course anything which, like our technological schools, di- 
rectly affects any large group or class cannot fail. indirectly to affect the 
whole mass. The mechanical, electrical, mining and civil engineers they 
graduate, help make work and raise the standard of efficiency beyond 
the lines of their employment. But the direct influence of these schools 
has been more limited to the ever increasing numbers of those educated 
by them than was hoped when many of them were founded. Much as 
they have done to increase the efficiency and opportunity of those within 
whose reach their advantages have been placed, they necessarily start 
on a plane far beyond the reach of the rank and file of American labor. 
If the trade schools are on the one hand to leave the technological 
schools alone in their sphere of higher attainment, they must on the 
other hand not only be a part of the public school training, but must 
influence all their elementary grades, in order to train enough trades- 
people to promote the common welfare. It is not enough that the sev- 
enth and eighth grades should provide for the distinct classes of pupils: 
first, for those who intend to graduate into the regular literary and 
classical high schools, and second, for those who have special aptitude 

^Read before the Society for the Promotion of Industrial Education, Chi- 
cago, Jan. 24, 1908. 



and purpose to enter the manual training and commercial high schools. 
For our industries and our people both need the creation and develop- 
ment of this very aptitude and purpose among the rank and file. It can 
be done most surely, and perhaps with the majority of school children 
only, in the earlier years and in the elementary stages of their schooling. 
Not only do most of the school children at our industrial centers fail 
to go beyond the sixth and seventh grades, sometimes from lack 
of opportunity and more often from lack of inclination ; but they 
fail to have either their interest or aptitude for skilled pursuits elicited 
at all, if it is not done before they reach the sixth grade. 

Therefore one of the most valuable results to the people in the move- 
ment for trade schools will be the necessity to prepare pupils for these 
schools by introducing various forms of training in manual work and the 
arts of common life all through the grades of our public schools from 
the sixth down to the kindergarten. The practical utility as well as the 
educational value of this early industrial training, has been notably 
demonstrated in this city by the co-operation of qenerous private citizens 
and public school authorities and superintendents. This work at the 
Tilden School, situated in one of the neediest districts of Chicago, has 
been patiently and persistently sustained by one of our foremost manu- 
facturers until it is recognized to have trained all its children in the 
most necessary arts of living, and to have laid the basis for their higher 
occupational training. From the kindergarten up through the sixth 
grade, they are progressively trained to use their hands and eyes, their 
touch and taste in constructive work with wood, iron and textiles; in 
laundrying, cooking and sewing ; in designing and making things. 

Not only has the continuation in the seventh and eighth grades of 
this elementary work been conceded by the teachers to have added in- 
centive and opportunitiy for the children to prolong their schooling, 
but it is confidently expected to assure all the pupils which the pro- 
posed trades schools can possibly train. 

The social interests of our family folk thus to be promoted are in- 
estimable. By prolonging the school age from the fourteenth through 
the sixteenth year, both by voluntary motives and compulsory measures, 
the period of greatest danger to the boy and girl, and therefore to the 
community, would be better safeguarded than in any other way. The 
social and economic waste in the fustration of these two most formative 
years in the discipline and character of the child, is to be measured not 
by the number of boys and girls who fall into delinquency and depend- 
ency in this critical period of their physical and mental development, 


but also by the loss to our industrieis and commonwealth of all the 
powers and capacities for productive skill which fail to be developed. 
From the burden and menace of increasing juvenile delinquency and 
dependency some of our greatest cities are moving to protect themselves 
by increasing the compulsory school age to cover the sixteenth year so 
as to assure every child the discipline of the school, unless it is assured 
the discipline of the shop. Surely, therefore, the common welfare of 
our whole people both warrants and demands the provision at public 
expense of an industrial training, adequate not only to develop the in- 
terest of the children previously elicited through their earlier school 
life, but also to fit and prepare them to earn their living and contribute 
to the wealth of the commonwealth in the trade or occupation for which 
they prove themselves to have the best aptitude. 

To facilitate the child's choice of a calling by the development of 
interest and aptitude will be of great advantage to each individual. It 
might also develop in this country, as it has for centuries in Europe, an 
hereditary skill in certain trades, which might be, here as there, the rich- 
est heritage which one generation can give to another, and which might 
add new resources to the nation's capital in trade. The craft and trade 
secrets which were once the jealously guarded treasures of the old craft 
guilds in the middle ages, would be the open secrets of our age, — open 
to any and all who prove themselves capable of learning and using them. 

The interests of the whole people, however, would have to be safe- 
guarded from the abuse of an unlimited apprenticeship by the monop- 
oly of natural resources and by the limitation of the opportunities for 
skilled labor. For the wages and standard of living, even in skilled 
trades, would be at the merc}^ of monopolists whenever or wherever 
they could control the access to natural resources and the tools of ma- 
chine production, and at the same time command an unlimited supply 
of skilled labor. The caution of our trades-people is therefore natural 
enough. It is born out of many a bitter experience with the fever and 
chill of seasonal trades, with the occasioinal and often protracted periods 
of entire lack of employment, and with the restriction of more and more 
workers to some minute part of a trade which affords little or no oppor- 
tunity for increase of either wages or expert skill. While we are dis- 
cussing the increase of skilled working people, we must not forget the 
thousands of unemployed now in this city and at every other industrial 
center, even in Germany where trade schools have had their greatest 
and longest development. 


The social interests of the whole community also demand that the 
curriculum of the trade schools should add, to the training in the me- 
chanism of industry, instruction in the history, psychology and ethics of 
industrial relationships. For nothing is more sadly apparent than the 
neglect of the human factors in industry which has proved as un-busi- 
nesslike in its waste of energy and efficiency, as it has been inhuman and 
divisive in the life of every industrial community. There are cheering 
signs that both employers and employes are coming to their human 
senses in demanding, conceding and providing for the personal consid- 
erations involved in their industrial relations with each other. Nothing 
is at this moment more essential to the success of this auspicious move- 
ment for trade schools than for this convention to make frank and full 
avowal of the necessity to recognize the human elements on both sides 
of its problem. For to attempt to include training for the trades in the 
American public school sj'stem without securing the initiative and co- 
operation of the trades-people whose interests are most vitally involved 
in the project and whose children must be the pupils in the proposed 
schools, is like tr^'ing to play Hamlet by leaving Hamlet out. 

If exploitation be barred by just legal safeguards and by the organ- 
ized self-protection of the group or class most in danger of being ex- 
ploited, the wealth producing capacity of our whole people will un- 
doubtedly be promoted by trade schools placed within the reach of all. 
The introduction of greatly increased numbers of trained and disci- 
plined people to the ranks of the wage earners in all the skilled trades, 
through the agency of these free, public trade schools, will undoubtedly 
make possible a vast development of our country's limitless natural re- 
sources. It will as surely add such strength to the leadership and rank 
and file of self-protecting trade organizations that organized craftsmen 
will be better able than ever to protect their property rights in their 
own skill and in the products of their own toil. The social interests of 
the whole people cannot fail to be greatly promoted by trade schools, 
which at the bottom strike their roots into the manual training of the 
elementary grades in our public schools, and blossom at the top with 
the hope, assured to all, of enjoying the fruits of each one's own toil 
and skill without fear of exploitation. 


Frank Forrest Frederick 

THE gentle art of laying flat washes of water colour seems In a 
fair way to be lost. Our art teachers, fascinated with the de- 
lights of wet paper, broken values, accidental effects and the 
beautiful quality to be obtained with freely running colour, forget 
that there is a beauty in a clear, even and transparent wash, and that 
in the art-trades the latter method is used while it is only the painter 
of pictures who uses the former. Many a boy in the high school who 
shuns the water colour class would be only too glad to undertake the 
work if he saw in it any application to architecture, engineering, or the 
allied professions. 

It is not always possible to find picturesque subjects for this method 
of rendering, but halls, corners of rooms and views from windows are 
often interesting, while photographs of historic buildings or good exam- 
ples of architecture provide subjects of value not alone for the practice 
of translating the values of the photograph or print into values of 



The best way to learn the handling of washes of colour is to begin 
with one colour, as ivory black, or charcoal gray. Roman sepia in the 
cake, ground upon a plate as needed, was used for the drawings repro- 
duced in connection with this article. These drawings were executed 
upon stretched Whatman cold pressed paper. Rough paper, except for 
large work, should not be used. 

The best way to stretch a sheet of paper is to immerse it in water 
for an hour or more in a bath tub, sink, or shallow wooden box made 
for the purpose. When entirely saturated, roll the sheet in a dry 
towel for a moment to remove all surface water. Put it face downward 
upon a drawing board and lay a band of glue or strong paste about one- 
half inch wide around the four sides, then turn it over and press the 
glued edge upon the board by rubbing briskly with any smooth instru- 
ment as the end of a closed pocket knife. Upon no account stretch or 
pull the paper when fastening it upon the board for its immersion has 
swelled it equally in all parts and if laid upon the board evenly it will 
dry perfectly flat. 

The method followed in the execution of the accompanjing illus- 
trations mav be described under three heads : 


As paper has a very sensitive surface no erasures should be made 
where colour is to be applied, and the first experiments in the composi- 
tion or placing of the subject should be carried out upon another sheet. 
When this seems satisfactory, lay it aside for future use, and with a 
hard pencil (4H) held within the hand like an oil paint brush, the 
leading lines and masses of the composition should be indicated. These 
lines are not erased, but over them — using T-square, triangles and 
rulers where necessary — a careful and very complete drawing is made, 
indicating, especially, widths of mouldings and the thickness of walls at 
window and door openings. The details in the shade and shadow of 
the drawing made to illustrate this method of work were as carefully 
and completely drawn as those in the light. The drawing upon the 
illustrative plate was lined in with a pen. dipped in sepia that it might 
reproduce with the remainder of the plate; but, of course, the drawing 
should be left in pencil w-hen washes are to be applied. Note that the 
stones of the pavement are all drawn. One can never tell just what 
detail will be brought out later, and the only safe way is to draw^ it all. 




If this had not been done the few lights showing in the shade could not 
have been properly placed. Too much stress cannot be laid upon the 
necessity of a complete drawing before the brush is touched. Changes 
cannot be made while the work is in progress. The application of the 
washes is almost the least important part of the problem, I often spend 
»n hour upon a drawing to every five minutes spent upon the washes. 


While the drawing is in progress determine its treatment in wash. 
Accept as a general principle that while there should be one white and 
one very dark area in the drawing, preferably near the centre of the 
composition and never in the distance, the greater part of the space 
should be covered with light washes. It is a good plan, with a soft lead 
pencil, to scribble over the preliminary sketch mentioned above, think- 
ing out the location and intensity of the values to be used. When these 
questions have been settled, pass a wash of clean water over the entire 
drawing to clean and soften the paper. When this is dry and the 
paper entirely flat, pass a wash, so light it can scarcely be seen, over 
everything that is not to be white. Use for this a large brush and 
apply the wash as mechanically as if white-washing a wall. On the 
illustrative plate this wash can be seen on the top of the prism and on 
the sky of the drawing below. The light surface of the prism, parts 
of the nearest wall and several of the stones of the pavement were left 
white, though they do not appear white on account of the screen used 
in making the plate from which the reproduction is printed. The light 
sail and the lights upon the water in the foreground of the drawing of 
Venetian boats, all the light in the lower part of the Aisle in West- 
minster Abbey, and all the nearest lights in the Castle on St. Michael's 
Mount were left white. This first light and almost invisible wash 
serves a three-fold purpose. It definitely locates the whites, it prepares 
the surface of the paper for darker washes, and it serves often, as has 
been pointed out, to form part of the picture. After the first wash is 
dry a second, but little darker, is floated over the drawing, leaving out 
the whites and the areas that are to be left of the value of the first wash. 
This second wash forms the foreground of the prism drawing, and 
shows upon the light side of the chimney and the upper part of the left 
wall of the drawing below. The wash was passed over everything 
in these drawings — including window shutters, paving stones, etc., — that 





is darker than the white and the first light wash. If a graded sky or 
clouds is to be shown, it should be done with the second wash, which 
should be rather strong at the top and gradually diluted till it reaches 
the horizon or the foreground, as the subject may demand. 

No gradations whatever are shown upon the illustrative plate. 

When the second wash is dry, take a small, pointed, "springy" brush, 
and, keeping it full, with a blotter handy to dry it when necessary, 
build up the picture by passing washes over everything, including the 
foreground, that is darker than the preceding washes. Pass these 
washes over as much of the composition as possible, keeping all shadows 
of the same value as the shade sides of the objects casting them; and, 
lastly, add the shadows. If the drawing is executed in two or three 
washes only it is likely to look thin and cheap like an etching printed 
from a wiped plate. The drawings on the illustrative plate were 
executed in five washes, of which two have been described, while the 
third passed over the background of the prism, its shade side and shadow, 
the fourth over shade side and shadow, and the fifth over the shadow. 
In the drawings below the prism the third was passed over all shades 
and shadows and the shutters on the light wall, the fourth over the 
same areas except the window caps and the irregular surfaces where the 
stucco had fallen off, and the fifth over the shadows and the archway. 
The same values were used for the prism and the architectural subject. 

A common mistake made by beginners is to leave the lights in the 
shades too light. Very little modeling in shade areas is needed, and 
lights in shades should never be left till three or four washes have 
been put on. At this stage of the work the student's drawing will 
probably look weak, and, if the washes have not been clean, and sharply 
confined within the proper boundaries, "woolly;" and the temptation 
to drop in darks and accents will be great ; but strength will be obtained 
by strengthening some values and grading others. In this method of 
work light washes cannot be floated over other washes as dark as 
shadows should be without losing transparency, and, therefore, the 
shadows should be added last. 


Reward for the self-control necessarily exercised to carry the draw- 
ing on in the broad, simple w^ay described above, will come with the 
addition of the accents. By accents is meant touches to represent 










i I 

< 5 


windows, lines to bring out mouldings or architectural enrichment, 
dark branches of trees, and, last of all, the darkest spot. These should 
be applied with the point of the brush in the form of drops in puddles, 
dark or light as required, and allowed to dry slowly. Too many accents 
give a spotted eiifect. It may be said, in general, that subjects of the 
character here reproduced can be rendered with three groups of values, 
— one group of two or three washes for the sky and the nearer sunlit 
areas, another for the distance and the foreground, and the third for 
the shades and shadows. These, to repeat briefly must not be applied 
in the manner of mosaic, but built up by repeated washes — each wash 
covering less area than the preceding, till the last and darkest is a spot 
of the full intensity of the pigment. 

The drawing of the Aisle in Westminster Abbey was executed upon 
but three light washes with the point of the brush, but beginners should 
not attempt a subject requiring this treatment. 

It is worthy of notice that of the thousands of drawings by Claude 
and Turner and the early English water-colourists to be seen in 
museums, all are executed in the method described above or in wash 
combined with pen or pencil work. Turner, who later handled water- 
colour with the greatest possible freedom and strength, always executed 
his earlier drawings in pure wash or in pen and pencil point combined 
with wash. This is an excellent method and should be more generally 
practiced. The drawing of "Camp Methuen" here reproduced was 
rendered in pencil and then washed over with sepia. The drawing of 
the Castle on St. Michael's Mount was washed first and later worked 
over with the pen. 

Variety may be obtained by working upon tinted paper in Turner's 
manner — washing in the shades and shadows and adding white for the 
lights. The Street in Canterbury illustrates this method. 

After working in monochrome wash until the student has become 
skillful in handling one colour, it is then, and only then, time to attempt 
full colour; and it will be an easy step to take. The same method 
should be followed — keeping all clear and clean as did the English 
water-colourists — working in the wash method upon stretched paper. 

My own water colours, which are certainly not dull and muddy, 
whatever else may be said of them, are all painted with yellow ochre, 
rose madder and cobalt. When strength is wanted, carmine takes the 
place of rose madder, and Prussian blue the place of cobalt. Light red 
is added for brick walls, and pale cadmium sometimes takes the place of 


j'ellow ochre ; but with the gray resulting from the first three pigments 
mentioned, which are blended rather than mixed together, the effects, 
are obtained. In my box is also gamboge, used to obtain the very little 
actual green that we see in nature. The vines hanging over the walls 
in the Old Street in Penzance here reproduced (see frontispiece) were 
washed in with gamboge and the other washes brought up to it. 

It is poor economy to use anything except the best pigment. All of 
the "school" and low priced pigment should be avoided. 

Mr. Alfred East said in a recent article that most students of land- 
scape wish to "canter before they can crawl." We very properly give 
much attention to landscape work in our public school art instruction, 
but all have noticed that after the very beautiful and suggestive work 
executed in the lower grades there is no progress, and the ability to feel 
and express landscape apparently dies before the high school is reached. 
If the study could be pursued in some more systematic manner this 
might possibly be changed. 



Harris W. Moore. 

LIKE the habit and manners of Portia's English suitor the influ- 
ences which have been shaping the manual training work in 
the Watertown grammar schools have come from nearly every- 
where. Once in the days when models were carefully packed away by 
the manual training teacher and kept till the close of school in June, a 
certain ninth grade boy, who had done well in his work, found that he 
had made only two models during the year for which he cared enough 
to take home. The teacher was sorry to find that the year's work was 
evidently so barren of outward results from the boy's standpoint. The 
design of a certain small shelf to be made of pine pleased the teacher 
because it brought in so many good exercises and operations and, withal, 
looked so well when completed ; but the remark of a boy that he 
wouldn't put up such a shelf in his home made the teacher think that 
after all there was something wrong with the model. After looking 
over the rather formal models and exercises in one of our best known 
manual training high schools, I asked the instructor in woodwork 
whether the boys who had done benchwork in the grammar school did 
good work on those models. When he replied that he got better re- 
sults from the boys who had received no such training in the grammar 
school, I began to wonder if there was not something of vital interest 
lacking in the course of models. It was not so much a lack of ability 
in the first group of boA's as a lack of incentive for careful workman- 
ship. When a boy sees the need of accuracy in his work he will strive 
to attain it. 

President Hall at Clark University and Mr. Larsson at Boston have 
gathered interesting collections of bo5'^s' spontaneous constructive work 
which are rich in suggestions to manual training teachers who are in- 
terested in the boy's side of the model. The workmanship is for the 
most part distressingly crude but the models answer their purpose in 
the boy's life, and the accuracy attained is, like Touchstone's country 
wench, "An ill-favored thing, sir, but mine own." In his book on 
Adolescence, President Hall has severely criticized the usual courses in 
manual training, and his suggestions as to toys and scientific apparatus 
have appealed to me as being a good line along which to work. When 



the present work was undertaken in Watertown the aim of the super- 
intendent was to make all school work just as far as possible of real, 
vital interest to the pupils, — real from their standpoint and vitally con- 
nected with their child life, — something appealing to them as worth 
doing. In a certain school somewhere a zealous woman had "the thir- 
teen successive steps" in the making of a wedge (I think it was) all 
illustrated by samples on the wall. Have not we adults too often 
taught by the analytic method when the child's interest demands a 
whole instead of a part? I freely admit that sometimes the whole is 
so impetuously interesting that the boy can hardly wait to get the parts 
properly assembled before trying to see if it will "go ;" but still I con- 
tend that there are other values, perhaps not so tangible as to be tested 
with rule and trysquare, that ought to have consideration by us teach- 
ers. In "Prue and I" George William Curtis suggests the kind of 
teacher whose work is of lasting worth: "My grandmother sent me 
to school but I looked at the master and saw that he was a smooth, 
round ferrule, or an improper noun, or a vulgar fraction, and refused 
to obey him. Or he was a piece of string, a rag, a willow wand, and I 
had a contemptous pity. But one was a well of cool deep water, and 
looking suddenly in one day I .saw the stars." 

Experience was my only instructor in my grandfather's workshop 
on the farm, but that was sufficient to delight the boy with bows and 
arrows, darts, guns, traps, wagons, boats, windmills, and waterwheels. 
I couldn't or didn't plane a glued joint till I reached the technical, 
school, but I have ninth grade boj^s who can plane one well now. The- 
oretically I agree with the teacher who said that the only proper tool 
to make a wheel with is the lathe, but shall we therefore let the boy 
wait till he is in the high school before making a wheel for his box-cart? 

These are some of the influences which have resulted in such models 
as are described and illustrated in this paper. The aim has been to find 
work naturally interesting to a boy which embodies scientific or me- 
chanical principles and yet is good from the standpoint of tool exercises 
involved and simple enough to be done by classes In the ordinary public 
school. Pehaps I ought to state that for five years there were not more 
than eighteen in a class though this year there are twenty-four In some. 
Some of the more rapid workers of almost every class have worked 
together making articles needed in the regular schoolroom. Cages for 
animals, doll-houses, looms, window boxes, plant stands, and stools are 
some of the articles which have been made. One year four boys made 
for themselves substantial maple benches patterned after those In the 
manual training room. Home work Is continually encouraged. 




The courses followed are by no means rigid ones, for some models 
tried one year may be discarded the next year or put into a different 
grade. The sixth grade course includes an arrow, bow, ring toss, elcc- 



trie box, "Happy Jack" windmill, waterwheel, and weather cottage. 
Four feet lengths of straight-grain white ash are used for making bows. 
This with the arrow forms one of the most popular models, for every 
boy likes to shoot. The bowstrings are made bv the eighth grade boys 
and are tied with knots shown in Fig. 1. Feathers for the arrows are 

supplied by the boys but are cut and split by the teacher, because the 
bench knife is too heavy for that operation. Rings for the ring toss are 
made of four or five small willow shoots bound with twine and then 
covered with strips of bright cloth. As a scientific toy involving the use 
of that magic force, electricity, the electric box^ appeals strongly to boys. 

^See page 247 Manual Training Magazine, Vol. VIII. No. 4; also page 
65 Dr. Goetze's "Manual Training Made Serviceable to the School." 





Arms j'it tightly ov\ a ^ wire 
revolving easilu through the &houlder5. 

Bodi^ revolves 

., 3' 

e OS ili^ on a r^ 

dowel rod. 

One vane. 
3I a nfs so as 
to catch the. 
Wind h\ o w \ t\Q 
$ i d e wi 5 e. 





The "Happy Jack" windmill, (See Fig. 2 and Plate 1) gaily printed, 
performing his lively acrobatic feats on the clothesline post on a windy 
day affords amusement to many others besides the maker. He is 
mounted on a small dowell rod so as to turn easily. To bore the hole 
straight for this , rod a jig is clamped on the center line of the body; to 
bore from shoulder to shoulder, the jig is clamped across the body. The 


two vanes are planed thin at the broad end, and at the small end are 
fitted tightly into a hole bored through the half-inch dowel rod which 
serves for arms. They are fastened at different angles to catch the wind 
from any quarter. The waterwheel (See Fig. 2') is a rather difficult 
constructive model, but it has been used in this grade for four years- 
The notches in the wheel are cut out with the back saw. The hole is 
bored with the aid of a jig. The most difficult operation is nailing the 
paddles evenly into the notches in the wheel so that when it revolves 
they do not strike the sides or bottom of the trough. The careful boy 
has the reward of seeing his wheel revolve freely the first time, while 
the careless one has to pare down the paddles which strike. The weather 
cottage, or hygroscope (See Fig. 2'), responds to the humidity of the 

\\lso page 185 Manual Training Magazine Vol. VI. No. 3. 
"Also page 247, Manual Training Magazine, Vol. VIII. No. 4. 



atmosphere, and inasmuch as the humidity usually increases before a 
storm it serves somewhat as a weather indicator. 

For the more rapid workers in all grades extra models are provided. 
Arrows serve well during the first of the sixth grade, for an archer needs 


more than one arrow. Swords and shields are in good demand when- 
ever the class is reading and perhaps dramatizing the tales of King Ar- 

The first lesson every September is always a drawing lesson and the 


first model a simple one, so in the seventh grade we begin with a sim- 
ple knife strop. To make it a thoroughly efficient one a little emery 
powder is provided to be sprinkled on the leather from time to time. 
That it is efficient one boy proved by telling how the first time his 
m.other used his for her kitchen knives she cut her finger. The second 
model is a pencil box, or scholar's companion (See Fig. 3). The bevel 
on the cover has been a difficult operation for many, and some device 











































End Pieces 




Pa ddles 





' 8 








Middle Base 





Side Base 






Upri ghts 





Top Cross Piece 






Ku n s 
















Top Blocks 










Weight Guides 










Mortise A to Jit stem 

MAST 14 long j^ diameter at bottom 

BOCM 9 •• ^ 

GAFF 5 ■• i .. 

BOWSPRIT 6 •■ h ■• 



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may have to be planned to simplify this. The groove has been made 
with a nail filed somewhat like a chisel and driven through the rabbeted 
end of a block of wood. (See Fig, 4.) The electrophorous (See 
Fig. 3^) has been used in conjunction with a little pamphlet called 
"Fun With E^lectricity," and it offers the boy a good opportunity of 
learning the fundamental principles of frictional electricity at first hand. 


Besides the electrophorous proper a simple support (shown behind the 
electrophorus in Fig. 3) is made to aid in performing some of the ex- 
periments. After I had shown a class how to perform an experiment 
called the miniature telegraph, which requires the sending of an electric 
impulse from one tin box cover through some three feet of fine insulated 
wire to another cover called the receiver, one boy said the next day that 
he had untwisted some wire he found in a picture cord or small cable 
of short length and twisted the pieces together till he had some twenty 
feet and made his experiment work through the whole distance. He, 
by the way, is the boy who made the windmill force pump shown in 
Fig. 8. The hub of the sand wheel (See Fig. 3 and Plate 2) is the 
cylindrical portion of a large spool into "which eight small holes have 
been bored by the use of a jig. The pile driver (See Fig. 6) has been 
a good constructive model in this grade. On a model of this nature 

*And page 76, Manual Training Magazine, Vol. IX. No. 1 ; also page 122, 
Dr. Goetze's "Manual Training Made Serviceable to the School." 


the most successful boys are those who follow the teacher's injunction 
to finish all parts nicely before nailing any together, except that the runs 
(See Plate 3) may be nailed to the uprights and the weight guides to 
the weight. With these exceptions the order of nailing is, first, up- 
rights to side pieces; second, side pieces to middle; third, top to up- 


rights; fourth, braces to uprights and base. The boat (See Fig. 5, and 
Plate 4) is formed solid of pine with beam and ballast enough to right 
itself even if the sails do get wet. The rudder is moved by a string 
wound five or six times around a spool or dowel rod screwed tightly 
enough to the deck to stay in any position. Some years sails have been 
furnished by the sewing classes. The elastic gun (See Fig. 6) has ap- 
pealed to boys who are not burdened with money to spend for toys. I 
recall one of the other class who bought himself a spring gun for $1.75 
about the time the smarter boys had begun to make theirs at school. 
The rider, which slides in the groove, and the spring, which holds the 
hook engaging in a screw eye in the rider, have to be made of maple in 
order to withstand the strain of the elastic. The half spools screwed to 
each side of the barrel serve to keep the rider from flying oflf when the 
gun is discharged. 





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Among the eighth grade models the string twisting machine and the 
windmill force-pump are good constructive models, while the whisk- 
broom holder^ offers a good opportunity for decoration in tooled leather. 
With the string twisting machine (See Fig. 7 and Plate 5) the boys 
make of soft linen thread the bowstrings required in the sixth grade. To 
do this threads are strung from hooks on the tail piece to corresponding 
hooks on the head piece and twisted tightly in the opposite direction to 


their individual twist. As the twisting proceeds the elastic is pulled 
very taut and when they are twisted enough the strands kink readily 
if the tail piece is moved nearer the head piece. When this occurs the 
strands on the two lower hooks are removed to the upper hook and all 
three twisted together in the opposite direction. The construction of 
the model is comparatively simple, the greatest care being needed when 
the shorter upright is screwed to the triangular shaped block, which has 
first been nailed securely to the longer upright, for unless the three axles 
are parallel the belt will not run true. The wheels are made by sawing 
large spools in a mitre box and then rounding their edges a little to 
crown the face of the pulley, as a mechanic would say. The windmill 
force-pump (See Fig. 8 and Plate 6) consists of three pieces of thick 
glass tubing inserted in short pieces of rubber tubing fitting snugly into 
a wooden block, which has been made impervious to water by pouring 
hot parafine through it. The leather valves are cemented into two of 
these glass tubes with sealing wax, and the piston works smoothly in the 
other one. To utilize this pump for a sort of fire engine some boy? 
connect the discharge tube with a large bottle which serves as an air 
chamber, from the bottom of which a small glass tube leads through an 
'See page 243, Manual Training Magazine, Vol. VII. No. 4. 



air tight stopper to a rubber hose with a small glass nozzle. In a strong 
breeze the pump will send a stream several feet. 

This year being the second year of ninth grade work, not many new 
models have been invented. Last year the boys made small wooden 
printing presses, but they proved rather tedious for an individual model 
and it is not being repeated this year. Some boys brought type, and 











some were successful in carving words and simple cuts on maple blocks 
and printing from them. (See Fig. 9.) At one school, tickets were 
printed for the class play of The Merchant of Venice. One boy after 
a class trip to a large publishing plant did a little electrotyping at home. 
In all grades some working drawings are made of models or parts 
of models which the class is ready to construct. At the bench, however, 
the pupil uses hektograph drawings made by the teacher. These draw- 
ings, as the reader may have discovered from the various plates, are not 
always complete working drawings for the reason that sometimes un- 
essential dimensions can be supplied by the pupil's own judgment and 
at other times explanatory sketches must needs be put on the black- 
board. Complete detailed drawings could not be interpreted by the 
pupil unaided, hence the aim at simplicity. In general drawing is looked 
upon as an interruption of the more interesting bench work. 



The results of such work as has been su;j;iiested above, through a 
period of more than five years, have been so favorable tliat, when I re- 
call the more formal models used in manj' schools and in my own in 
earlier years. I confess some astonishment that they can furnish any 
interest or incentive to a boy. But I suppose it is something like the 
problem of existence, — if the growing organism cannot get the food best 
suited to its growth, it manages to subsist for a longer or shorter time 
on inferior food. Then, too, the mere chance to handle tools and shape 
material is of considerable interest to most boys, and an enthusiastic 
teacher can arouse interest in almost any subject. But our problem as 
manual training teachers is to find models which are rich in interest to 
boy life, and which touch in as many points as possible the larger life of 
the world into which he is growing. If the work appeals to him as 
something worth doing he W\\\ put into it his best thought and effort. 




Gilbert B. Morrison. 

IN THE tables accompanying the foregoing articles and in those in 
the present one concluding the series, one dominant characteristic 
of our work is conspicuous, viz., that each exercise shown in the 
first column has for its prime object the mastery of a mechanical pro- 
cess through which the student becomes familiar with the elements 
underlying the best shop practice; for example in making a mortise 
and tennon there is a method of procedure in measuring, laying out, 
sawing and chiseling which has been evolved with long practice by 
practical workmen. In the broad application of the mortise and ten- 
non in the manufacture of sash doors, furniture, framing, bridge work, 
etc., the ability to execute this process in a workmanlike manner is, of 
course, a prime essential to the boy who will later work at any trade 
in which this process is employed. It is to the trade what the alphabet 
is to a piece of literary composition. And so it is with other exercises. 

These processes are fundamental and paramount, and for the boy 
who will enter any woodworking trade, they are indispensable. To the 
average boy in the manual training shop an additional value attaches to 
the exercise when the process is applied in the construction of some use- 
ful article, a table or other piece of furniture. Still further is its edu- 
cational value enhanced when attention is given to the design of the 
piece. These additional elements arouse interest, quicken the percep- 
tions in the discovery of proper relations, and cultivate the taste in con- 
ceiving harmony of line and form. 

It is in these latter elements that the manual training of today is 
superior to that of yesterday when the work of the school shops was 
confined to the processes alone. But it should not be forgotten that 
for the purposes of merely learning a trade which consists in the main 
of the constant repetition and application of a few processes on the part 
of the man whose work is limited and circumscribed by the require- 
ments of the large contractor or manufacturer these fundamental pro- 
cesses are the sine qua non for the boy who by reason of financial or 
mental limitations will be consigned to the unvarj'ing routine of the 



It is right here at this period in the evolution of public education, 
at the dawn of the demand for industrial schools that the significance 
of our contention for the shop exercise becomes clear and conclusive. 
Some of us have tenaciously held to the necessity of rigidly holding 
the work of the school shop to those processes and principles which 
underly a large number of trades so that this work will command the 
respect of the industrial world — so that it will at once be recognized 
bv the practical mechanic as good training as far as it goes. 

The demand for boys who have had this training in our best man- 
ual training schools is sufficient evidence that it is of the right sort. 
Every principal and director of such a school could give scores of in- 
stances of applications for boys to take places in which mechanical skill 
is required. It was only yesterday (Jan. 14) that the father of a boy 
in the senior class of the McKinley High School was telling me of the 
value this shop training had been to his son. For two summers past 
this boy nas been doing carpenter work for a well known contractor 
and builder. The father took special delight in telling that the boy 
was often called by the foreman to that part of the job which required 
special initiative, and mentioned stair building as an instance. The 
father is a college bred man, and he declared he had become a con- 
vert to manual training against his will, through the influence it had 
exerted in the life of his boy. 

The educational value of this training to the boy who will never 
work at a trade has been pointed out so often, has been discussed at 
such length, and has received such universal assent that further refer- 
ence to it would be unnecessary were it not for the relation this phase 
of the question bears to the general consideration of industrial educa- 
tion at public expense. 

It w^ill be distinctly remembered that when this training was first 
introduced into the high schools of this countn,^ its advocates were very 
particular in disclaiming any intention of making it vocational or special 
in its aims. It was introduced on the broad grounds of culture and to 
the end of an all around development, and because of the changing 
conditions of a scientific and industrial age that made this good material 
out of which to modernize the high school curriculum. Our boys no 
longer possessed those natural advantages of country life which had 
been formerly enjoyed by boys of an earlier period, and it became im- 
perative to supplement the academic school by some of the realities of 
material experience. It goes without saying that all these purposes 
have been more than realized in our manual training high schools. 



Pupils and their parents are electing this course regardless of any con- 
scious choice of a future occupation. So universal is the recognition 
of the general value of this training that colleges are accepting it for 
admission on a par with conventional branches. When manual train- 
ing was first introduced into the public schools we had not considered 




the necessity of trade education per se. At that time no subject could 
have been introduced which had not proved its right to a place in the 
curriculum on general educational grounds. Manual training made 
this claim, and has made good. 

It is now becoming evident from the wide spread discussion of in- 
dustrial education from many sources that this country is looking to 
it for other purposes than that of general education. Associations tor 
the promotion of industrial education have been lormed. Complaints 
that the public schools are still too medieval in their methods are heard 
from certain quarters. Many schools are making their appearance: — 


"Trade Schools," "Technical Schools," "Foundations," "Arts and 
Crafts Schools," "Industrial Schools," "Textile Schools," "Poor Boys' 
Schools," "Manual Labor Schools," "Grade School Manual Training 
Schools," "Manual Training High Schools," etc., etc., are being built 
by enthusiastic millionaires. These schools represent an endless vari- 
ety of t\'pes each revealing the point of view of its founder. Some claim 
that a school to have any value should be fully equipped for technical 
instruction ; others that technical training is worse than useless. A 
certain class holds that all book learning should be limited strictly to 
what a boy needs in the shop. Another class that theory and practice 
should go hand in hand. A few still believe that no manual training 
in school is essential, even for those who will follow mechanical pur- 
suits, holding that the humanities "make men," and that a man will 
pick up his trade when he needs it. But the belief that manual train- 
ing in some form has come to be an essential in public education is 
becoming almost universal. 

Now, in each of these views there should be a grain of truth coni- 
mon to all the rest. We should be able, if we can discern this common 
element, to get a perspective view enabling us to foresee the relation 
of industrial education to the high school of the future. It seems to 
me that this element is not diflficult to find and that it may be expressed 
in very simple terms. I believe it might read something like this: — 
Every American boy is entitled to all the learning he is capable of tak- 
ing. This learning should be both mental and manual and should be 
made as practical as possible. In other words he should, to the extent 
of his ability, come to his own in the heritage of the theoretical knowl- 
edge of the race in so far as he can by training be taught to embody 
this knowledge in purposeful practice. 

This conception of the problem calls for great breadth and flexibil- 
ity in our schools and in our curriculums. If we are to make it pos- 
sible for every boy to receive his birthright, the flexibility and versatility 
of our schools must be commensurate with the endless diversity of 
talent and opportunity. The boy who can go no farther than the 
eight elementary grades should have along with his three R's all the 
manual training of the practical sort that can be worked into a well 
balanced curriculum. If the limitations placed upon him by poverty 
or a paucity of natural endowments condition him to a life of manual 
labor then that labor should be made as skillful as possible ; for this 
reason manual training of the plainest sort should be offered through 
the grades. It should consist of those simple fundamental processes 



which underlie the mechanical trades and should so far as time and the 
powers of the pupils will permit be carried forward in the artistic 
spirit. So far as it goes it should be in the direction of community 
industry. Differences in talent should be recognized from the start 
and each boy's work adapted to his powers. If he is dull in ' books 


and unable to keep up with his class let him do what he can and give 
him more of the manual training. If he shows no promise of skill 
in the use of tools give him less manual training and more books. Find 
the boy and then proceed to build upon him ; and in dealing with him 
keep close to the border line between what he knows and what he does 
not know — between what he can do and what he can not do. It is 
the discovery of this line and constantly keeping it in view that con- 
stitutes good teaching. Boys treated in this manner through the ele- 
mentary schools will be able to earn an honest living in factory, shop, 
counting house or department store. But it is at this point that we 
must guard our schools and our youth against the fallacies of that class 
of millionaire philanthropists who would make this imperfect and pre- 
mature development the ideal for all bovs instead of simply regarding 
it as an aid to those who by limitations of natural endowment or pov- 
erty- must go through life on short allowance. It is even admitted in 
advertisements under the guise of education through that overt, un- 
guarded conceit which often envelops men of great wealth that boys 
thus limited in education may even make millionaires — not often in- 
deed of themselves but of those shrewder men ivho employ and exploit 


them. It may be noted here that men of such elementary education 
are especially attractive to the large manufacturer. They can run a 
lathe and receive their daily wage without bothering their large em- 
ployer with disturbing ideas of their own. They have no vaulting 
ambition to go into the manufacturing business on their own account. 
This proves to the large manufacturer that they have all the education 
they need. Men of this kind of training have made him rich, and is 
not this sufficient proof of adequacy? 

Men who have thus grown rich by the exploitation of this kind of 
service sometimes get philanthropic, and build schools for the purpose of 
propagating this elementary training. This is most excellent when the 
ostensible purpose is to provide a training for those boys who will go 
to work before reaching the high school. But what shall we sav of 
the donor who discredits all higher education ? What estimate shall 
we place on the gift of a man who through the influence of wealth and 
published articles makes his elementary school a bar to further advance- 
ment? How many of such elementary schools would be required to do 
good enough to outweigh the evil of a doctrine which, while provid- 
ing for the children of poverty and mediocrity would consign all 
children to that same class? — 2. doctrine that would head off all boys, 
whatever their capabilities may be, from a technical education or from 
the broad highway of human knowledge? "Predatory wealth" will 
indeed reach the climax of its audacity when it can stand at the portals 
of higher education and proclaim that the highest aim in life is a 
money bag and that the shortest and surest way to it is through the 
shunt of comparative ignorance! 

But it will have to be admitted that our technical schools are them- 
selves partly to blame for the criticisms which are being made upon 
them. Theory without practice is of little value and young men sent 
out with a head full of formulas which they can not apply, often bring 
technical education into disrepute. With every advance in theoretical 
knowledge there should be a corresponding advance in the common 
every-day applications of laws and formulas. Young men taking a 
technical course should have constant practice in the shop and be re- 
quired to work out those practical problems in measurements and in- 
stallations. A man thus educated will far outstrip the one whose 
knowledge and skill is obtained solely in practice by empirical methods. 
In addition to this it may be said for higher technical education as well 
as of higher education in general that it is not all of life to worx' and 
to prepare for economic efficiency. The stature of a man is not to he 



measured in foot-pounds or in amperes. The growing mind and the 
expanding soul made possible only by the power to read and to appro- 
priate the intellectual achievements of the race are essential to com- 
plete living and to the fullest realization of man's best self. We will 
accept with thankful hearts the manual training which the millionaire 


manufacturer gives to the elementary school — a training which bene- 
fits the boy who can not reach the high school, but in this acceptance 
we must antidote any poison which may be lurking in it for the boy 
who can. 

When the boy who by reason of ability and opportunity reaches the 
high school the essential nature of the process well begun in the grades 
should not change. It is still a process of keeping to the border line 
between what he can do and what he can not do, still a process of 
proper selection and adaptation. This adaptation will be made possible 
through intelligent differentiation. Fortunately this differentiation vvill 
not mean revolution. It will only mean a careful study of the past 
development of our schools, and of the present demands. The sug- 
gestion of the introduction of the industrial or trade school idea into 


our high school is not new if we consider the question from a generic 
point of view. Ever since the establishment of public high schools in 
this country about seventy years ago they have been undergoing change 
and this change has always been one of differentiation and specialization 
of function. Even the names which have been given to dififerent groups 
of studie*: called "courses" indicate clearly enough that these groups 
from which pupils of different bent may choose are intended for differ- 
ent purposes, and these purposes are economic. Latin and Greek were 
at first placed in the curriculum because they were supposed to fit 
students for service in the learned professions. Science was intro- 
duced to meet the demands of an era of scientific activity and invention. 
The Commercial studies, typewriting, bookkeeping, stenography and 
office routine were added to the curriculum in answer to the demands 
of trade and commerce. 

With the growth of large cities came manual training to supply 
the motor activity which the absence of country life had deprived our 
boys, and to counteract the one-sided influences of an education exclu- 
sively bookish. These facts in the history of secondary education fur- 
nish but one answer to the question as to whether the demand for in- 
dustrial education should be met in the high school. It remains only 
to ascertain just what shall be the nature of this the next differentiation. 
In reality the problem is not so difficult as it appears, inasmuch as the 
manual training already in our best high schools furnishes the kind of 
training needed — a training which certainly contains the underlying 
principles of many industries. We have only to add to the courses we 
now have by including more of those processes employed in the various 
trades. The selection of these processes will have to be carefully made 
with the assistance of practical men representative of the industrial 
community. Along with these additions there should come a greater 
latitude and flexibility in making out individual programs for pupils 
of varying ability and inclination — a flexibility ranging between pro- 
grams almost wholly academic to those almost exclusively manual. All 
studies and exercises should be elective in the sense that principals and 
directors may give each individual boy what he needs and what he is 
able to receive regardless of traditional standards. We must adjust 
our schools to the principle that it is just as necessary and legitimate to 
help a boy to a trade as it is to help him to a profession — that training 
for citizenship is putting each and every boy at his best, and keeping 
him there as long as practicable. 

The highest and best type of secondary school is cosmopolitan, and 


contains under one head all branches which have proved their right 
to a place in high school curricula. The new differentiation which will 
sooner or later be made that will provide a certain amount of training 
for industrial ends will probably take place as others have done, and 
become an incorporate part of the school which will continue to retain 
its cosmopolitan character still preserving a perfect social unity and 
equality between all classes of children regardless of the composition of 
their individual programs. That the problem of industrial education 
will be worked out in the high school seems certain ; first, from the 
observed tendencies of the past to differentiate the work and to add to 
the curriculum in conformity to changing conditions; second, that the 
age of the pupils just passing from childhood to manhood is most favor- 
able to it, — an age most suitable for those bodily exercises requiring 
dexterity and strength ; and third, that the work is already begun in the 
well chosen processes and exercises as now carried forward in finely 
equipped shops. The gradual addition of more shops, more equip- 
ment, more processes; and the granting of a larger flexibility in the 
■'hoice of work should solve the problem. 

Turning, in conclusion to the fourth year work in the machine shop, 
a glance at the tables will show that it serves equally well for general 
educational purposes and for preparation for a trade. In former arti- 
cles attention has been called to the individual character of the work 
in the joinery and forge shops, and to the co-operative nature of the 
work in the turning shop. In the machine shop the work while possess- 
ing many of the merits of the other shops introduces still another qual- 
ity, that of supervision. 

The educational value of the work in this shop is often underes- 
timated in the claim that it is the machine and not the boy that does 
the work. This claim will not stand ; for while it is true that the 
machine does the work it is the boy who puts the machine to work and 
who must see that it does its duty. This implies an understanding of 
the construction and operation of the machine, an appreciation of the 
power that drives it, and a careful adjustment of all its parts. It 
presupposes an intelligent, cool and thoughtful mental attitude. It is 
here that thought must preced action, else an expensive accident will 
be sure to happen. The machine is to be made the boy's servant; but 
it is a servant requiring the most careful direction and the most con- 
stant and intelligent supervision. This servant under guidance is faith- 
ful in the exact performance of its work, but it can not be trusted out 
of sight of its master. It is a servant that goes on a strike when the 



TABLE IX. — Bench and Vise Work. — Fourth Year. 




Illustrating- the 


Lectures and 
Notes on 
Shop Ethics, 
Small Tools, 

Lectures and 
Notes on Ma- 
terials, Shop 


Character of Instruction, Shop 
Ethics, Care of Self, Care of 
Tools, Shop Equipment, Tool 
Room Keeping and Regula- 
tions, Measuring and Small 


Metallurgy of Iron and Steel, 
Alloys, Bronzes, Brasses, 
Bearing Alloys, Screw and 
Pin Data, Shop Processes and 


3. Laying Out 


and Peening. 

Power and 
Hack Sawing. 

Laying out Rectilinear, 
Cylindrical and Drill 

Riveting, Chipping, 
Stretching Metal. 

Angle Block Wrench, Bench 
Block, "V" Block, Surface 
Plate, Center Square, etc. 

Angle Block, Rivet Joint. 


Cutting Stock, Center Square, 

6. Chipping. 

Cutting Sprues, Fins, 
Irregularities and 
Rough Spots on 
Castings, Keyways 
and Keyseats. 

Removing Tool Marks 
7. Filing. Die Work, Small In- 

tricate Surface Fin- 
ishing. Fitting. 

Angle Block, Smoothing Cast- 

Angle Block, Wrench and the 
Majority of the Exercises. 

Drilling and 

Bolt and all kinds of 
small holes. Fitting. 

Threading and 

Use of Dies in 
Threading, Aligning 
Taps, Tapping. 

Fitting and 

Key Fitting 
and Broaching. 

12. Scraping. 

Assembling Machinery 
and Machine Parts. 

Keyways and Key- 
seats, Splines, Cut- 
ting Irregular 
Shaped Holes. 

Surface Plates, Ways, 
Guides, Housing 
Faces, Bearings. 

Angle Block, "V" Block, Cali- 
pers, Hammer, Center Square, 
Planer Pin, "T" Slot Pin, 
Flange Coupling. Jack Face 
Plate, Boring Bar, Drill Vise. 

Angle Block, Calipers, Planer 
Pin, "T" Slot Pin, Flange 

All Exercises. 

Flange Coupling. 

Surface Plate Ways, Gauges. 



TABLE X. — Machine Tool Work.— Fourth Year. 



1. r 

ectures and 
Notes on Ma- 
chine Tools, 
Shop Equip- 
ment and Pro- 

Lectures and 
Notes on Me- 
chanics, De- 
vices etc. 

Straight and 
Taper Turn- 

4. Screw Cutting. 

5. Boring. 

6. Drilling. 

7. Grinding. 

8. Planing. 

9. Milling. 

!lO. Tool Making. 



The great bulk of 
Cylindrical Work. 

All Accurate Thread 
ing with the Lathe. 

Annular Interior or 
Surfaces, generally 
larger than 1 inch 
in diameter. 


Illustrating: the 


Carefulness in the Shop. Ma- 
chine Tool Equipment. Care 
of Machines, Friction, Lubri- 
cants and Lubrication. Cut- 
ting Tools, Miscellaneous Ma- 
chine Tools and Accessories. 

Mechanics, Power Generating 
Machines, Elementary Elec- 
tricity, Power Transmission, 
Motor Drives, etc. 

Arbor, Boring Bar, Sheave, 
Flange, Coupling. 

Small Holes for 
Bolts etc. 

Sharpening Tools, 
Rapid, Accurate Pro- 
duction of Cylindri- 
cal and other Work. 

Planer Jack, Ink Bottle Holder, 
Face Plate, Jack Screw. 

Sheave, Flange Coupling, 
Planer Jack, Ink Bottle, Hol- 
der, etc. 

Angle Block, Boring Bar, 

I Flange Coupling Face Plate. 

Tool Grinding, Arbor, Drill, 
Reamer Tap. 


Small Machine 

Plane Surfaces, Large 
and Small. Planer 
and Shaper Work. 

Accurate Work for 
Small Tools, Parts, 
Cutters, etc. Any 
Geometrical Surface. 

Tool Room Work, 
Repairing Small 
Tools, Making Jigs, 
Cutters, Dies, etc. 

General Small Shop 

Bench Block, Surface Plate, 
'V" Blocks or Drill, Drill 
Vise, Hammer. 

Gear Rack, Drill Vise, Drill 

Cutters for Boring Bars, Center 
Square, Drill Vise, Tap Drill. 

Class Project Work such as 
Engines, Tools, Generators, 
Machines, Etc. 

master becomes careless and inattentive. Therefore the supervision re- 
quired in the machine shop is of the highest educational value. It is 
here that any lack of mental and physical co-ordination in a boy's con- 
stitution is sure to be exposed. In the machine shop as in other shops 
the work is individual, and each boy is encouraged to do all he can in 



TABLE XL— Drawing.— Fourth Year. 






lUustrating^ the 


Free-hand, de- Mechanical Work 
tail and Assem- as done in Prac- 
bly Sketches tice. 

of Machines. 

Free-hand Detail 
and Assembly 
Sketches of Steam 
Pump, Speed 
Lathe, Drill 
Press, etc. 

Form of Design 

applicable to 

Process and Exercise 

Working Draw-'Mechanical Work 
ings of Ma- as done in Prac- 

chines from tice. 

sketches. [ 



Architectural Architectural Con- 

Rendering, and structions. 
Classic Orders. 

Working Drawings 
from Sketches al- 
ready made of 
Steam Pump ; etc. 

Sheet on Architec- 
tural Lettering. 

Details of Walls, 
Arches, Mantles, 
Stairs, Doors, 
Windows, Cornice 
Porch, Ornaments, 
Classic Orders. 

Principles of 
Machine or 

Design in General. House, Bridge, Constructive, 

Lathe, Engines, j Form and Dsc- 

Turbines, Dyna- j orative. 

mo Motors, etc. j 

Note: — These are interchanged at discretion of teacher in charge. 

*NoTE : — Are given when time permits, as an elective. 

^NoTE: — Special courses are given in Machine Drawing and in Architectural 
Drawing beginning with the Third Year upon request of pupils of ecxeptional 
abili -. 

the time allotted, but quality rather than quantity is the chief concern. 
There is a ereat difference in the amount of work done by different 
boys. Some do not go beyond a few of the simplest exercises while 
others go far beyond the exercises usually prescribed. As an illustra- 
tion of this, a gasoline engine, shown in the frontispiece, was begun 
and finished within the present school year by Delbert Wenzlick a 
pupil in the IVIcKinley High School. 

The practical and industrial character of the work of the machine 
shop as w-ell as that of the forge shop is evident, and is generally ad- 
mitted. A glance over the processes is sufficient to show' that they 
are those commonly employed in every commercial machine shop. A 


sufficient proof of the industrial efficiency of this work is found in the 
fact that boys who have taken a full course in our best high schools 
are sought for places in commercial shops, and it has often been observed 
that they often rank above men who have served several years as appren- 
tices or assistants. Although the machine shop was not primarily 
placed in the high school to turn out machinists, it is quite competent 
to do so whenever the demand for industrial education reaches that 



Cheshire Low ton Boone. 

TKE sand table projects outlined in the second paper are typical 
of the whole class. This form of representation, involving 
much valuable hand work, can be carried a great deal farther 
than has been so far indicated. To illustrate a somewhat advanced 
form of paper construction for representation purposes, two plates are 
appended to the present paper. These plates give the details of con- 
struction of an engine, tender, coach, freight car, station, etc., to be 
used in the depiction, on the sandtable, of a railway station with addi- 
tional surroundings, as a freight house, round house, cabs, trucks, ex- 
press wagon, street crossing, etc. This is suitable work for the average 
third grade. 


It was stated in a former number of the Manual Training Maga- 
zine,- that every course of study, no matter how compact and well ar- 
ticulated, must necessarily contain constructive problems for special 
purposes or occasions; as valentines, Christmas gifts, cards, calendars, 
boxes, etc., covers for school work, desk pads, portfolios and others for 
definite reasons. All exercises, dealing with such material, are legiti- 
mate, being the result of some immediate and utilitarian desire. These 
things should be made only at an appropriate time, when they are needed. 

The problems will, for convenience, be grouped into three classes. 

a. Folders, invitations, calendars, mounted pictures, Christmas 
cards, valentines, frames, post cards. 

b. Boxes (candy), envelopes, baskets, ornaments for the Christ- 
mas tree. 

c. Portfolios, desk pads, and the simple forms of book-making. 
To make this phase of constructive work profitable, one must not 

only choose an opportune occasion for employing it, but the method of 
construction must be absolutely within the abilities of the children, and 
adequate. Most of the articles suggested above are, in common prac- 
tice, decoratcil — to suffocation! And very badly lettered, although it 
is the province of the drawing teacher to handle design and lettering. A 
word will be said about them later. 

'Copyright, 1907. Cheshire L. Boone. 

'.'\prii, 1907, Volume VIII, No. 3, pp. 140-147. 






Group a — The plate (I) shows a selected number of problems. 
These are made of cover paper of good tone. First and second grade 
children can use the ruler but crudely, so these folders are really fold- 
ers. Paper of proper size is given the class. If the article is to be a 
calendar, or mounted picture, a templet of cardboard, or the two-inch 
tablets of the kindergarten, are used for tracing the square, oblong or 
circle to contain the calendar pad, or picture. Sometimes this outline 
is done in color. Whatever decoration is used, may be done in crayon 
and should be very severe, formal and sparing. Formal decoration 
is strongly advocated : It makes better work and a higher average of 
work. Third, fourth and fifth grades can elaborate their exercises of 
this group considerably, both in construction and design. They can 
measure for any desired number of folds: they should be able to use 
lettering easily ; and they can use simple borders and stamps for decora- 
tion. The plate shows typical examples, copied from school work exe- 
cuted within a year. Gothic letters, all capitals should be used, and 
executed preferably with crayon. Grammar grade work along this 
line is more a question of design than handwork, and need not be dis- 
cussed here save for certain aspects of the Christmas problem. 

Christmas gifts, cards, boxes, etc.. are ever with us and in the midst 
of such a wealth of interesting, familiar subject matter, one would nat- 
urally expect to see charming school work. In reality, the holiday re- 
sults, are usually atrocious, maudlin, sentimental attempts to produce a 
"pretty thing." The trouble and remedy are to be found again in de- 
sign. The problems should be more simple, more restricted and the 
children limited in their desires. The limitation can be enforced with- 
out the slghtest trouble. Children are easily swayed and learn with ease 
the advantage of an orderly design over one without reason or meaning. 
One suggests and uses simple, direct ornamentation as one would sim- 
ple, direct English, and for similar reasons. In every case, the teacher 
sees to it that, in the preliminary discussion of the problem, the work 
is narrowed to two or three forms of decoration. The pupils may have 
their own way as to details, but the general form of the problem is set- 
tled to begin with. This same principle holds true with the purely 
constructive side of the problems, as in box making. The method of 
making a box is given : the pupil can make the proportions to suit her 
purposes — for a handkerchief, collar, tie, "sash, card, etc. 

Group b — 'Aside from utilitarian reasons, this group contains many 
choice exercises in three dimensional handwork, which is good training. 
The early exercises of past years, in making geometrical solids, were of 





1 1 1 1 


1 II 1 

1 i 1 i 

1 1 1 

1 1 1 1 





— ll 


















the same type, but no one cares for solids: why should one? The 
cornucopia, basket and pointed box for the Christmas tree are fine things 
for the primary grades, one and two. For the other years, a series of 
boxes is shown (Plate II) one or more of which will be found suitable 
tor any ordinary purpose. Box-making is a craft that is worth studj^- 
ing. rhe usual box suggested for school work is made from a pattern 
about which, the child is supposed to trace, and then fold up the trac- 
ing — a pernicious, slovenly practice. It is inaccurate and has no value 
whatever as an exercise. The boxes here given are designed as arc the 
commercial article. The plans are elastic and in most cases (notably 
No. 7) admit of extension to any desired proportions. Moreover there 
are boxes here which will shut up tightly and stay closed. 

These boxes should be made of heavy cover paper or tag. The plan 
is laid down by measurement, the cuts made, and the folds lightly 
creased with the point of the scissor blade. The crease may be folded 
either in or out. 



Michael W. Murray. 

WE have heard much about the correlation of school subjects, 
and in theory, it is the proper thing to do, but when we 
come to the actual teaching of them, especially in depart- 
mental schools, we are likely to find that each teacher is presenting her 
own subject with little regard to what tlie others are doing; or if corre- 
lation is tried, especially that of an academic subject with one lilcj 
manual training, the later work is too often subordinated and "made 
serviceable" to the former. 

The accompanying pictures show the material results of a piece of 
correlated work which was done in connection with the study of the 
printing industry, in which equally important parts were done in the 
manual training, drawing, and academic departments. The subject was 
studied by four different classes under the ordinary city school condi- 
tions, where we have about twenty-four boys in the manual training 
classes, the same or a larger number in the drawing room, and from 
forty to fifty in the regular classes. 

The histon% invention, and the effect of printing on civilization were 
studied by the pupils under the direction of the class teachers. In this 
connection, some of the best possible work in history, geography, spell- 
ing, grammar, composition and penmanship was done, and we might well 



have included arithmetic if time had permitted. The pupils were told 
that their compositions were to be made worthy of preservation in book 
form, which meant that several problems were to be solved. In the 
drawing department, the best color for the cover, and a cover design of 
the right size and appropriate motive were worked out. 

The work in manual training included the study of the mechanical 
part of the printing press, the movements which make pressure, the 
evolution of the printing press and modern methods of printing. The 
accompanying simple presses were designed and made as group projects, 
while each boy planed a block of wood on which the design made in the 
drawing room was cut. The building of the press was work of a heavy 
and correspondingly rough character, while the blocks had to be made 
with the greatest care and accuracy to be absolutely flat and true and 
just the right thickness to make them "type high." Before the blocks 
were cut the designs were traced from the original on transparent paper, 
and retraced in the reverse on the wood so that they would reproduce 
properly when we came to print from them. The blocks were then 
ready to cut. This was done by first outlining the design with a very 
sharp veining tool, and then cutting away the background with a Hat 
gouge or chisel. The only difficulty encountered was the outlininji 
across the grain, and that might have been overcome by cutting first with 
a sharp knife. At first, we thought that it would be necessary to use 
hard wood for the blocks, but we found that bass wood works fully as 
well, if not better than the cherry. In the actual printing, ordinary 
printers' ink was used and the screw press proved the most satisfactory, 
as more pressure could be obtained from this than from the others. 

The illustrations and this description tell something of what was 
done, but nothing can show the interest and enthusiasm of the pupils, 
and the surprise of the regular teachers at finding so much to teach and 
the new life in the study, and I firmly believe that the time is not far 
distant when a printing outfit will be a part of every well equipped 

The following is the outline used : 


Ancient Writing Materials. 

A. Among primitive races in general. 

I. Rock and sharp pointed instrument. 
II. Tablets of stone and stilus. 
III. Wooden tablets. 




B. In Egypt. 

I. Wall Inscriptions. 
II. Papyrus. 

a. How prepared. 

b. Rolls. 

1. Where discovered. 

2. Appearance and state of preservation. 

III. Pens. 

a. How made. 

IV. Ink. 

a. Composition. 

C. In Babylon and Assyria. 

I. Clay tablets. 

D. Among the Hebrews. 

I. Soft stone tablets. 
II. Parchment. 

a. Preparation. 

b. Why it replaced papyrus. 

c. Special purposes for which it was used. 

E. In Greece and Rome. 

I. Waxed tablets. 
II. Leaden and bronze tablets. 

Books and Libraries Before the Invention of Printing. 

A. In Classical Times. 

I. Egypt. 

a. Books. 

1. How made. 

b. Libraries. 

1. Alexandrian. 
II. Babylon and Assyria. 

a. Books. 

1. How made. 

b. Libraries. 

\. Royal Library of Nineveh. 
III. Greece and Rome. 

a. Books. 

\. How made. 

b. Libraries. 

1. Private. 

(a) Caesar's interest in. 

(b) Number under Constantine. 

B. During Middle Ages in Europe. 

1. Books. 

a. Where and how made. 

b. Value. 


c. Kinds of books made. 

d. Famous books. 

1. Book of Kells. 

2. Lindesfarne Gospels. 
II. Libraries. 

a. Destruction by Danes. 

b. Work of Alfred the Great in England. 

c. Effect of Renaissance. 

d. Effect of Reformation. 

Chinese Printing. 

A. Date of invention. 

B. Description of process. 

C. Invention of movable t}pes. 

D. Pay of Chinese printers. 

The Invention of Printing. 

A. Introduction. 

I. Bookmaking before 1350. 
II. Block printing. 

a. Playing cards. 

b. Image prints. 

c. Block books. 

1. Kinds. 

2. How printed. 

3. Where made. 

4. Famous ones. 

5. Number now in existence. 
III. Preparation for printing. 

a. Suitable materials. 

b. Educational progress. 

B. Invention of movable types. 

I. Why cast types only are of use. 
II. Controversy over. 

a. Gutenberg. 

1. Work in Strassburg. 

2. Work in Mainz. 

(a) Suspension of work in 1462. 

3. Fame. 

(a) On what it rests mainly. 

b. John Faust. 

1. Connection with Gutenberg and Schoeffer. 

2. Suspension of work. 

3. Fame. 

(a) On what it rests. 

c. Koster. 

1. So called "Koster Legend." 


C. Spread of art. 

I. Effect of quarrels of Archbishops. 
II. Work done in France, Italy and Germany. 

D. How printing was regarded. 

Printing in England and America. 

A. England. 

1. William Caxton. 

a. Birth and early life. 

b. Life and work in Bruges. 

1. Connection with association of merchants. 

2. Work in service of Edward IV's sister. 

3. Printing of "The Recuyell of the Histories of Trove." 

c. Return to England. 

d. Work in England as an editor, translator and publisher 

e. Influence upon English language. 

B. America. 

I. Where printing began. 
II. United States. 

a. First printing press. 

1. Where and by whom set up. 

2. Work. 

b. Number of presses before Revolution. 

c. Increase in number of presses after Revolution. 

d. Early newspapers. 

e. Benjamin Franklin. 

1. Apprenticeship. 

2. Work in Philadelphia. 

(a) Industry. 

(b) Government printing. 

(c) Purchase of "Pennsylvania Gazette." 

(d) Poor Richard's Almanac. 
(1) Influence of 

(e) Speech of Father Abraham. 

C. Comparisons between the early days and the present time. 

Reference Book. 

"Printing and Writing Materials" Adele Millicent Smith 

"The Story of Books" Gertrude B. Rawlings 

"The Invention of Printing" De Vinne 

"The Old Printer" : Knight 

'Caxton and the Art of Printing' Religious Tract Society, London 

"Gutenberg and the Art of Printing" Emily C. Pearson 


Charles A. Bennett. 

DURING the past two years a movement has been gathering 
strength in Illinois which looks toward a generally accepted 
standard for high school courses in the manual arts through- 
out the state. This movement began at the Universit)^ of Illinois dur- 
ing the summer session of 1906 when Professor H. A. Hollister, state 
high school inspector for the University, called together several mem- 
bers of the summer school faculty for an evening conference at his 
home. A few weeks later Professor Hollister sent the following ques- 
tions to persons from whom he was seeking advice: 

1. Are the manual arts, such as manual training and household arts, 
subjects properly to be considered as part of a student's preparation for admis- 
sion to college, or are they merely accessories to the better teaching of other 

2. What would be the probable effect on the development of these activities 
if they were so defined as to result in unifying the work to such an end as that 
of preparation for college? 

3. Does not such a definition involve the undertaking of a statement of 
the essential nature and quantity of work to be included in admission courses 
in manual arts? 

4. Would such a statement require that we distinguish clearh^ as between 
manual arts for general educational effect, and manual arts as involved in the 
work of the trade school ? 

5. With what phases of the problem, then, should any preliminary dis- 
cussion of these matters begin, with the idea in view of continuing the dis- 
cussions from year to year until definite conclusions are reached, in the mean- 
time supplementing theory by some careful investigations as to existing con- 
ditions and results where courses are now offered in high schools? 

The immediate result of the replies to these questions was the ad- 
dition of two departmental sessions to the program of the annual High 
School Conference which met at the University November 23, 24, 1906 
— one session for the discussion of manual training and one for draw- 
ing. At this conference, which was well attended by high school men 
from different parts of the state, the suggestion was made that four 
courses of work be outlined with reference to the needs of the high 
schools, which might also serve as possible basis for entrance credit at 
the University — one in each of the following: (1) woodworking, (2) 






I — Chipping and Filing. 

II — Fitting. 

Ill — Bending. 

IV — Soldering, 

V — Beating and Raising. 

VI — Turning. 

Chipping a block of metal with cold chisel 

and hammer, filing the same, testing 
Tool dressing 

Drilling, filing, fitting, riveting, finishing 

Bending while cold, drilling, riveting, 

Pattern-cutting, bending, folding, wiring, 


Chipping block (cast irorj 
Door key (brass) 
Wrench (malleable iron)j 
Escutcheon (ttrass or steeij 

Hinge (brass or steel) 
Calipers (steeD 
Dividers (steel) 

Bracket, lantern, lamp ll 

Pipe, cookie cutter, tin culft 
nel, pail, sconce 1 

Sawing, beating, drilling, filing, and pol- Escutcheon, draw pull, pg 
ishing copper. Beating up a copper plate, box with design i i 
bowl, hard and soft soldering; repousse, pousse on cover, bowl, c r 
coloring by heat and chemicals; etch- ; 

ing; annealing , 

VII — Spinning. 

Hand-tool turning, filing in lathe, pol- Plumb-bob, hammer 
ishing in lathe, thread cutting with tap 
and die, drilling, hardening- and tem- 
pering, annealing. i 

Cutting templet, turning form in wood to Tray, bowl, box with 
fit templet, spinning zinc, Britannia canopy for gas or 
metal and copper, polishing, lacquering fixture 






ng — Working drawing of exercises, de- Mining — Getting the ore, geographical distribution, 
for escutcheon and key smelting, refining 

urgy — Properties of cast iron, malleable Locksmithing — Mechanism of lock 
and brass 

Tool making 

wng — Design for hinge, working drawing Steel making — Bessemer and other processes 
ol'.alipers and dividers 

Tool making 

eilurgy — Properties and kmds or 


!■( ing — Designing lantern, bracket. 


base Wrought metal -work 

rc,ing — Application of problems in develop- 
njits of surfaces. 

U. lurgy — Tin 

Tinsmithing and Cornice making 
Mining — Tin producing 

raing — Designs for objects made 
e lurgy — Copper 


Mining — Producing sheet copper 


ing — Working drawings 

Tool making 

vng — Designs for objticts made 
lurgy — Zinc, Britannia metal 

Metal spinning 

Gas and electric fixture making 


metalvvorking, (3) mechanical drawing, (4) freehand drawing and 
design.^ This idea was accepted by the members of the conference and 
a committee was appointed to present outh'nes at the next annual con- 
ference. This was done" and on Nov. 23, 1907, the outlines presented, 
with but slight modifications, were recommended by the conference to 
the University as a proper basis for action with reference to college 
entrance credit. 

The outline for woodworking was a revision and more detailed 
statement of the high school outline published in the state course of 
study^ with the optional substitution of a course in wood-turning for 
some of the work in furniture construction. The report of the com'- 
mittee added further value to the outline by presenting a "suggestive 
treatment of problems" showing the relation of each problem named 
to (a) drawing and design, (b) other school subjects and (c) industry. 

The outline for metal working was treated in a similar manner, and 
as this, though old in content, was essentially a new formulation, it is 
given herewith in full and attention called to some of its features: 

1. It is a manual training course per se, very rich in its opportuni- 
ties for contact with industry, and involving a large number of ele- 
mentary tool processes, yet without carrying any group of these pro- 
cesses so far as to make the course a trade course. In this respect it is 
more truly a manual training course than is a course in forging or 
machine tool work or pattern-making covering the same amount of time- 
In the field of metalworking it corresponds almost point for point with 
the course outlined for woodworking, and supplements that course in a 
most satisfactory way. The two together cover a large proportion of the 
fundamental tool processes represented in our great building and machine 

2. The course is equally rich in its opportunities to connect with 
the other branches of school work. Especially does it invite correlation 
with freehand drawing and design and with practical metallurgy. In 
all the branches of handwork taught in high schools none presents at 
the same time a more alluring and profitable field for instruction in ap- 
plied design than does metalworking. 

3. The course calls for only a ver>' moderate equipment of tools 
and machinery — no expensive planer or shaper or milling machine, not 
even an engine lathe, but merely hand lathes such as are most desirable 

' See Manual Training Magazine, Vol. VIII, Page 135. 
* See Manual Training Magazine, Vol. IX, Page 160. 
^ See Manual Training Magazine Vol. IX, Page 254. 



for wood-turning, perhaps a small sensitive drill, a few of the simpler 
machines for sheet-metal work, blow pipe, gas or portable forge and 
soldering furnaces, vises, and a variety of small tools, such as files, 
hammers, calipers, stakes, turning tools, etc. Two-thirds of the course 
can be taught without the hand lathes and in special cases it might be 
permissible to substitute extra work in beating and raising for the work 
in turning and spinning, which requires the use of the lathes, though it 
is believed that this would lessen considerably the value of the course 
to most students. But the cost of the lathes need not stand in the way 
of carrying out the entire course in most high schools, because the same 
lathes can be used for both wood and metal if good ones are pur- 
chased and extra centers, rests, and small chucks provided for the metal- 

In conclusion it may be said that this course seems to be within 
the range of possibility for the smaller high schools and an excellent 
foundation course for any high school. It is a manual training course 
pure and simple, particularly adapted to a general high school, and 
therefore especiallv appropriate for entrance credit at the University. 
Following this course in the larger high schools, should come courses 
in pattern-making and foundry work, forging, and machine tool work, 
which are more technical or trade in character and are already, and 
appropriately, receiving advanced, or college credit at the University 
whenever they are carried out in a satisfactory manner under skilful in- 



xTgi-r We have to record the death of Otto Saloman, of Naas, 

Salamon Sweden, the father of educational sloyd. He died No- 

Dead vember the third, two days after he had reached his fifty- 

eighth birthdaw It is impossible in a single paragraph to fittingly 
express our appreciation of the work of this pioneer in manual training. 
This we hope to have done in these columns at another time. At present 
we can do no more than merely to call attention to the fact that through- 
out the entire civilized world wherever handwork has become an impor- 
tant factor in general education the influence of Herr Salomon's work 
has been either consciously or unconsciously felt. Some of the princi- 
ples ennunciated by him in the early days of manual training were so 
sound and so fundamental that, whether his system as a whole has been 
accepted or rejected, these principles have been adopted almost every- 
where. And so it has come about that not merely Sweden, but the 
entire educational world is indebted to Herr Salomon and will speak his 
name with respect and gratitude through generations to come. 

The Founder -^"other friend of manual training has passed on through 
of Bradley the upper gate of this life. On the fifteenth of January, 
In^itute after several weeks of painful illness, Mrs. Lydia Bradley, 

the founder of Bradley Polytechnic Institute died at her home in Peoria, 
At the time of her death she was in her ninety-third year, yet up to 
within a few weeks of that time, she had kept so strong in body and 
mind that she was able to personally direct the management of her large 
estate, and while retaining so long h?r remarkable business capacity, she 
also kept correspondingly clearer her views on education. Mrs. Bradley 
believed that boys and girls should be taught to work as well as to 
study, and it was this belief that led her to found the Institute. But 
her noble gift was not inspired by a belief in some finely wrought theory 
of education ; it was the result of experience and first-hand observation 
in an exceptionally long life of activity and close contact with business 
affairs. She had seen group after group — even generation after genera- 
tion — of boys and girls come up through the schools to manhood and 
womanhood, and had watched their careers; she had observed the value 
and the defects of the schools as illustrated in their lives; and then, guided 
by her own keen and practical insight, she had reached the conclusion 



that the great fault with the schools was that, instead of fittinj: bo_\s and 
girls to meet the serious problems of life, the>- too often unfitted them by 
placing a wrong estimate upon the value of work — skillful work with 
the hands. And so when, as a memorial to her husband and children, 
she made her great gift to education, she did it saying that she wanted 
"to teach the boys and girls how to work." Most eloquently in that 
act did she preach the gospel of education through work. 

The story of Mrs. Bradley's life is easily told, as the world tells 
such stories, yet it was rich in its simplicity, in courageous acts, in 
devotion to duty, and loyalty to her city and her country- Brietiy it is 
told in the following quotation from a recent article by Director 
Theodore C. Burgess : 

Although one of the oldest residents of Peoria, this city was not Mrs. Brad- 
ley's birthplace. She was born in Vevay, Indiana, a little west of Cincinnati, 
July 31, 1816. Her ancestry on both sides had honorable records in the Revolu- 
tionary War. After the close of the war for independence, her father, a Bap- 
tist minister, settled in Virginia, but soon moved to a large plantation in Ken- 
tucky. A growing objection to slavery caused him to leave that state, and he 
crossed the Ohio river into Indiana. Mrs. Bradley's early life was passed here. 
Her schooling was gained in an old log school house. There were few books in 
those days. Life was simple and sincere. Though her father was a man of 
considerable means every member of the family was a worker, and through 
practical experience Mrs. Bradley became master of everything pertaining to the 
care of a home. She thus gained a respect for industry and useful activity 
which never left her. After her marriage to Mr. Bradley (May 11, 1837) her 
strong opposition to slavery decided them to come to Illinois, rather than to 
Kentucky, which was Mr. Bradley's native state. Peoria was then a straggling 

By fortunate purchases of real estate and successful operations in other lines 
of business the Bradley family prospered until, at Mr. Bradley's death (May 4, 
1867), the wife's share in the estate was valued at one-half million. Mrs. Brad- 
ley, though entirely without business experience, soon proved that she possessed 
remarkable abilities. For under her direction the estate was not only preserved 
but rapidly increased, and what is more remarkable, her management of her 
property was such as to prove in every case beneficial to the community where 
it was located. In general it was her policy to develop real estate from acre 
property to city lots and from comparatively useless swamp-lands into rich farms. 
The drainage of vast tracts of submerged lands, heretofore almost valueless 
brought benefits to owners of lands adjoining almost equal to those gained by her. 
Thus by her beneficient business methods as well as by her rich gifts to the 
city of her residence, Mrs. Bradley has well earned the esteem and gratitude of 
all citizens of Peoria and the surrounding community, as its greatest benefactor. 
It is unnecessary to enumerate here all her gifts. The most conspicuous are 
Bradley Park, probably the most beautiful natural park in the state, about 100 


acres in extent, and Bradley Polytechnic Institute. What disposition of property 
could be more wise or more widely beneficial ? Each of these in a different way 
forms a contribution of inestimable value to the welfare of the city and one 
destined to be increasingly beneficial through future generations. 

A recent circular received from the official headquarters 
The London ;p^ji(.jjfp5 that plans are rapidly maturing for the Third 

International Congress for the Development of Drawing 
and Art Teaching to be held in London from August 3 to 8, 1908. 
The subjects which will be discussed at the congress are announced as 
follows : 

(1) Drawing, in conjunction with modeling and manual wrok. 

(2) The teaching of drawing in the professions, its definite inclusion in the 

university curriculum. 

(3) The training of art teachers. 

(4) The organization of professional art teaching. 

(5) Schemes of apprenticeship and scholarship. 

Progress made since the last congress. 
(6^ Unification of signs and symbols in mechanical drawing . 

(7) Methods of disseminating ideas in art, and of developing public taste. 

(8) International codification of terms used in the teaching of drawing. 

(9) Experiments made toward establishing methods of teaching young children 

adapted to their nature and capacity. 

A large and representative exhibition of all grades of school work 
in drawing and the crafts will be a feature of the congress. Already 
exhibits are assured from France, Germany, Italy, Austria, Japan and 
the United States. The e.xhibltion will probably be open a few days 
before the opening of the congress and will remain open after August 8. 

For the tailpieces on pages 323, 328 and 339 we are indebted to 
Dr. James P. Haney's Saturdav class at New York University. 


William T. B a \v d e n. Editor. 



The National Society for the Promotion of Industrial Education, which 
was organized in New York City in November, 1906, held its second meeting 
in Chicago, January 23-25, 1908. This meeting was remarkable for bringing 
together, for careful investigation and discussion of the problems of industrial 
education, the leaders of the three classes most vitally concerned: wage- 
earners, educators, and employers. The utmost good feeling and the spirit 
of co-operation prevailed. Every contribution was respectfully received and 
every session was marked by enthusiastic commendation of practical sugges- 
tions made by the various speakers. 

As was inevitable in a program of its length, several promised speak- 
ers were unable to be present, though in most cases their places were well 
filled. As actually carried out the program presented an unusual array of 
big men and women and was a practical demonstration of the interest being 
taken in this new movement by those occupying high places of influence and 

To those who are accustomed to attending meetings of teachers and list- 
ening to discussions of professional themes it was most exhilarating to listen 
to papers prepared by those who view these problems from entirely different 
directions. It was also a most wholesome and instructive experience to ob- 
serve something of the high quality of the leadership in charge of the vari- 
ous interests represented at this meeting. 

The general sessions were held in Fullerton Hall at the Art Institute, 
and at nearly every session the hall was well filled. As an introduction to the 
meetings of the Society, several addresses were delivered at a luncheon given 
by the Ways and Means Committee of the Chicago Association of Commerce, 
at the Great Northern Hotel, Wednesday, January 22nd. The principal ad- 
dress was delivered by the secretary of the National Society, Professor 
Charles R. Richards, Teachers College, Columbia University. He said: "We 
must develop an industrial intelligence in America. The American boy is 
confessedly turning away from industry and going into offices, stores — any- 
where he can earn money from the start and have clean clothes and clean 
hands. The boy who leaves school at 14 drifts for three or four years before 
he finds his place, such as it is, in life. It is these wasted years that we must 
use. We must diminish the army of the unequipped. 

"There are boys, many of them, who chafe at book education. They are 
of a practical turn of mind. They see nothing 'real' in the training of the 
schools, and they leave them as soon as they can. After they have left school 
they drift. One boy that I know of after he started to earn his own living, 
spent the first two years out of school in this way: first, he started a boot-black 



stand, then he sold papers, then he worked in a restaurant, then in a laundry, 
then in an office, and finally he held horses outside of saloons. 

"These are the wasted years of the boys who leave school before the 
industrial age. But they are the boys who furnish the material for our in- 
dustries, and nothing but the development in the school of work which shall 
have a bread and butter value — a real life value — will hold them. In the 
elementary school it is not a problem of preparing boys specifically for a 
trade. It is one of equipping them for industry, and perhaps this is the big- 
gest problem of all. 

"As for the technical high schools the equipment is, in many of our cities, 
excellent. But in the judgment of many they are falling short of their pur- 
pose. They have been slow to admit a purely vocational purpose." 

The first regular session of the Societj' was a public dinner at the Audi- 
torium Hotel, Thursday evening, which was attended by about 450 guests. 
Theodore W. Robinson, first vice-president of the Illinois Steel Company, Chi- 
cago, presided in his capacity of chairman of the Illinois State Committee of 
the National Society. After calling the meeting to order he read a letter from 
President Roosevelt expressing keen interest in the industrial education move- 
ment and recommending this sort of training for the formative years, 14 to 
18, now being wasted, or worse, by many of our youth. 

Every one in the banquet hall arose as President Charles W. Eliot was 
introduced and only after prolonged applause did the banquetters resume 
their seats. President Eliot insisted that industrial education must mean trade 
education. He proposed that at the introduction of this training into our schools 
the compulsory education age limit should be raised three or four years. Chil- 
dren should be kept under public supervision and control until the 17th or 
18th year of age and required to attend the trade schools unless they attend 
some other school. He demanded revision of taxation laws, as under present 
conditions there is no adequate means of raising the revenue necessary for 
much needed reforms. He advanced the idea that teachers in the elementary 
school should "sort" the children according to the walks in life for which they 
are most evidently fitted. 

James W. VanCleave, St. Louis, president of the National Association of 
Manufacturers, quoted a statement that the United States has not so many 
trade schools as the kingdom of Bavaria which, with a population about 
equal to that of New York City, has 290 trade schools giving instruction night 
and day in 28 trades and crafts. "Our efforts have been too miscellaneous, 
too isolated, too haphazard. The aid of the national and state governments 
must be enlisted in the cause. There should be a commissioner of industrial 
education as head of a bureau of one of the administrative departments." 

President Pritchett closed the program with a brief statement of the ob- 
jects and methods of the campaign for national industrial education. "The 
problem is to be dealt with in a spirit of industrial peace — not a spirit of in- 
dustrial war. We must show the workers that it is to them that this train- 
ing is to be given. We need not be afraid to transplant or imitate. We can 
learn a good deal from Germany and other countries. The successful nations 
to-day are the Japs and the Germans, because they are good borrowers. If 


you cannot produce a good thing yourself the next best thing is to know how 
to borrow it. 

"Within a year this Society hopes to be able to recommend to a munici- 
pality that wishes it, a model type of trade school such as has been pictured 
this evening." 

Hon. Carroll D. Wright, Worcester, Mass., presided at the Friday morn- 
ing session, the general topic for discussion being: "The apprenticeship sys- 
tem as a means for promoting industrial efficiency." 

Accounts of apprenticeship systems now maintained by employers of large 
numbers of workers were presented by W. R. Warner, of Warner & Swasey 
Co., Cleveland, and J. F. Deems, superintendent of motive power. New York 
Central lines. Some of the statements made showed that the systems described 
offer every inducement to the exceptional and ambitious boy. He is the one 
who is to develop into the foreman, manager, or superintendent. Leslie W. 
Miller, principal of the Pennsylvania School of Industrial Art, claimed as one 
important function of the proposed schools the singling out of the promising 
boy and pushing him ahead. But, it seemed to many, as was pointed out at 
a later session, that the "boy in a thousand" may be left to look out for him- 
self; a more important task is to raise the average of the rank and file. 

W. B. Prescott, secretary of the supplemental trade education commission 
of the International Typographical Union, described the attempt being made 
to supply the printing trade with opportunities for technical instruction. 

Dean H. Schneider, College of Engineering, University of Cincinnati, 
described the Cincinnati plan which provides a course six years in length, 
students spending every alternate week at work in some commercial estab- 

At the afternoon session Charles F. Perry, director of the Milwaukee 
School of Trades, answered the criticism that had been made that trade 
schools do not turn out finished workmen, calling attention to the fact that the 
law school is not condemned because it does not turn out experienced lawyers. 
He named the four elements of a trade school: 1. The method and commercial 
value of its instruction ; 2. Quality and amount of equipment, which should 
provide for the four fundamental trades in about these proportions — drafting 
5, patternmaking 15, molding 50-75, machinists 150-200; 3. The student him- 
self; 4. The teaching staff, which should be made up of teachers who are 
true men in every sense, having expert knowledge of their trades and ability 
to impart instruction. 

Milton P. Higgins, Worcester, Mass., speaking on the character of a 
trade school that will meet American industrial needs, declared that every 
trade school must be a productive shop. He did not believe in teaching boys 
to make articles not intended for the market. "Our trade schools have in the 
past been largely schools with a shop attachment. What they ought to be is 
shops with a school attachment. The shop of the typical trade school must be 
a productive one." 

Henry Wallace, from Iowa, made a strong plea for the education of the 
farmer's boy. "The farmer of the nineteenth century was a land robber. 
If we do not educate our boys the fertile farms in Ohio, Illinois, and Iowa 


will soon be as barren as the farms in New England. The experiment sta- 
tions we have are doing a great work in giving the young farmer the scien- 
tific knowledge that he so much needs. The boy must learn the 'why' of 
things. We do not need to bother about the 'how;' his father will make him 
learn that fast enough." 

Trade schools for girls, according to Florence M. Marshall, Boston Trade 
School for Girls, must not require too long a period for training. The girl 
who comes to the trade school does so in order to find a way to earn her liv- 
ing, and for this reason must not be kept from remunerative employment any 
longer than is necessary. Furthermore, the school should attempt to teach 
only those trades in which skill has a real place. 

Charles S. Howe, of Cleveland, president of the Case School of Applied 
Science, declared that the boy has a right to demand that society furnish him 
with an opportunity in life. He said there were too many unskilled and un- 
trained workers drafted into the industrial army without opportunity for learn- 
ing how to earn a living. 

Mrs. Anna Carlin Spencer, of the Society for Ethical Culture, New York 
Citv, devoted the time allotted to her to attacking what she called "fallacies" 
relative to the industrial education of girls. She asserted that while the num- 
ber of girls at any one time employed in industrial pursuits is comparatively 
small, the actual number entering such occupations in a given number of years 
is large, the apparent discrepancy lying in the fact that few continue in their 
vocation more than four years. 

The speaker argued that the fact that employment is merely temporary 
is the strongest reason for seeing that the girls are placed in the best situations 
possible for their development. She asserted also that women, for the greater 
part, are still engaged in the things they always have done, with the change 
that now they "go out to do them," while formerly they did them at home. 
She insisted that the first aim of the trade school should be the giving of 
"cultural education," with boys a knowledge of agriculture, with girls a knowl- 
edge of the household arts. 

Luke Grant, labor editor of the Chicago Record-Herald, who spoke on 
the attitude of the wage-earner toward industrial education, declared that the 
conference had laid too much stress upon the commercial side of the question 
and not enough upon the human side. He said that the specialization of in- 
dustry was dehumanizing the worker and reducing him to the point where 
he was regarded as a mere machine, and that unless industrial education was 
introduced we soon should have a class of workers morally and mentally de- 
ficient and a product that would not hold its own in competition in the 
markets of the world. "We all are interested in the productivity of the 
worker, but we should not aim to increase production at the expense of the 
mental and moral vigor of our workers. The production of good American men 
and women is more important than the production of manufactured material." 

Reasoning that the public trade school will attract and hold the child, 
that it will keep him from the successive stages of reluctance, truancy, and de- 
linquency, and that its final product will be a working class, contented, self- 
confident, and honestly ambitions, Dr. Emil G. Hirsch, of Chicago, predicted 
that the installation of such a system nationally will mean the moral salvation 


of the American. pe^)r. "Head, heart, ancf h^od aie the trinity that the 
true adwwf must develop harmoniously. I look to the mannaf training school 
and the trade school for the influence that will help not only to make Araexica 
a worthy competitor of Germany but to make America remember old ideals, 
to awaken the true morality that is sleeping, and to make it a blessing to all 
humanit}'." He deplored the fact that in the present school system the idea 
of imparting and acquiring information is always in the foreground — that the 
appeal is to the head, and only incidentally to the heart. 

At the Saturday morning session the general topic for discussion was: 
"The true ideal of a public school system that aims to benefit all." Super- 
intendent L. D. Harvey, Menomonie, Wis., said: "The elementary and high 
schools should not be diverted from the best educational service of the major- 
ity of those who attend them in favor of preparation of pupils for college 
courses. The high schools are maintained b\' the people for the people and 
not for the colleges. The elementarv schools are maintained by the people 
for the people and not for the high schools. At one time the needs of the ma- 
jority of those attending the higli schools was preparation for college, but that 
no longer is the case, for a large majority of those who attend never go to 

"As the schools are now conducted more than ninety per cent of those 
who pass through the elementary school go into a life of manual labor with 
no preparation for the performance of skillful work. There are three courses 
left open for these: to enter the field of unskilled labor at low wages, to enter 
the field of skilled labor at the bottom and at the lowest wage, with no chance 
for immediate advancement, or to prey upon society. This should not be. 
The elementary school should teach the elementary use of tools in a general 
way. The high school should teach a continuation of this course in skilled 
handiwork, but we need trade schools in addition to these. Pupils will at- 
tend school longer when the schools do more to increase the pupil's earning 

The small percentage of men now engaged in the learned professions 
compared with those in agriculture, manufacture, transportation, or trade 
pursuits, was emphasized by Samuel B. Donnelly, secretary of the Arbitration 
Board of the New York building trades. He said: "The college influence 
molded our public school system to its purpose, and the object of the college 
system was the attainment of 'culture' and the fitting of men for professional 
service. The college influence has yielded to the demands of society. A 
leisure class has no place in our social, industrial, or political life. Our 
whole educational system has been aimed at professional service, which fur- 
nishes employment to about one twenty-fourth of all the persons engaged in 
gainful occupations. There has been too much idealizing of the professional 
occupations and of the 'merchant prince.' The educator has failed to antici- 
pate the economic changes resulting from a rapid industrial development." 

Secretary Charles H. Morse, of the Massachusetts Commission, spoke of 
the progress of the industrial education movement in his state. 

Miss Jane Addams, of Hull House, took part in the discussion following 
the reading of the papers. She said: "I am not ready to admit the dif- 
ference between cultural and industrial education. Industry may look big 


and ugly, but every factory and machine tells its story of human interest and 
every experience in the industrial world contributes its mite to culture. I 
believe that the cultural idea in the education of children should not be dis- 
pensed with until the age of 16, at least, when it can better be determined 
what trade is best for a boy or girl and the special education to make him or her 
a good bread winner in a certain trade may begin. I think it would be a bold 
teacher indeed who in the elementary school period should determine what line 
of work a boy or girl must take up for life." 

A unique feature of this session was the story told by Paul Kreutzpointner, 
physicist and metallurgist in the testing department of the Pennsylvania rail- 
road company, of his apprenticeship under the old gild system, now extinct, in 

At the business meeting Saturday afternoon the reports of officers and com- 
mittees were listened to. Among the resolutions adopted were the following: 
Appointment of a committee of ten by the president of the Society to report 
on the relations of industrial training to the public school system of the United 
States; Conversion of the present state committees into state branches of the 
national society; Appointment by the board of managers of a national com- 
missioner of the society; Appointment of a committee to co-operate with the 
Department of Superintendence at its meeting at Washington in February. 

The following officers were elected for 1908-09: President, Carroll D. 
Wright, Worcester, Mass.; Vice-President, Magnus W. Alexander, Lynn, Mass.; 
Treasurer, Frederick G. Pratt, New York. According to the provision of the 
Constitution the Secretary is elected by the Board of Managers. — w. T. B. 


The Illinois Manual Arts Association held its fifth annual meeting at 
Bradley Polytechnic Institute, Peoria, Friday and Saturday, February 7-8. Here- 
tofore this Association has contented itself with two sessions at its annual meet- 
ings, but this j-ear the executive committee decided to offer a third session, on 
Friday afternoon, as an experiment. The innovation met with such favor that 
the plan will very likely be continued. 

Local interest in the work of the Association was aroused to such a degree 
that the public schools were closed on Friday afternoon in order to allow the 
teachers to attend the meeting. As a consequence the audience that greeted the 
speakers that afternoon, not far from 350 in number, was by far the largest 
that has been known in the history of the Association. 

The leading feature of the program, as heretofore, was the Banquet on 
Friday evening. The spacious dining room of Bradley Institute was stretched 
to its capacity and covers were laid for one hundred guests. Still there were 
twenty-five or thirty for whom plates could not be provided who came in after 
the dinner and listened to the program. 

The deliberations of the Association were ably presided over by the Presi- 
dent, Fred D. Crawshaw, principal of the Franklin School, Peoria. The program 
on Friday afternoon opened with the report of the Committee on Course of 
Study in Manual Training for the Elementary Grades. The members of the 


committee are: Seymour L. Smith, State Normal School, DeKalb, chairman; 
Louis H. Burch, State Normal School, Macomb; Harvey G. Hatch, Public 
Schools, Rockford ; Sinclair J. Work, Elgin ; L. A. Flagler, Peoria. After a brief 
introduction by Mr. Hatch the report of the committee was presented by the 
chairman. Mimeographed copies of the outline of the work done by the Com- 
mittee to date had been prepared and were distributed. From this outline the 
following extracts are taken : 

"The purpose of this report is to formulate a basis for a course of study 
in the manual arts. Education is such a progressive organizing of the activities, 
ideas, and desires of the individual that the individual becomes socially efficient 
and progressive. 

"Psychologists are agreed that man becomes adjusted to the environment 
which his race has made only by reproducing in his own mental history the 
mental history of the race. The individual must acquire his power and in- 
centives in much the same way the race has acquired them.. 

"The modern industrial system resulting in a massing of people in industrial 
and commercial centers makes the problems of social life very complex. Under 
these conditions it is increasingly imperative that each individual see his work 
in its larger relations. This demands greater intellectual capacity and greater 
breadth of knowledge, greater understanding of human achievements and ideals, 
and stronger incentives for personal betterment and for helping life forward." 

The report presented an analysis of the nature of the individual to be edu- 
cated and of the function of the school, and concluded with a statement of 
guiding principles for the selection and arrangement of a course of study in 
the manual arts. 

In discussing the report Miss Cushman, School of Education, said, in part: 
"I came to this meeting dreading to find some fixed course of study forced upon 
us but, instead, am delighted to find this committee in its report seeking unity 

rather than uniformity' I should like to raise a question as to just what is 

to be the basis for the selection of the various forms of manual work. Are we, 
in choosing, to consider them from the standpoint of their present social value 
or from the point of view of their value in the development of the race ? 

"When the question is brought up of the relation of the trade school to our 
work I confess I am agitated, for I have seen so much of the subtlety with which 
the technical ideals of the higher schools creep into the elementary school. In 
the elementary school we are to develop the boy as well as the product." 

Frank H. Selden, of the high school. University of Chicago, said, in con- 
tinuing the discussion: "One of the greatest difficulties in planning the work of 
the elementary school is the fact that so few boys continue in school beyond the 
eighth grade." He cited the case of a class of engineering students no one of 
whom passed a certain examination. One of the students, when asked, said that 
in order to pass the examination it was necessary to ansvier every question cor- 
rectly — not sixty per cent or seventy per cent. 

"It is getting to he dangerous to mention 'joints,' but I believe the science 
of woodworking can be taught in a series of joints — I don't care so 
much for taborets and tables. Give a boy a course of a few selected joints cor- 
rectly made and you develop in him intellectual power, and intelligent and 


scientific use of tools. But deliver me from the bov who thinks he can make a 
taboret — and can't ! 

"It is a mistake to think our manual training work is related in any way 
l^ art — it is more closely related to geometry and physics." 

The next number on the program was the discussion of the report of the 
committee on Shopwork Courses which appeared in the Manual Training Maga- 
zine, December, 1907. In ooening the discussion Charles A. Bennett, chairman 
of the committee, stated that the committee had been called into existence for a 
two-fold purpose. The University- of Illinois had asked to have submitted a 
course in shopwork for its consideration with a view to establishing a basis for 
entrance credits, and the State Teachers' Association had asked to have such a 
course prepared for publication in the State Course of Study. 

It was made clear that the organization of "models" indicated in the third 
column of the outline is merely suggestive. The committee considers as essen- 
tial some classification of the processes involved in woodwork, but the particular 
list of models is non-essential. 

"Manual Training, if it has won its way at all into the school — and we 
believe it has, has a right there just as much as any other subject. This meeting 
is an evidence of the faith in manual training and what it has accomplished. 
The point of view of the committee in preparing this outline is that manual train- 
ing has a valuable content of its own. The idea for a long time was that 
manual training is simply a method of studying other subjects, and until recently 
there has been little recognition of the content of manual trainihg." 

Edward J. Lake, fine arts department, Universitv of Illinois, said: "I am 
interested in the emphasis placed here upon the thought element. The lack of 
individuality is the prevailing weakness in much of the work we see. There is 
a parallel between art and manual training. Art and individuality go together. 
There should be art in our manual training and I can't see it in the making of 
a 'joint.' " 

The next event on the program was the "social hour" preceding the Banquet, 
which was spent with much profit as well as pleasure among the exhibits. 
This report must be incomplete in that there is no space available for an ade- 
quate account of the exhibits, educational and commercial, arranged under the 
direction of Clinton S. VanDeusen, chairman of the committee. 

Promptly at six thirty o'clock the officers of the Association led the way to 
the dining room where a delightful dinner was served by the young women 
of the Department of Domestic Economy of Bradley Institute, Miss Helen Day, 
director. The arrangement of subdued electric light bulbs in the form of a 
suspended tee-square and a sumptuous menu card in half-tone on tint block with 
design symbolic of the Stone Age were the work of Frank Crerie, department 
of manual arts, Bradley Institute. The literary numbers of the evening's pro- 
gram were agreeably interspersed with music by George Kellar who has a 
pleasing baritone voice. 

President Crawshaw introduced Dr. T. C. Burgess, Director of Bradley 
Institute, who said he was glad to be able in a literal way to bid the Association 
"thrice welcome" — three of its five meetings having been held at Bradley Insti- 


The principal address of the evening was upon the topic: "Some Phases 
of our Eucational Problems with Reference to the Manual Arts," by Mrs. Ella 
Flagg Young, principal of the Chicago Normal School.. "The original concep- 
tion of manual training as a means of education has been enlarged and enriched 
until today its values for all children in every grade are partially recognized. 
Evolution has, however, changed the problem in the schools, both on the side of 
method and on that of the arts. With the changes in our conception of ourselves 
as a nation has come, in industrial and commercial centers, an active demand for 
a new class of labor — a class whose children the public schools are expected to fit 
for a station and a work not necessarily in accord with the old ideal of what 
makes an American. The wide-awake manufacturer and some educational 
leaders have discovered a bogyman for America — the German trained in con- 
tinuation schools, or in trade schools. 

"This view is fully exploited in the annual report of Commissioner Draper 
of New York, published in January, 1908. Many, however, will be perplexed to 
understand whether his plea that the wage-earning masses be given a fair 
equivalent for the education bestowed on the children of the rich, aims to se- 
cure a better training for hand workers or to establish a sharper line of demark- 
ation between masses and classes. 

"The people have shown little interest in tlie argument for trade schools, 
the fvmdamental characteristic of the human parent being a longing to give his 
children a better oppportunity in life than he himself enjoyed. Doubtless he 
remembers that Americans, known as captains of industry, were not educated in 
trade schools. The great work of the elementary teacher is not to sort the chil- 
dren, to find those who must go early to a trade schools, but to discover along 
which lines the endowment of each child is most marked. Let the sixteen year 
old boys and girls take up a trade and learn it well, but make certain that before 
entering the trade school they shall have had their fair opportunity in the activi- 
ties of a public school which makes the arts a vital part of its course of study. 
The arts make common ground on which children of the native born and of 
the foreign born meet in happy, intelligent, and ceaseless activity; training in 
them will go far to solve the difficulties of holding in workable relations the 
parts of our social structure with the heterogeneous elements that come on all too 

"One of the most extraordinary features of the present situation is the dis- 
regard of the relations of the decorative and constructive arts. At the recent 
convention in Chicago one speaker made reference to the value of the decorative 
arts, and that speaker is a representative labor union man. It is a bright day for 
craftsmanship in America when the labor men point out the value of art in 
developing not only the trade but the man working at the trade. Not only by the 
architects, the builders, the workers in metal have the arts, decorative and con- 
structive, been rudely spearated ; teachers of the arts have done the same thing — 
witness the chairs made of beautifully grained wood but ungainly form, bootjacks 
dcorated with roses, penwipers with lilies of the valley. The bow of promise, 
however, is bright on the horizon. Conditions within very recent times point to 
an advancement of training in the arts that will awaken and cultivate the true 
spirit of art throughout the American free school. Unite the teachers of art and 


the teachers of the arts in co-operative work, unite the arts, useful and beauti- 
ful, and there will come to be an American designer and an American carfts- 
man that will have no cause to fear the German bogyraan." 

Mrs. Young was followed by William Hawley Smith, of Peoria, who said, 
in part: "As boy and man I have learned that when I want to drive a nail 
I must keep pounding away on one nail-head at a time. I am glad to add, to 
what has been said here about the relation of industrial work to the mental 
attitude of the men and women of this nation, a few words to you manual 
arts teachers and to as many others as can 'catch on.' " The story was then re- 
lated of an old farmer who yielded to the seduction of an attractive handbill 
and went to a cicus for the first time. Taking the circular with him as a sort 
of guide to the exhibits he went through the menagerie comparing the different 
animals with their alleged descriptions with evident satisfaction. At last he 
came upon a camel, an animal that through some oversight had been omitted 
from the printed list. After viewing the beast from all sides and searching in 
vain through the circular for a description that would fit, he finally exclaimed 
in disgust: "Aw, shucks, there ain't no such animal." 

"I tell you, there are too many people who put their faith in the printed 
word as over against their common sense. Up to the present time, the vast 
majority of mankind are like that man with the handbill. I believe that one 
important function of the kind of training you represent is to clarify the vision 
of the intellect of these young people who are to be the men and women of 

the future, so that they can form correct judgments Give the ^oy an 

ideal and then bring him through the training of his hand up to a realization 
of that ideal." 

Mr. Smith then related a number of cases of gross miscarriage of justice — 
matters that he deemed more in need of being "uncovered" than the ruins of 
ancient Herculaneum, etc. For example. Congress required that by a certain 
date all railroad "locomotives and cars" should be equipped with safety coup- 
lings. On a certain road the tender of a locomotive was not so equipped and 
because of that fact a brakeman lost an arm in the discharge of his duties. His 
suit against the railroad was thrown out by the jury on the ground that a 
tender is "neither a locomotive nor a car." "I believe that men and women 
trained along these lines would never allow such judgments to be recorded." 

Gerard T. Smith, superintendent of public schools, Peoria, was then intro- 
duced and spoke appreciatively of the place of manual training in the school 
system. He was followed by Oliver J. Bailey, president of the Board of Trustees 
of Bradley Institute, who made clear the lively interest in manual training on 
the part of the authorities of the Institute and their reasons therefor. 

The next was the President's Address upon the subject: "The Manual 
Training Teacher's Position in the Educational World." Mr. Crawshaw pro- 
posed the question: "Are we, teachers of the manual arts, a unit in organized 
thought and action, in the sense that we are willing to follow a general outline 
for our work covering principles, method, and media ?" To the lack of this 
unity is ascribed the opinion held by "many of our brother and sister teachers 
of other subjects that our specialty has sometimes been a necessary evil." 

"We may not agree upon a particular progression or upon a common 
educational significance in our work. We must agree, however, that there shall 


be progression, and that the progression is educational because it plays a vital 
part in the child's development of a power to do and to do well. We must 
also agree to follow some particular progression which shall be indicated by a 
definite outline of work. It must be definite enough for each of us to follow 
it in doing particular things at particular times and, at the same time, flexible 
enough to allow each teacher to carry out his ideas to best fit local conditions. 

"There was a time not long ago when we had system in the form of a set 
course of models. Please do not understand that I am pleading for a return of 
■the Russian idea in manual training. No, what I think we need is a series of 
principles, not models — a definite understanding with reference to methods in 
work no matter in what exercises they may be used, and a basis for the 
selection and use of certain materials in particular school grades, rather than 
promiscuously using anything as a medium of expression in any grade. It is 
my opinion that until we can come together on common ground in some of 
these matters we shall continue to be criticized as unstable in our work and 
we shall fail to have the influence in educational work which shall be ours 
when we embody in our courses of study the application of that maxim in which 
we all believe: 'United we stand; divided we fall.'" 

After the report of the secretary occurred the election of new members. 
The complete list of those elected to membership at the 1908 meeting is as follows: 
W. X. Brown, principal Sumner school, Peoria; F. H. Cogswell, Soldiers" 
Orphans' Home, Normal; Robert C. Craig, Oak Park; W. J. Craig, Belvidere; 
A. C. Duncan, Quincy; W. W. Emerling, township high school, LaSalle; L. A. 
Flagler, Peoria; G. L. Greves, Peoria; W. H. Henderson, Springfield; G. A. 
Hill, Rock Island; J. M. Humer, Springfield; E. J. Lake, University of Illinois, 
Urbana; H. C. Mohler, Galva; Miss Minnie N. Peterson, Peoria; G. F. Rein- 
hard, Chicago; H. B. Ross, Indianapolis, Ind. ; B. H. Smith, Rockford; Miss 
Carrie R. Sparks, Lincoln; R. S. Thompson, Chicago; E. R. Tompkins, Pontiac; 
C. E. White, Canton. 

A committee on nominations was elected by ballot, as follows: Louis A. 
Bacon, Indianapolis, chairman; Seymour L. Smith, DeKalb ; Clinton S. Van- 
Deusen, Peoria. 

The Saturday morning session began with the transaction of business. After 
discussion, it was decided to appropriate from the treasury an amount sufficient 
to make, with the contributions of individual members, a total of twenty-five 
Ciollars to be sent as a contribution from the Association to the London Congress 

The executive committee was directed to print a complete list of names and 
addresses of members for distribution. Copies of this list may be obtained by 
non-members by application to the Secretary after March 1st. 

The executive committee recommended that, in view of the fact that a 
number of members had withdrawn from the Association In previous years be- 
cause of the $3 membership fee, the treasurer be instructed to reinstate members 
whose dues are In arrears upon the payment of $1 per year beginning with 

A committee, Harvey G. Hatch, Rockford, chairman, was appointed to report 
next jear upon suggested constitutional ammendments. 


The treasurer's report was presented showing: receipts, $183.99; expendi- 
tures, $147.46; balance, $36.53. 

The report of the committee on nominations, after having been referred 
back to the committee for reconsideration, was adopted in its final form and 
the following officers elected for 190S-09: President, Louis H. Burch, State 
Normal School, Macomb; Vice-President, Miss Anna G. Brown, Jacksonville; 
Secretary-Treasurer, Ira S. Griflith, Oak Park. 

It was necessarv to resort to a ballot to determine the place of meeting for 
1900. Fvockford was selected by a vote of 17, to 15 for Jacksonville. 

After the business meeting two papers completed the program. To many 
the most interesting and practically helpful feature of the entire meeting was 
the paper, with the discussion which followed, by Ira S. Griffith, Oak Park, on 
the "Organization of Manual Training in the Grammar Grades." Mr. Grif- 
fith described in detail the experiment he is conducting, with his grammar 
grade classes, with a modified form of the shopwork course outlined in the 
Illinois State Course of Study already referred to in this report. In an admirable 
way the value of the outline in organizing and unifying the work was shown, 
and at the same time the flexibility of the course, allowing ample scope for the 
individuality of the teacher and permitting adaptation to particular classes or 
school conditions. The paper was illustrated by numerous stereopticon slides 
showing the variety of problems worked out in following the outline. 

"In order to develop in the highest degree independence of thought and 
power of initiative the pupil must be given opportunities for determining ends 
and working out means. Both of these are essential in true self-expression, and 
both are essential to the vitalitv of manual exercises in the school. 

"The manual training movement is to be congratulated in that all signs 
just now seem to point to its speedy delivery from the hands of pedagogical or 
psychological extremists. Out of past experience with the joint-making Russian 
system with its admitted disciplinary value, the Swedish model-making with 
its effort to utilize the energ>- of the worker towards useful protiucts, and the 
self-expression of the pedagogical movement with its attendant elements of in- 
terest and initiative — is to come, it would seem, manual training practice that is 
to be marked by a combination of the best of these systems with a consequent 
elimination of the weaknesses of each." 

In the discussion there was very evident an appreciation of the desirability-, 
even necessity, of arriving at some basis of unity in the organization of the work 
in the manual arts which shall commend itself and be accepted generally. 

The last paper was a carefully prepared report of a committee appointed 
to investigate "Individual-Motor-Driven versus Belt-Driven Machines for Manual 
Training Equipments." The committee consists of: William F. Raymond, Brad- 
ley Institute, Peoria, chairman; E. H. Sheldon, Chicago; John L. Bacon, Uni- 
versity High School, Chicago; Clinton S. VanDeusen, Peoria. Several copies 
of this report will be prepared and persons especially interested are requested to 
correspond with the chairman of the committee. 

The meeting of the Association adjourned at 12:30 p. m. — w. T. B 



The fifty-third annual session of the Iowa State Teachers' Association 
was held at Des Moines, la., Dec. 31, 1907, and Jan. 1, 2, 3, 1908. A note- 
worthy feature of the meeting was the value and position accorded to man- 
ual training, as a part of the regular school life, by various eminent educa- 
tors who delivered addresses. 

In the president's address, Supt. F. E. Lark, Onawa, la., pointed out the 
enormous growth of our country as a manufacturing nation. While more 
than eight millions of men are engaged in labor with their hands, little or 
nothing has been done by the public school to fit them for this work. Vitali- 
zation of our present courses of stud}'; a closer relation between school and 
life, and well-equipped trades schools were presented as being urgently needed. 

Dr. Thomas M. Balliet of New York University, gave an address on 
"Frills and Fads in Education." He said that present studies came into the 
school because conditions demanded them. Those more modern subjects, so 
often spoken of as "fads" are, in reality, not such, but deserve a place be- 
cause modern life demands them. 

Dr. James P. Haney, director of manual arts, New York City, spoke on 
"The Manual Arts in the Elementary School." Lack of space forbids a full 
report of this excellent address. In closmg Dr. Haney said, "The things es- 
sential to success thus lie not in expensive equipment, in special forms of work, 
or formal order of exercises. Rather the secret is in the intimacy of the rela- 
tion the work bears to immediate needs and interests, and the unit>' secured be- 
tween it and the other subjects studied at the time. The arts, in other words, 
should be taught together, the design aiding the construction and the drawing 
aiding both. Co-ordination of the manual work with other school subjects 
should be achieved by having both relate to some common center of interest, 
determined by, the teacher, in the light of suggestions of the trades, occupa- 
tions, and home activities of the child's environment. In all the work there 
should be communal effort, the joint work of many that each may profit." 
Dr. Haney had with him an exhibit of work from the New York public 
schools, consisting of beautiful specimens of drawings, designs and constructive 
work in wood and cardboard. 

Supt. Edwin G. Cooley, of Chicago, 111., spoke on "Practical Education." 
The speaker voiced a sentiment that so many manual training advocates have 
feared to express, namely, that school should be so closely related to actual life 
that a boy or girl might know something of what the industrial world will 
expect of them, even to the extent of actually teaching trades. 

The manual training round table had an excellent program under the 
leadership of Leroy P. Elliott of Iowa City, la. Paul A. Dietrichson of the 
North Des Moines High School, spoke on "Handling of Material and Bench 
Devices." The speaker emphasized the value of system and order about a 
school workshop. Various devices intended to facilitate work were shown, 
such as tool kits, bench book fitted with a triangular block for mitering, etc. 
This paper was followed by a timely discussion of the subject of equipments 
bv Prof. C. H. Bailev of the Iowa State Normal School. This discussion was 


greatly appreciated because so many Iowa schools are on the eve of beginning 
some hand work. 

Supt. D. E. Brainerd, Logan, Iowa, gave an address upon the topic "Indus- 
trial Work in the Rural Schools." Supt. Brainerd illustrated his paper by an 
exhibit of work done in the schools of his county. This showed that such 
work has been centered about the home and farm life of the pupils. 
Some articles are made at school, others at home. In all cases this work has 
led to an increased interest in school work, on the part of both parents and 
children, and results will doubtless show that the rural school will eventually 
have hand work a vital part of its curriculum. 

After the regular program had ended, Dr. Haney kindly consented to 
speak to the manual training and drawing teachers who had come in. Dr. 
Haney spoke for over an hour upon the general topic of design, illustrating 
each point by blackboard drawings as he, in turn, took up line, mass, struc- 
ture, and points of force. Lastly he gave an extremely practical method of 
teaching the subject in our public schools. Three essentials were given: 

1. Have some illustrative material (work of pupils, etc.) 

2. Make, and show conventalized plant forms. 

3. Plan definite masses first, then fill in the smaller details. 

Paul A. Dietrichson, North Des Moines, was elected leader for next 
year. Miss E. J. Wing, Tipton, was elected secretary. At a joint meeting 
of both drawing and manual training teachers a Drawing and Manual Train- 
ing Section was organized for next year. Miss Emma Gratton, Supervisor of 
Drawing, Cedar Rapids, was elected president, and A. C. Newell, Supervisor 
of Manual Training, Des Moines, secretary. 

In short this session was a splendid treat and its influence will count for 
much in the development of the manual arts in Iowa schools. 

Albert F. Siepert. 


The latest information in regard to the annual meeting of the Eastern 
Manual Training Association to be held in Washington, April 13, 14 and 15, is 
as follows : 

Honorable James Wilson, Secretary of Agriculture, will give an address on 
the opening evening. There will be round tables on manual training for boys, 
domestic science and arts, and normal schools. Irene E. McDermott of Alle- 
gheny, Pa., has accepted the chairmanship of the round table on "Domestic 
Science and Arts" and Alvin E. Dodd of Trenton, New Jersey, that on "Normal 
Schools." Frank O. Carpenter instructor of commercial geography in the En- 
glish High School, Boston, will present an address on "The Source and Prepara- 
tion of Materials", with an interesting exhibit. Industrial education will have 
a prominent place, one general session being devoted to it. Mr. Sensor, assistant 
superintendent of public instruction for New J-ersey will speak on this subject, 
as applied to the needs of rural schools. Prof. Charles R. Richards of Teachers 
College, New York, will give a resume of the Chicago convention of the Society 
for the Promotion of Industrial Education, especially discussing those thm4S 
which bear most significantly upon manual traininer oossihilities. Other speaKcrs 
are to be announced. Reduced rates have been offered by some of the passenger 


associations and will doubtless be granted by the others. For final program, 
apply to the secretary, Annie F. Burbank, East Northfield, Mass. 


At the suggestion of the Indianapolis local committee the convention will 
be held one day earlier than previously announced, namely, from April 7 to 10. 
This will enable the Association to secure the fullest possible opportunities to see 
the public schools In session and to hold its exhibit under the most favorable 
circumstances. The program announced is an especially attractive one and 
there is every reason to believe that the meeting this year will be one of the 
greatest in the history of the association. 


The first regular meeting of the year was held at hotel Chelsea, 222 W. 23d 
St., New York City, on Friday, November 15, 1907, at eight P. M. The meeting 
was largely attended, and ten candidates were elected to membership. 

The program of the evening consisted of: 

1. "Manual Training as a State Problem in New Jersey." Discussed by 
A. E. Dodd in describing his summer's work in Cape May, N. J. 

2. "Manual Training as a State Problem in Vermont." Discussed by L. 
W. Wahlstrom in describing his summer's work at Woodstock, Vt. 

The second regular meeting was held at Hotel Chelsea, on Friday evening, 
January 17, 1908, and was preceded by a dinner at 6:30 o'clock. This meeting 
was very largely attended, and eight candidates were elected to membership. 

The program consisted of a paper by Mr. McNary on "Mechanical Projects 
as Manual Training." This paper was discussed by Messrs. Weick, Reagle, 
Garritt, and A. W. Richards. The paper and discussions were illustrated by 
numerous working models. William A. Worth. 


The Cleveland Manual Training Club held its second meeting of the year 
at the Central Y. M. C. A. building, January 31st. Following the business 
meeting and supper, A. D. Kennedy gave an exceedingly interesting and instruc- 
tive illustrated lecture on applied design. 

The Manual Arts Section of the Minnesota Educational Association held 
two very interesting sessions at St. Paul. Every speaker named on the pro- 
gram was present and took part. The officers elected for next year are: presi- 
dent, George M. Brace, Duluth ; secretary, Supt. H. L. Brown, St. James. 

A committee, consisting of the officers and J. E. Painter, Minneapolis, was 
appointed to recommend a course in manual training for high schools of the state, 
to report at the next meeting. 

The section meetings were as well attended as any of the Association and 
considerable interest was manifested by visiting superintendents in the subject 
of state uniformity in manual training work as a basis for the demand for recog- 
nition of such work in the entrance requirements at the university. 

The report of the State Superintendent for 1907-08 shows that 73 high 
schools have manual training in some part of their four years' course. This is 
a gain of over 100 per cent in two years. George M. Brace. 


George A. S e a x o n, Editor. 


A project always full of interest to the high school boy is the construction 
of a small table. The one shown this month is perhaps the more pleasing be- 
cause of its very simplicity. Its simple lines are capable of modification to suit 
the taste of the maker. The under side of the cross pieces might be given a 
slight curve and the tenons could be allowed to project through the legs about 
an eighth of an inch. The design is that of Mr. Roberts of Cleveland. 


Mr. Masters of South High School, 
Cleveland, has submitted the design for 
a wooden candlestick with copper trim- 
mings. The top and base are mortised 
to receive the ends of the upright. The 
candleholder with its supports and the 
protective covering to the top piece are 
made of sheet copper riveted in place. 
For rivets small escutcheon pins may be 
used or the rivets may be made from cop- 
per wire. 


The simple bridge given brings to 
the students one of the most interesting 
problems of industrial life. Mr. Hasty 

of the Isadore Newman Manual Training School of New Orleans who sends 
the design, makes the following suggestions in regard to its construction : 

. 1. Cut wires to length and cut threads on ends. One end of each small 
bolt mav be upset instead and a washer slipped over before inserting in posi- 






2. Cut to length bottom chords, cross beams, batten braces, and rests. 

3. Cut thrust joint in batten braces at one end thus: Draw BC at angle 
of 30 degrees to AB. Draw DE parallel to AB to intersect with BC. Draw EF 
at right angles to ED. 

4. Cut angle of 120 degrees at other end of batten braces. 

5. Cut socket for batten braces in bottom chord thus: Draw BD at 120 






degree angle to BC. Lay batten braces on bottom chord at BD at an angle of 
30 degrees and score outline of BDEFG. 

6. Cut out groove for wire posts (ties) in top ends of batten braces. 

7. Bore holes* for long bolts in bottom chords and cross beams. 

8. Clamp each batten brace and bottom chord and rest together in place 
and bore hole for small bolts. 

9. Bolt trusses together, also cross beams. Screw on end cross rest. 

10. Cut and lay floor beams and planks. 

11. Make fit and nail in place side braces. 

Georgia (Yellow) Pine is a good wood to use for this project. 

Posts and bolts are of No. 10 iron wire. For nuts buy strips of soft iron % 
in. thick and % in. wide. This may be cut into squares drilled and threaded to 
fit the wire. A tap, die and small drill are necessary for this work. 



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One of the most interesting lines of worlv in pattern making is the con- 
struction of patterns for some piece of shop machinery. In the accompanying 
photograph the patterns for the drill press will interest further inquiry at the 
Indianapolis Manual Training High School where the work was done. 

Concerning the work at the Manual Training High School Mr. Covert 
writes as follows: 

"Pattern-making is a subject that adapts itself nicely to the manual train- 
ing course in a high school, even though the ecjuipment is limited and only a 
small amount of manual training given. It is, we might say, a combination of 
joinerv, or bench work in wood and wood-turning, only in a more advanced 
form, and is especially well adapted to teaching care and neatness and to form 
the basis of a series of talks or lectures on the construction and building of our 
great automatic and labor-saving machines of the day. 

"In schools having as a part of their equipment a foundry and machine 
shop it is well to select some simple machine for the pupils to build which may be 
added to the equipment as the school grows. The wood-turning lathe is a good 
problem. In this, the patterns and castings may be made by the pattern-mak- 
ing pupils. In the machine shop the simple pieces serve as the elementary 
exercises, and the larger, more difficult parts to be machined may be given to 
the advanced pupils. 

"The making of a set of standard patterns is always new to the pupils 
but the teacher must arrange the course and have at hand special work for 
the advanced pupils or those showing ability in order to keep himself from fall- 
ing into a "rut" or becoming "narrow." 

"There are two natural ways to present the subject of pattern-making to 
puplis. One is to put before them pattern drawings or blue prints, all allowance 
for draft, shrinkage and finish having been made by the draughtsman. The 
other method is to give the pupil drawings showing the finished dimensions 
thus requiring him to make allowance for machining, etc. 

"A combination of the above two methods seems to the writer to be the 
better plan to work on when designing a course. This method of presenting 
the subject has proven very satisfactory in the Indianapolis Manual Training 
High School. The first few blue prints have on them a pattern drawing and 
also a drawing of the finished piece as shown in Fig. /. This is for the pupil 
to make a comparison between the pattern and the finished piece. Later on a 
drawing of the finished piece only is given thus making it necessary for the 
pupil to make allowance for finish or machining. 

"In Fig. / is shown a pattern and a finished drawing of a tailstock cap for 
a lathe involving the use of a balanced core. Fig. 2 shows the exercise following 
Fig. /. On this blue print the pattern drawing is omitted and the pupils use 
from there on, only drawings showing the finished dimensions. 

"In a course designed after the above scheme it is not necessary to make 
the two exercises in the pattern shop as shown in Figs. / and 2. The pattern 
shown by Fig. / may be omitted, using it only for suggestions in changing from 
pattern drawings to drawings showing the finished piece. Fig. J shows the 
beginning and general trend of the work." 












.^<r5i* ^ 




Clinton S. Van Deusen, Editor. 

The Massachusetts Commission on Industrial Education after a very care- 
ful consideration of the subject has submitted its report to the legislature recom- 
mending the establishment of an industrial college in which both day and 
evening courses shall be given; it also recommends that this college share with 
the Massachusetts Institute of Technology and Massachusetts Agricultural Col- 
lege in the sums paid to the State by the United States for this class of schools. 
The college is to be practically free to residents of the State, and is intended 
for men already trained in the shop. Most of the men would take the work 
in the evening but some would be able to give up work temporarily in order to 
avail themselves of such an opportunity for advancement. 

The purpose of the college is to educate men for supervisory positions in 
the larger industries of the State. 

While there are various qualities demanded in different supervisory posi- 
tions, which range in scope from that of foreman to that of superintendent or 
manager, there is yet one feature common to all, — there must be a thorough 
grounding in the fundamental principles and practice of the calling. It will 
be the object of this college to teach those fundamental principles to such an 
extent as may be necessary to supplement the previously obtained practical ex- 
perience, and also to give sufficient instruction concerning the shipping and sell- 
ing departments in any particular industry. 

The president of the board of education of New York city has appointed 
a committee to investigate trades schools, with an idea of learning what can be 
done for New York in this line. The committee consists of Frederick R. Cou- 
dert, Samuel B. Donnelly, John Greene, L. Katzenberg, and M. J. Sullivan. 

It has been proposed that congress offer to each rural congressional district 
$10,000 annually toward the support of an agricultural high school. 

A law is now before the Assembly of New York State, which, if passed, will 
greatly encourage the establishment and maintenance of technical and trade 
schools within the state. The law provides that the state shall supply five 
hundred dollars a year for each technical or trade school meeting the require- 
ments of the law and employing one teacher ; and two hundred dollars more is 
allowed for each additional teacher. The passage of this law would mean a 
rapid development of manual training in the state. 

The National Civic Federation, through the generous co-operation of the 
International Mercantile Marine Company and that of Alfred Mosely, Esq., 
of London, has undertaken to arrange for a visit of SCO or more selected 
American teachers to inspect the schools and colleges of Great Britain and 
Ireland. A limited number can arrange to visit the Continental countries as 
well. Those who make this visit will be met on arrival by reception committees, 
with whom details as to places and schools to be visited can be arranged. The 
trip must be made during the months of September, October, November, Decem- 



ber 1908, and January, 1909, east bound; and between November, 1908, and 
March 15, 1909, westbound. The fare for the round trip, second cabin, will be 
twenty-five dollars. 

The selection of teachers will be confined to those engaged in elementary 
and secondary schools, in industrial and technical schools of elementary and 
secondary school grade, and in institutions for the training of teachers. 

In case more than 500 nominations are received the teachers selected to 
make the visit will be chosen equitably from different sections of the country and 
from different types or grades of educational work. 

Nominations must be made by boards of education, boards of trustees of 
individual institutions, or other appropriate educational authorities, and no ap- 
plications from individual teachers will be received unless transmitted through 
the appropriate educational authority and with its endorsement. In making 
allotments, preference will be given to nominations made by those educational 
authorities who propose to continue the stated compensation of the person named 
during his or her absence, for the purpose of making this visit. 

Applications must be made in writing on or before June 1, 1908, on a form 
which will be sent upon application, to the executive secretary, Roland P. Falk- 
ner, 281 Fourth ave., New York, N. Y. 

David S. McFarland has resigned his position as manual training instruc- 
tor in the New York Orphanage to become director of manual training in the 
State Normal School at Strausburg, Pa. He entered upon his new duties in 

More lumber was cut in the United States last year than in any other year 
in its history. The enormous amount of 37,550,736,000 board feet was produced 
and the mill value of this was $621,151,388. In addition, there were produced 
11,858,260,000 shingles, valued at $24,155,555, and 3,812,807,000 lath, valued 
at $11,490,570. On the whole, it is safe to say that the present annual lumber 
cut of the United States approximates 40 billion feet, and the total mill value of 
the lumber, lath and shingles each year produced is not less than $700,000,000. 
These figures give some idea of how vast is the lumber industry and how great 
is the demand for its products. 

A glance at the kinds of lumber produced shows very clearly the passing 
of white pine and oak, one the greatest softwood and the other the greatest hard- 
wood which the forest has ever grown. Since 1899 the cut of white pine has 
fallen off more than 40 per cent, while that of white oak has fallen off more 
than 36 per cent. To-day yellow pine leads all other woods in amount cut, 
while Douglas fir — and this will be a surprise to many — comes second. Since 
1899 the cut of Douglas fir has increased 186 per cent. Louisiana is the foremost 
yellow pine State, with Texas, Mississippi, and Arkansas following in order. 
Washington produces by far the greatest amount of Douglas fir. 

A comparison of the lumber-producing States shows that since 1899 there 
have been many changes in their relative rank. Washington, which in 1899 
stood sixth, now leads, while Wisconsin, which eight years ago led all others, 
is now third. In the same period Oregon, Louisiana, Mississippi, Idaho, and 
California made great strides as lumber-producing States, though, on the other 
hand, the amount produced in Michigan, Wisconsin, Minnesota, Georgia, Ken- 



tucky, Tennessee, Missouri, Indiana, and Ohio fell off anywhere from 29 to 54 
pe • cent. 

The highest-priced native woods are walnut, hickory, and ash, and the 
cheapest are larch and white fir. From the fact, however, that since 1899 the 
average increase in the price of lumber has been 49 per cent, it will not be 
long before cheap woods are few and far between. 

Figures upon the lumber cut of the United States in 1906 are contained in 
Circular 122 of the Forest Service, which can be had upon application to the 
Forester, U. S. Department of Agriculture, Washington, D. C. 

Alice Campbell, for many years instructor in cooking in the grammar grades 
of Cleveland, resigned January 31st to accept a position in Toledo. Her place 
was filled by Isla M. Campbell of Milwaukee, Wis. 

Seventy per cent, of the cities of the United States of 8,000 population, or 
over, have manual training in some form in their public schools. 

On February 3d a new manual training hall was opened in connection with 
the State Normal School at Cape Girardeau, Missouri. 

Percy Nilson, formerly of Waltham, Mass., has been elected Supervisor of 
Manual Training in Fresno, Cal. Mr. Warner is teacher of mechanical draw- 
ing and Miss Mildred Linendou Director of Domestic Science at the same place.. 

In the fall of 1906 a small start was made in manual training work at 
Pontiac, 111., with four benches and other equipment which was purchased with 
the premium money received on the drawing exhibit at the State Fair. Th' work 
done during that year received the blue ribbon at ihe State Fair and was so well 
received by the community that the board of education decided to equip iwo 
schools last fall. The Township High School was equipped with nineteen 
benches and tools and the Central School with twenty-three benches and tools. 
All boys of the sixth, seventh and eighth grades take the benchwork and the 
girls of the same grades have sewing while the boys are in shop. The work 
in the high school is optional but credit is allowed toward graduation. The 
work for both boys and girls is well received and will probably be extended next 
year. Ray Tompkins has charge of the woodwork in both schools. 

Manual training work is greatly appreciated in Springfield, 111., as is shown 
by the way in which the school board has provided for its rapid extension. Last 
year the work was carried on in three ward schools while now ten ward schools 
are fully equipped for the work of the boys of the seventh and eighth grades. 
Four domestic science kitchens have been installed for the girls of the eighth 
grade. Knife work is given to the boys of the fifth and sixth grades and sewing 
to the girls of the fifth, sixth and seventh grades. The high school has been 
re-equipped for benchwork and a two-year course in benchwork and sheet- 
metal work is given. Wilson H. Henderson is director of the manual training 
work. The boys in the seventh and eighth grades are taught by the principals 
under Mr. Henderson's supervision and the lower work is taught by the grade 

Manual training was started in Columbus, Neb., about three years ago.. 
From a small beginning it has grown to an important department in the school 
work with a well-equipped building. The building, which is a combination 
manual training and gymnasium building, was supplied by tl.2 district but the 


equipment was furnished by the citizens. Tlie maiuiai training equipment con- 
sists of twelve benches, four high-speed lathes, four down-draft forges with all 
necessary tools and an eight horse power gas engine to supply the power. 

The work in the first seven grades consists of weaving, basketry, clay 
modeling, pottery and wood carving; these are under the supervision of Estella 

In the eighth grade the classes are divided, the girls taking sewing and the 
boys taking benchwork. In the ninth grade the boys choose between manual 
training and the languages. Fully fifty per cent choose the former. In the 
ninth and tenth grades the boys take joinery, furniture construction, turning 
forge work and mechanical drawing. The upper grade work for the boys is 
in charge of E. J. Huntemer. 

Frank M. Leavitt, assistant director of drawing and manual training, took 
part in the discussion of industrial education at the Washington session of the 
Department of Superintendents, N. E. A. 

An enthusiastic party of manual training teachers of the Boston public 
schools is planning to attend the Washington meeting of the Eastern Manual 
Training Association. 

The school committee have established a permanent exhibit of school work 
in suitable rooms in the new Normal School Building. Volunteer committees of 
teachers will keep it up to date. Its foundation has been laid bv the installa- 
tion of the exhibits returned from the Jamestown Exposition. 

Beginning with February a new departure has been made in the manual 
training of the Boston schools by the introduction of elementary bookbinding. 
This is being conducted in about twenty classes of the sixth grade with good 
resylts. All the classes of the fifth grade throughout the city are also having 
this work for the last three months of the current school year. 

Sheba E. Berry, formerly a grammar school teacher in the Lincoln School, 
South Boston, has been appointed to the manual training corps of teachers. 


For the benefit of the Manual Training Section of the State Teachers Asso- 
ciation which convened in Denver December 30 to January 3, there was placed 
on exhibition manual training products of the grade schools of Denver. This 
was the most extensive exhibit ever held in Colorado and aroused great enthus- 
iasm, not only among visiting teachers but also among the patrons of the 
schools, many hundreds of whom visited the rooms. The sewing exhibit which 
consisted of a great variety of garments, sofa pillows designed and worked 
by seventh grade pupils, embroidered table linen, and many household articles, 
was under the direction of Ida B. McGlauflin, supervisor of sewing, Denver 
Public Schools. The shop work under the direction of Milton Clauser showed 
skill in benchwork. Many pieces of furniture, picture frames, etc., for house- 
hold decoration were on exhibition. 


•The Manual Training High School of Denver is so overcrowded that the 
board of education has decided to use the Longfellow School, which is one of 
the largest grade schools in the city, as an annex to the Manual Training High. 
Eight or ten rooms will be opened for this purpose in September and the first 
year pupils entered there. 

Mrs. Delia J. Morris of Iowa, has been placed in charge of the department 
of domestic economy of the Pueblo schools. 


The Providence Technical high school has received one hundred and sev- 
enty pupils in its mid-year entering class, making a total of some six hundred 
and seventy-five students in attendance. There have been many changes in the 
faculty during this year. Among them the following: Wm. O. Hamblin head of 
the drawing department, accepted a similar position in Jersey City. Agustus F. 
Rose of the same department went to the East Boston high school. Mary A. 
Carpenter resigned from the domestic science department at the beginning of 
the mid-vear. Arthur Ray teacher of woodwork is now teaching mechanical 
drawing. The new teachers in the drawing department are Chas. J. Martin, 
and Daisy L. Richardson. In domestic science Grace Hartman of Brown Uni- 
versity and Bessie Goff of Simmons College, Boston, are substituting. In wood- 
work Mr. Richardson, of the Fore River Engine works pattern shops, is assist- 
ing Mr. Willis. 

There has been a conference between the State Agricultural College and 
Brown University to avoid duplication of courses and to further the interests of 
these institutions and the state. 

Howard O. Edwards, President of the State Agricultural College is further- 
ing the movement for a federal department for technical research to be carried 
on in a similar manner to the agricultural experiment stations. Mechanical 
and technical problems will be worked out and manufacturers may consult the 
department and make use of its testing facilities. 


About a year ago systematic kite-making was instituted among the boys of 
the fifth, sixth, seventh, and eighth grades of the public schools of Los Angeles, 
California. With the assistance of the manual training teachers a great many 
kites of various shapes were successfully constructed. The athletic committee 
of the schools co-operated, and Superintendent E. C. Moore selected a day for 
a general tournament. Thus came to pass the first officially arranged kite 
tournament in the public schools in this country, so far as the writer is aware. 
This extraordinary affair was successful and about two thousand children and 
older people were present at the contest. While kite-making is of Chinese 
origin, yet there is much in it that is of high educational value for America. 

Most of the work was done by the boys in the sloyd rooms after school 
hours, though some was done at home, thus connecting kite-making with the 
home and stimulating home work. Of course it is a seasonal occupation, which 
fact must be born in mind to avoid attempts at making it of permanent nature. 


This year however an attempt will be made to devote some part of the regular 
"manual training time", for the specific purpose of kite construction in the 
manual training rooms. 

Of course the work is entirely optional with the pupils. An attempt will 
also be made to permit girls to take part in this construcion work and in the 
tournament. . 

In the Los Angeles Schools there is an athletic committee whose duty it is to 
encourage and direct the various games and sports. This committee, consisting 
of principals and teachers together with the assistant manual training supervisor, 
arranged the scheme and day for the tournament, which was approved by the 
superintendent of the schools. A committee of judges was appointed to judge and 
award prizes consisting of diplomas signed by the judges and the superintendent 
of schools. The local papers wrote up the affair, which was thus successfully 
carried out. 

It may be claimed for this work that as a sport it is clean and moral. It is 
also a stimulating agent in constructive home occupation. It prompts inventive 
fellows to assert themselves, and several original kites were invented in the 
schools and constructed by pupils. It has a peculiar relation to the active and 
important aerial navigation questions of today, in that it illustrates the wind 
as a motive power and air as a transit-agent. It seems therefore worth the 
while to point out these pertinent facts observed and involved in this new 
feature of manual training work in the public schools and present them to the 
public in the hope that they will be found useful. — c. a. kunou. 


Provisional Program: 

a. Most Artistic Kite. (See to color, harmony and outline.) 

b. Quarter-mile Dash. (Reels, etc. may be used if preferred.) 

c. Dirigible Kite. (Use two strings. Work for graceful movements.) 

d. Strongest Single Puller. (Tandem not admitted in this class.) 

e. Picture Kite. (Work for distance, as these kites are to be 400 feet away.) 

f. High Flyer. (Best results obtained by means of tandem combinations.) 

g. Best Animal Kite. (Including boy, girl, bird, animal, insect, etc.) 
h. Dragon Kite. (Not to be included in the g. class.) 

i. Streamer Exhibition. (American flags, etc. make good showing.) 

j. Kite Invention. (Must be boy's or girl's own invention, '07 included.) 

k. Best Tetrahedral. (To be judged largely on the ground, but must have 
made a successful flight.) 

1. Yacht Race. (Will be one of the earlier events. New drawings coming.) 

m. Model Airship. (Must be pupil's work.) 

n. Parachute Display. (Definite release considered.) 

o. Best Photograph from a Kite. (May be taken any time during the kite 

season previous to the tournament. Prints to be in by April 10th. 



(Translated from the German by Frank A. Manny.) 

The tree of accumulated knowledge is so large that no one can, in the 
brief space of a lifetime, hope to get thoroughly acquainted with all its branches 
and so tall is this tree that only a chosen few are allowed to explore the tipends 
of any one particular branch. 

The acquiring of knowledge plays such an important part in the process of 
educating man that some people confound it with education itself. We hear 
people speak of someone being educated "along those lines," or we come in 
contact with people who "have had" such and such studies but whose memory 
and manners fail to support their claim to a genuine education. 

We are living at a time when a large number of very important study- 
subjects are battling for a first-row place on the school program. With such 
persistent, clever arguments do these subjects assert their position that authori- 
ties are prone to neglect any one in favor of the rest. This is in part ex- 
cusable for since, unfortunately, the learning period of the great masses of man- 
kind has been fixed to be between the ages of 6 and 14 — when shall these poor 
beings find out by what means they are likely to become educated most suc- 
cessfully. Would not, for instance, the child who is artistically inclined, be 
wronged if during the whole of his eight years schooling he were to have no 
opportunity to give expression to his natural talent? 

Nevertheless, crowd as best we can, the time seems to have come when we 
begin to see that it is impossible to give a first-row place to each of the host 
of studies that appear to be "most important." Perhaps the simplifying of the 
school program may be the means of replacing much of the superficiality of 
today by a genuine thoroughness, more humility and more reverence. 

Dr. Geo. Kerschensteiner, one of Germany's foremost educators in his latest 
work "Grundfragen der Schulorganisation" lays great stress on this simplify- 
ing of the program and he therefore gladly welcomes a book like the "Elementar 
Laboratorium" in which Raymund Fischer proposes to use manual training not 
as a distinct study by itself, but as a valuable aid while mastering problems 
in physics. The "Elementar Laboratorium" is published by Carl Schuell of 
Munich and it deserves the attention of all educators. 

The book is full of illustrations, showing how with a remarkably small ex- 
penditure of money children can make 125 pieces of apparatus. Here and there 
work on similar lines has been done, but there appears to be no book on the 
market that so exhaustively treats of the subject. 

Mr. Fischers' pupils have a scrap-box or closet into which are placed all 
the bits of wood, glass, tin cans, lead, nails and whatsoever they can find and 
which is of little value at home. From this well-ordered junk pile comes the 
material out of which are constructed the simplest plumb-line as well as the 
most wonderful electrical machine within the scope of the boys' ability. Of 



course a few articles like glass-tubing, drugs, etc. must he purciiased. For 
certain work scraps from a saw-mill are obtained and the boys even buy some 
of the things at cheap auction sales. They are bv far more interested in their 
work because of this gathering process than they would be if all the material 
were furnished by the school. There is a large percentage of voluntary home 
work which is probably the best result of Mr. Fischer's educational influence. 

Because of the many plates in color the book is not so difficult to understand 
even for those whose knowledge of German is rudimentary. The book costs 
four Marks in Germany and can probablv be had for $1.50 or less in this 
country through any book dealer. — fritz koch. 

By George F. Foth. 

Twenty-five years of successful work has been done in the eight manual 
training schools of Dresden. This gives Dresden tlie foremost place among the 
German cities. 

On the 2d of October, the question of manual training was brought up for 
the first time in the Leipsic City Council. It was decided to make manual train- 
ing part of the school work in the new "Burgerschule" No. 10. Two basement 
rooms were set apart for this work and the sum of 1425 M. were appropriated 
for their equipment. The instruction is to be carried on in the afternoons between 
three and five o'clock. The work is to begin with the boys of the third and 
fourth classes, the fourth to receive instruction in cardboard and the third in the 
elements of benchwork in wood. The work will not be compulsory. 

The twenty-fifth anniversary of the manual training school at Posen was 
celebrated on November 15th. All the manual training teachers of the city were 
present and Director Gaertig, the founder of the school, was commended for his 
successful work, not only in the city, but also in the province. The hope was 
expressed that he might be able to continue his great work in the cause of manual 
training for many jears to come. Thereupon, in the name of the manual training 
teachers of Posen, he was presented with a statue idealizing work. 

Barden is keeping pace with the manual training movement. In all newly 
planned public school buildings, consideration is being given to additional rooms 
for manual training. This is also true in Mannheim, Karlsruhe, Heidelberg, 
Pforzheim, and Freiburg. Manual training is now well established in the public 
schools of Mannheim, where 2215 boys receive instruction. They are allowed to 
choose between cardboard work, whittling, benchwork, metahvork, and modeling. 
One hundred and ten courses are taught by forty-seven teachers in fourteen 

Year Book of the Council of Supervisors of the Manual Arts. Edward D. 
Griswold, secretary, Hastings-on-Hudson, N. Y. 634x10 in.; pp. 168+46 plates 
and many line cuts; price, $3.00. 

This seventh year-book is a fitting successor to the helpful volumes that have 
preceded it. In illustrations it is richer than any previous volume and in the 
practical suggestiveness of its papers it keeps to the high standard set by this 


The volume opens with a paper on "Constructive Work in Town Schools 
without Special Equipment" by Mabel B. Soper. This is an account of what 
has actually been accomplished in a Massachusetts town near Boston and makes 
one wish that the day would soon come when such work were being done in 
every town in our land. The second article is a discussion of "Centers of 
Interest in Handwork" by Cheshire L. Boone. "Woodworking in Country 
Schools," is discussed by M. W. Murray, "Toymaking as a Form of Construc- 
tive Work", is interestingly presented by Albert W. Garritt, and "Some Phases 
of Bookbinding in the Elementary Schools" is helpfully treated by Julia C. Cre- 
mins. And so one might continue through the entire volume. 

Theodore M. Dilloway presents some striking and instructive contrasts in 
a paper entitled "Creating Ideals in Furniture Design," and in quite a different 
way Frank E. Mathewson gives some fresh material on designing for wrought 
metal work. "The Adaptation of Pattern to Material" is discussed by James P. 
Haney and illustrated with fifteen full-page plates, one of which is reproduced 
on the opposite page. This paper adds another to the remarkable series on 
applied design which Dr. Haney has produced during the past three years. 

No one can really keep up to date with the literature of the Manual Arts 
who fails to read the Year-books of the Council as they make their annual ap- 
pearance, and no working library on the manual arts is complete without them. 

— B. 

Sewing Manual. By Ida B. McGlauflin, supervisor of sewing in the 
public schools of Denver, Colorado. Published by the author ; price, 50 cents. 

This is a sixty-four page booklet giving a five-year course in school needle- 
work. The course begins with the third grade, and outlines the work in detail. 
A list of words used in the sewing, which should be taught in each grade, is 
added to the outlines of work, also a chapter in which the several stitches are 
described, and another on textile fibers. The book bears evidence of being the 
result of practical experience, and it should be helpful to sewing teachers in other 

Textile Studies for the School Room. By Katherine F. Steiger, director of 
the domestic arts in the public schools of Rochester, N. Y. Published by the 
author; price, 25 cents. 

This very attractively printed booklet contains the following chapters: A 
general outline of weaving exercises, helps for teachers, the making of a loom, 
how we learned to make thread, textile fibres, cotton, linen, wool, silk. At the 
end of the book is a bibliography. 

The following have been, received: 

Third Annual Report of the Education Department of the State of Neiv 
York. By Andrew S. Draper, Commissioner. 

Simple Exercises Illustrating Some Applications of Chemistry to Agriculture. 
By K. L. Hatch, principal of Winnebago County School of Agriculture and Do- 
mestic Economy, Winneconne, Wis. U. S. Department of Agriculture Bulletin 

The Seasoning and Preservative Treatment of Hemlock and Tamarack 
Cross-ties. By W. F. Sherfesee. U. S. Department of Agriculture, Forestry 
Service, Circular 132. 






The Lumber Cut of United States, 1906. By Gifford Pinchot. U. S. De- 
partment of Agriculture, Forest Service, Circular 122. 

Hoiv to Read Plans. By Charles G. Peker, editor of "Woodworker's Re- 
view. Industrial Publication Co., New York, 1908; 5x7 in., pp. 46-f8 plates of 
drawings, price 50 cents. A book written to help mechanics to read working 

Addresses and Proceedings of the National Education Association, 1907. 
Report of the Los Angeles meeting containing an unusually large number of pa- 
pers of special interest to teachers of manual training. Price, $2.00. Dr. Irwin 
Shepard, Secretary. Address Winona, Minnesota. 

Proceedings of Joint Meeting. Report of the Cleveland meeting of the 
Eastern Art Teachers' Association, the Eastern Manual Training Association 
and the Western Drawing and Manual Training Association held May 8 to 11, 
1907. Price, 50 cents. William T. Bawden, Chairman of Editorial Board, 
State Normal University, Normal, 111. This attractively illustrated volume con- 
tains much that will interest teachers of the manual arts who did not attend the 
meeting, and certainly those who did attend will want it for reference. 

Student Participation in School Government. By William R. Ward, Super- 
visor of Manual Training, State Normal School, New Paltz, N. Y., 1906. 
S%:x.7y2 in.; pp.112; price, 50 cents. 

This book is of immediate practical value to anyone contemplating the 
adoption of the "School City" idea. It is not a book of theories but of practi- 
cal suggestions based on six years of experience. It tells in detail just how to 
J- ^ceed. 

Report of Commissioner of Education, 1906, I'ol. 2. Dr. Elmer E. Brown, 
Bureau of Education, Washington, D. C. Chapter XX contains fifty pages of 
statistics on manual and industrial training. 

Seat Work and Industrial Occupations. By Mary L. Gilman and Elizabeth 
B. Williams, two principals of public schools in Minneapolis. The Macmillan 
Company, New York, 1905. 6x7^4 in. pp. 141. 

How to Make an Annunciator. By T. E. O'Donnell. 

Making and Fixing Electric Bells and Batteries. By M. Cole. 

A Small Electric Motor. By Wm. C. Houghton. 

How to Grind and Set Edge Tools. By M. Cole. 

These are small handbooks issued by the Sampson Publishing Co., 6 Beacon 
St., Boston, and sold at 10 cents each. Each is illustrated b}- one or more draw- 

School of Liberal Arts and Sciences for Non-Residents. A prospectus of a 
new plan for getting a college education without going to college. The instruc- 
tion is individual and the examinations just as searching as in resident college 
work. On the faculty are some of the strongest men in the United States. For 
example, at the head of the department of education is Professor John Dewey of 
Columbia, and of fine arts Professor John C. Van Dyke of Rutgers. Hamilton W. 
Mabie is the chairman of the Educational Council. The executive offices are at 
156 Fifth Ave., New York, and 512 Times Building, Pittsburg, Pa. 


Manual Training Magazine 

JUNE, 1908 



Frank M. Leavitt. 

THE writer on this topic who wishes to secure general acceptance 
of his views must make careful definition of terms and definite 
limitation of the special phase of the subject with which he is 
to deal. 

At the recent meeting of the Department of Superintendence of the 
National Education Association in Washington, an entire session was 
given to a symposium on the place of industries in public education. The 
closing words were given by Mr. George H. Martin, Secretary of the 
Massachusetts State Board of Education, who remarked that the discus- 
sions of the afternoon furnished ample evidence of the chaotic condition 
of the subject of industrial training. One fact which contributed to the 
seeming chaos of ideas was that those taking part in the discussion were 
frequently talking about widely different things. One speaker, presum- 
ably representing the Massachusetts Commission on Industrial and 
Technical Education, employed the term "industrial education" so nar- 
rowly that it was made to apply only to work given in special schools 
with the purpose of training for definite trades. Without questioning 
the right of the Commission to define the meaning of the term "indus- 
trial training" as used in its own reports, I would record a protest 
against the general acceptance of any such limitation. It was with the 
belief that a considerable amount of training, with definite vocational 
purpose could and should be included in the work of the elementary 
schools, that the experiment, which it is the main purpose of this article 
to describe, was undertaken. The discussion pertains only to this par- 
ticular and limited phase of industrial education. 



Out of the chaos of ideas relating to the general subject, the care- 
ful student, who has especial interest in and experience with the work 
of the elementary grades, will discover five pertinent facts: 

First. A large percentage of children (variously estimated at 
from 60 per cent, to 80 per cent.) leave school before completing the 
work of the elementary grades. 

Second. While this is sometimes the result of stern necessity, it 
is often unquestionably due to the belief of parents and children that 
the training which is found outside the school is of greater industrial 
value to the pupils than that which is offered within. 

Third. There is a demand for the industrial education of those 
who are to fill the ranks of the industrial army. This demand is three- 
fold. It comes, as above hinted, from the parents, who will certainly 
continue to take their children from school in large numbers and at 
an early age it if is not met. It comes from the manufacturers, who 
are determined to secure more efficient workers. It comes from Ameri- 
can ideals of general education which require equal educational oppor- 
tunity for all — and that, we are beginning to understand, is a far dif- 
ferent thing from identical education for all. 

Fourth. Our present courses of study do little to meet this de- 
mand even where the average amount of attention is given to "manual 

Fifth. In any industrial community such, for example, as the 
state of Massachusetts, more than one-half of the industrial workers 
are engaged in occupations for which it will be practically impossible, 
for years to come, to provide specific trade training. Such training is 
possible, or may be made possible for most of the workers in the build- 
ing trades, for machinists, foundrymen, textile workers, shoemakers, 
etc., but cannot, without tremendous expense, be provided for the small 
and unclassified industries, which, however, give employment to a major 
portion of the industrial workers. 

The above I believe to be facts. To these facts I will venture to 
add six opinions: 

First. Unless industrial training is made a part of public instruc- 
tion, and that speedily, it will be undertaken by the '"business interests." 

Second. The business interests can maintain "industrial educa- 
tion" with financial benefit to themselves as well as with the more ob- 
vious advantage to the children. 

Third. Efforts made b}- the "business interests" to provide indus- 
trial education of any kind will have the distrust and the opposition of 


organized labor to a much greater extent than would similar efforts on 
the part of the public schools. 

Fourth. In the long run, the "business interests" cannot be ex- 
pected to conduct such education disinterestedly, and the children will 
receive far less benefit than they would receive in the public schools 
properly administered. 

Fifth. A majority of the children now leaving school at the age 
of fourteen, would remain in school two or three years longer if the 
manual training work were so increased and so modified as to place the 
emphasis on vocational training. 

Sixth. The school system of every city should offer, in some of its 
schools at least, for children of about 12 years, an "industrial course," 
only slightly differentiated from the regular course in other respects, 
but including a considerable amount of manual training with a vocational 
purpose, so modified that the school life of the pupils may be prolonged 
and their chances of industrial success enhanced. 

It is apparent that each fact enumerated and each opinion ex- 
pressed above might well serve as a thesis for an entire article, and the 
temptation to discuss them all is great. This temptation will be re- 
sisted, but it is no digression to note, in passing, one objection that will 
almost certainly be made to the last opinion expressed. 

There are many who are today strongly advocating industrial train- 
ing for our boys and girls, who maintain that our manual training does 
not contribute appreciably to the industrial efficiency of the pupils re- 
ceiving it. 

The report of the Massachusetts Commission on Industrial and 
Technical Education has played no small part in creating this impres- 
sion. It expresses the opinion that manual training "has been urged as 
a cultural subject, mainly useful as a stimulus to other forms of intel- 
lectual effort — a sort of mustard relish, an appetizer, to be conducted 
without reference to any industrial end." 

I so far disagree with the report as to believe that the manual 
training now given in the public schools has a real and considerable 
industrial value. This value has been overlooked partly because the 
amount of manual training given is insufficient to produce results com- 
mensurate with the great industrial need, but even more because the 
manual training which we have is seldom given to the pupils who later 
form the largest factor in the industrial problem, since they leave school, 
as above noted, before reaching the grades in which such training is 
provided. It is not the fault of our manual training that boys who 


have had the benefit of the complete elementary school course, and 
those who have taken the courses in manual training offered in our high 
schools, do not enter the ranks of the industrial army and there demon- 
strate the value of the training which they have received. Rather is 
it to the credit of such training that boys, who have had the benefit of 
it, are enabled to take other positions offering even greater opportunities 
for advancement, positions which are, nevertheless, in the broadest sense 
of the word, industrial, positions having to do not only with production 
but with distribution, accounting and advertising of the manufactured 

The fault lies not primarily in the manual training, but in the 
short-sightedness of the earlier promoters of manual training, who es- 
tablished the work in the upper grades and in the high schools and then 
confidently predicted industrial results, which in the nature of the case 
were wholly impossible, and equally of those in authority today who 
seeing the industrial need, overlook the possibilities which lie in our 
present courses and, making no attempt to modify and adapt them to 
these needs, seek some wholly new and as yet untried expedient. 

The foundation of an adequate industrial training must be laid 
in the public elementary schools by providing manual training of the 
right kind, in the right quantity, for the right pupils, and at the right 
time. It was for the purpose of gaining some practical experience 
relating to this subject that the Boston School Committee on May 6, 
1907, passed the following order, namely: "That the Superintendent 
be authorized to designate one or more boys' elementary schools in 
which the course of study may be experimentally modified for the pur- 
pose of determining in what way these schools may become more ef- 
rective in training pupils for industrial pursuits, while at the same time, 
maintaining their efficiency for preparation for high schools," In 
accordance therewith the Superintendent selected the Agassiz School, 
Jamaica Plain. 

About a week before the close of school, copies of the following 
circular were distributed among the boys who were to be in grade 
V 1 during the coming year : 


Jamaica Plain, Mass., June, 1907. 

An opportunity will be offered, next September, to fifty boys of grade VI 
in the Agassiz district, to enter a class in which the course of study is planned 
especially for boys who have an aptitude for industrial pursuits. 


This course will offer more manual training, shop arithmetic and working 
drawing, and at the same time maintain the efficiency of preparation for high 

If you wish your boy to join this class, please sign the following blank form, 
and return it to the master of the school. 

As the number who can be accommodated in this course is limited, the ear- 
liest applications will be considered first. 

This circular was signed by the principal and the director of draw- 
ing and manual training. 

Before he left Boston, for his summer vacation, the principal of the 
school had received upwards of 50 applications for membership in the 
new industrial class, and in September the class, numbering 52 boys, was 
organized, and one of the most able and experienced of the regular 
corps of manual training teachers was put in charge. To her energetic 
and intelligent effort is due, in no small degree, the success with which 
the experiment has thus far been attended. 

The class was divided into two sections of 25 boys each, and each 
section worked one hour of each school day. 

In determining the nature of the work to be done, and in selecting 
the articles to be made, one fundamental principle has served as index 
and guide: Everything must conform as closely as possible to actual 
industrial work in real life. The product must be not only useful but 
must be needed, and must be put to actual use. It must be something 
which may be produced in quantities. The method must be practical, 
and both product and method must be subjected to the same commercial 
tests, as far as possible, as apply in actual industry. 

For two years these boys had done the regular manual training 
work of grades IV and V, cardboard construction, so it was decided to 
begin the industrial work with box-making. 

It was found that pasteboard boxes, costing ^ of a cent each, 
were being used by the school department in sending out certain sup- 
plies, and the class undertook the manufacture of several hundred of 
these boxes. 

The method employed was as follows: First a sample box was 
studied and careful note was taken of its use, of the material of which 
it was made, and of the details of its construction. Especial attention 
was called to the dimensions and to the need of obtaining accurate 
results in order that all boxes might serve the purpose for which they 
were intended and also be alike. 

Each boy then made one entire box, drawing, cutting, scoring, glu- 
ing, staying corners, pasting. 


Next, by a briet talk, and with necessary demonstration, an expla;; 
nation was given of the greater economy of employing "industrial 

Jigs were made for facilitating some of the operations and for 
securing greater uniformity in the product. The class was organized 
into different groups of from two to six boys each, each group perform- 
ing one of the several operations involved in the making of the box or 
the cover. There were the box cutters, cover cutters, stayers, pasters, 
fitters, and gluers. There were those who assembled, inspected, packed 
and counted the boxes, and there were the assistant teachers — foremen 
in embryo. 

Of course this was not all done in one lesson. By the time 750 
of these boxes were made and packed ready for the supply team, the 
boys had gained at least a glimmer of light on five points of superiority 
of this, the industrial method, over the method first employed : First, 
ihat there was greater economy in the use of material. Second, that 
much time was saved, since it was not necessary to lay aside one tool 
and hunt for another at the completion of a single operation. Third, 
that the skill increased very rapidly by performing the same operation 
many times. Fourth, that a standard of accomplishment in a given time 
was established, below which no self-respecting boy wished to fall. 
Fifth, that a "good" box could not be produced if any of the group of 
boys did "bad" work. 

In passing I must note and answer one objection which some ad- 
vocates of "educational" manual training will make, namely, that the 
frequent repetition of the same movement is not educational since it 
becomes practically automatic — a matter of the spinal cord. Be that 
as it may, the bojs show an ever increasing interest and delight in their 
work as they become more and more skilful, for there is a keen joy in 
mere accomplishment which is by no means a matter of the spinal cord, 
but of an intelligence which is much higher. It should also be noted 
in this connection that, from time to time the groups were changed so 
that, in the end, all the boys had performed several, if not all, of the 
different operations. 

The second project was a box smaller and more finely constructed 
than the first. Sixteen hundred of these were made. 

In speaking of the methods used in making the later projects it is 
only necessary to note two points in which they differed from those 
first employed : First, in the earlier project the groups were chosen 


with reference to the ability of individual boys and the difficulty of the 
several operations. In the later, the groups were formed by taking the 
boys in order, just as they came, and a "foreman" was appointed for 
each group. 

Second. A system of "check" was introduced which made it pos- 
sible to trace poor work to its author — thus fixing responsibility. After 
the completion of the second project some calculations were made to 
ascertain the increase of efficiency and it was found to be about 400 
per cent. 

Subsequent projects have been vellum-covered pencil boxes, for 
use in high school drawing classes, and "Harvard" covers of vellum 
with leather backs and corners. Of the former about 475, and of 
the latter about 800 were made. 

This is a brief outline of the work thus far done. The time is 
taken from the manual training, drawing and arithmetic, but it is 
believed that little is lost. The boys are required to keep careful rec- 
ord of time, material and output and to make computations based 

A spelling list of 60 words has already been sent to the regular 
teacher (an addition to the vocabulary of the boys), including the 
names of tools, materials and processes. The word "industrial" is one, 
and in it the boys are much interested. 

In a two or three years' course, the manufacture of articles of 
other materials will undoubtedly be undertaken, and drawing, mechan- 
ical and freehand, will become a part of the work, as will also design. 
It is rather early to speak with certainty about the interest with which 
the boys will follow this work, but the indications are all extremely 
favorable. The boys do not seem to object to giving their work to the 
city, but rather appear to be pleased that they can contribute something 
to its support, and that, in these days, is of no small consequence. Inter- 
est seems to be awakened and held by the mere productive activity — by 
the industrial processes themselves, and it has not been necessary, thus 
far, to bring in the motive of ownership, which is prominent in the 
regular manual training work. The boys were interested when the 
supply team called to transfer their boxes to the supply roms. Some 
rivalry has been noted between different groups and some boys have 
asked to be allowed to work at home. 

What are the results to be? Frankly this is an experiment and 
a verv new one and we prefer not to predict results. It is hoped that 



the training received will itself add something to the efficiency of the 
boys, but it is also hoped that it will so atract them to industrial pur- 
suits that they will seek admission to more complete industrial courses 
which may be established later. 

It is hoped that the experiment may demonstrate that the place to 
begin industrial training is in the public schools, and that in this way 
only can our schools be made truly democratic. Until very recently 
they have offered equal opportunity for all to receive one kind of edu- 
cation, but what will make them democratic is to provide opportunity 
for all to receive such education as will fit them equally well for their 
particular life work. 

It is hoped that the experiment may show that differentiation should 
be made possible for our pupils before the end of the present elementary 
school course — as is indeed already the case in Boston with those boys 
and girls who elect a classical education. This need for an earlier dif- 
ferentiation is based on psychological as well as social reasons and is 
gaining wide recognition. 

If the experiment at Jamaica Plain provokes discussion and induces 
others to seek, within the public school system, a solution of the prob- 
lem of vocational training instead of handing it over to the business 
interests, at least one important result will have been achieved. 



Cheshire Lowton Boone. 

IT may be well to review concisely the reasons for using paper and 
cardboard construction and to state in what part of the elemen- 
tary school such work will be of most service. 

(a) After the rather free and unrestricted sand table exercises of 
the first two years, there should be taught in the third and fourth 
grades such things as will demand accurate construction and a good 
deal of planning by the children. They should learn to measure with 
skill and rapidity and to cut material with accuracy. The problems 
offered should permit of some decoration and should be immediately 
useful. Such things as desk pads, portfolios, simple booklets, calendars, 
envelopes and covers, are suitable. They involve the constant use of 
the ruler, a variety of processes, and the things when done are at once 
available for use. 

(b) The reason for putting this work into the upper primary 
grades is, that children at that period show utilitarian leanings which 
should be satisfied with a material that is possible from the technical 
standpoint. Secondly, some decoration and lettering should be intro- 
duced as a foundation for the future shop and craft work. Thirdly, it 
is quite desirable that the rudiments of good workmanship and method 
be implanted early. The type of exercises, indicated in this paper 
seems to more nearly fulfill requirements than any other one kind, and 
the writer firmly believes it advisable to handle one class of problems 
long enough to achieve a degree of expertness. 

(c) One finds in existing courses of study several forms of con- 
struction, materials and exercises, which are harmless enough in them- 
selves, but have so narrow a range as to be not worth using. Bas- 
ketry, to be distinguished, should be pursued by older (grammar) 
pupils. Weaving, as primary children must do it, means practically 
the making of small rugs. There is the possibility of a little design, but 
after the second rug the variety ends. Pottery-making also should come 
a little later to be most profitable. To get the most out of clay work, 
children should be old enough to appreciate the kind of design possible 
in and for clay and to devise forms and decorations for themselves.^ 

^Copyright, 1907, Cheshire L. Boone. 
^Pottery will be the subject of the next paper. 



Aside from the condition that most constructed things should have- 
a utilitarian raison d'etre, there is in all cases some desirable sequence 
of processes to be observed. Most of the things herein suggested are 
made of cardboard (strawboard) covered with cover or bogus paper or 
book-linen. Book-linen is difficult to fold, measure and paste; it should 
be used sparingly at first. 

The first problem may be the making of a picture mount, calendar 
support or small blotter. The foundation is a rectangle of stiff card- 
board covered with paper of good tone. The cards should be cut to 
size. Cover paper, in pieces large enough to complete the article, is 
given out with the card. The following are typical directions (to be 
illustrated by drawings on the blackboard) : 

( 1 ) The sheet of cover paper must furnish two pieces, one about 
y^" larger each way than the card, and the second exactly the same 
size as the card (Plate I, A and B). 

(2) Lay the given cardboard on the cover paper near a corner, 
leaving the proper margin, and trace around it. Measure the right-hand 
margin on the other two sides (dotted lines) and cut on them. This 
is the front cover (A). 

(3) Lay the cardboard on corner of remaining piece of covering 
and trace around; cut on traced line. This is the back covering (B). 

(4) Cut off corners of piece with margins so that cut does not 
quite touch the corners of tracing (C). 

(5) Lay cardboard to fit the tracing, fold over the marginal laps 
and paste^ these down. No paste is to be used on the inside of the cov- 
ering (D). 

(6) Cut off 54" from a side and an end of the back cover (B) 
to make it a very little smaller than the card and paste on the back. 
Use paste only on the edges'. 

These directions cover the fundamentals of covering and pasting. 
If the object is a calendar, some brace or other device may be added 
for keeping it upright on the table or for hanging. 


The desk pad is made of cardboard about 9" x 12". This should 
be covered after the manner indicated above; in this respect it is the 
same problem as the calendar, but in large size. In addition there are 

^ Common library paste, flour paste or mucilage. The first is best to handle. 

^ It is suggested that large surfaces be not covered with paste. It is hard 
to accomplish without liquid paste and long brushes. For most purposes in the 
grades it is not necessary. 









' J L i 





corners to be made to hold the blotter. These must be constructed 
so the.v will fit the corner of the pad snugly and not tear or come loose 
when the blotter is inserted. There are several types, of which these 
are the most useful for this and problems to follow. The first one 
(E), is simplest for the desk pads, since it is to be shown on one side 
only — the front. Although strong cover paper will do very well, this 
corner ought to be constructed of book linen for strength. It is made 
from a 3" square, creased on two sides J^" from the edge and along the 
diagonal of the new square made by the first folds. One corner is cut 
as shown by full line. Four such corners are needed for each pad. 
They are to be pasted on like this (G, 1 and 2). A better and more 
workmanlike way is to put on the corner before the back covering is 
attached, which piece then hides the flaps (G 3). The pad is com- 
pleted by cutting a blotter, somewhat smaller than the pad and sticking 
it under the folded corner pockets. 


The typical portfolio Is made of two very stiff covered cardboards 
attached to a hinge of tough paper or book linen. The simplest con- 
struction is to cover the two halves separately as for the desk pad, and 
fasten together with a hinge wide enough to allow about V between 
the boards and ^" to paste on each edge, and long enough to fold 
over inside and meet to make a hinge of double thickness (H). The 
doted lines indicate unseen edges of board covers and show how much 
of the hinge is attached to sides. 

There are innumerable varieties of this problem and related ones 
— sometimes the hinge is attached to the bare cardboards and the whole 
then covered. In such case each half should be covered separately to 
give the hinge full play. Covering would then be cut with margins on 
three sides, the fourth being pasted over the hinge and coming even 
with the edge of the cardboard (dotted line, J). The inside covering is 
pasted last. 

If the article is to be used for writing materials, a blotter and 
pocket are desirable. The corner piece described (E) is suitable, but 
it must be attached to the inside lining, not pasted over the cardboard 
as in the desk pad. The pocket to hold paper and envelopes is also 
attached to the lining. The pocket piece is cut about 1^" longer in 
width and length than the finished pocket (Plate II, L). Corners are 
cut out leaving four flaps. The inside lining for portfolio is then 
pasted to one of the end flaps (M), and to each of the side flaps is pasted 






b^- -/rl 

-I - 

1 1 


1 1 

I ( 

I I 


Two oi Vliese 







a three-fold hinge (N). The pocket is then folded up to the lining 
and the other end of the hinge pasted to the back of this lining (O). 
The whole is then ready to paste inside the portfolio. In some cases 
a double corner (Plate I, F or G), which looks the same both inside 
and out, is desirable as a decorative feature. A portfolio may have 
flaps inside to prevent loose papers from falling out. Such flaps should 
be made from single thicknesses of tough paper, preferably the same 
as cover material, and should be attached to the inside lining before 
it is pasted in. A more simple scheme and one which may be used in 
addition to flaps is to fasten cord or tape to the three open sides and 
tie the portfolios when closed. 

A next step, which is really simple book making, is the manufac- 
ture of a portfolio or pamphlet tied at the back and with a separate 
hinge for each side of the cover. Each side consists of a narrow strip, 
wide enough to be punched for tying and the cover proper (P). The 
two sides of the cover are made separately and punched. The leaves 
or papers to be bound are then punched to correspond to the holes in 
the cover and are tied between the covers. 

Other similar things like pencil cases, memorandum pads or books, 
autograph albums, card cases, calendars, needle books and innumerable 
variations of the portfolio or note book idea can be easily devised along 
the lines above suggested. The covering, hinges and corners may be 
so selected as to make pleasing combinations of tone. 

Ample time should be used to make the things, that they may be 
durable. All dictated work is best done after drawings on the black- 


None of the work, save the desk pad, is employed to advantage 
if design or decoration is not a part of the problem. Every portfolio 
should be for definite use. This purpose and the child's name or other 
information should be lettered on the outside. To make the lettering 
more effective and also hold the design together a simple border or dec- 
orative stamp may be included (Plate III). 

The whole question of design and decoration for the problems here 
mentioned is one of use and necessity. Children in the intermediate 
grades are not able to do complex patterns or to deal with fine page 
or cover design. Their conception of the project must be a practical 
one and the teacher's statement of what is desired should include the 
necessary elements of decoration, together with as little of the purely 



■ornamental as possible. Much inspiration and help may be derived from 
the inspection of current book and magazine covers — the simplest ones. 
All lettering should be done with plain gothic capitals (Plate III). 
The title name, school, etc., should be arranged symmetrically on the 
■cover with no attempt at unique composition. The title makes one group 
by itself and should be most prominent by virtue of its size or color. 
"The color of both lettering and design (border) should be quiet, pref- 
erably of a tone similar to that of the cover, but darker in value. 
Water color must be used for this work ; crayon rubs off and gives the 
work a messy appearance. 











W I L L I A M R. W A R D. 

"The millenniums of change through zvhich human invention has 
passed in the transforming of a rude stick or frame to fit on a mans 
back, or a burden strap to fit across his forehead, or a pad to rest on 
his head, into the latest devices for transportation by land or by sea, 
constitute one of the world's activities." — The Origins of Invention, 
by Otis T. Mason. 

THE following statements briefly outlining the work done by a 
class of sixth grade boys and girls are not written for the pur- 
pose of justifying or discrediting any particular system of man- 
ual training, but rather to chronicle the actual work of a class in the 
hope that someone may find inspiration in the ideas suggested. 

The subject of colonization was under discussion in the history 
class and since transportation bears such close relation to the general 
topic of colonization, it was decided by the manual training class to 
make a study of some of the phases in the development of the means of 
transportation. The general subject of transportation was divided 
into two parts — transportation by land and transportation by water. 
Transportation by land was the particular part of the general topic 
chosen for study. 

Among some of the first questions that naturally suggested them- 
selves were: When did transportation begin? What were the ob- 
jects transported? What were the means by which this transportation 
was accomplished? Obviously transportation began when man first 
carried some article of food from the place where he had found it to 
his place of abode, either for his own future use or for the use of his 
mate. The object transported may have been some wild berries, some 
nuts, or perchance a small animal which he had killed ; and his means 
of transportation were undoubtedly his hands. 

^The problem described above was worked out with a class consisting of 
eleven girls and fourteen boys in the training department of the State Nor- 
mal School of New Paltz, N. Y. The shop contained twenty benches. The 
present sixth grade is working upon a series of models showing the develop- 
ment of water transportation. 




Should we continue our investigations further, we should probably 
find man creating a shelter and slaying larger animals, and with this 
advance in his ability to cope with his environment comes a new prob- 
lem. How is he to carry the fruits of his victory to his home, if "home" 
we may call it? Figure 1, a and b, suggests a simple "drag" or "sledge" 
which may have been used to transport for a short distance things 


which were too heavy to be carried. This "drag" consists of two poles 
on which has been constructed a platform by binding cross pieces to 
the poles with vines or roots.^ 

When man first learned to use the roller will probably never be 
known, but it must have been far back in prehistoric times. Figure 1, 
c and d are modifications of the use of the roller in transportation. This 
roller, the first step towards the wheel and axle, was at first probably 
a simple log tapered at the ends and held between crotched sticks. The 
present day wheel-barrow is a modification of this device. 

While it is not the province of this article to show the causes for 
each succeeding device in the evolution of our present means of trans- 
portation or even to show why man came to discard the whole log as a 
roller and use only a cross section of it and thus employ the wheel and 
axle, yet it is not unlikely that he may have found it difficult to roll the 
log over obstructions like stones or stumps and have hit upon the idea 
of cutting away the center leaving only the ends the original size, or 
the necessity of using it between trees may have caused him to shorten 

^The North American Indians used the device marked (b) in transport- 
ing their wigwams and other baggage from place to place. 



the log from time to time. The devices thus obtained may have sug- 
gested the cross-sections as wheels which were probably fastened to 
smaller logs as axles. In this device, regardless of the way it may have 
been determined, the axle revolved with the wheel. Later the axle was 


held fast, the wheels only turning. Figure 1, e and f, are device.^ of the 
latter kind. 

Figure 2 shows a four-wheeled vehicle but the wheels are still cross- 
sections of a log, while Figure 3 shows a wagon the wheels of which 
are made by using the hub, spokes, etc. "The progress in dev-elopment 
here represented is shown in the construction of the wheel. The 
spcked wheel however was undoubtedly used long before the four- 
\Cheeled wagon was invented.^ 

"Interna ticnal Encyclopedia. 



Figure 4 shows one of the highest types of modern mears of trans- 
portation — the freight car. 

At least two methods of class instruction are presented by a 
problem such as is here suggested, namely, the individual and the group 
model. The "drags" and "rollers" shown in Figure 1 were constructed 
by individuals, the small carts by two pupils w^orking together and the 


wagon, with spoked wheels by four pupils, while the freight car was 
made by a group of at least ten. 

Many problems of the industrial world were met and discussed. 
The four boys working on the wagon being unable to agree about some 
detail of its construction declared a strike and refused to w^ork together. 
The instructor immediately became the committee of arbitration, heard 
the statements of opposing parties, adjusted the differences and set the 
machinery in motion again. The construction of the car gave opportu- 
nity for a division of labor. Four pupils made the trucks, two pre- 
pared the timbers for the frame work, and two framed and put them 
together, while others made the siding, floor, or roof. 

Problems in mechanics were found at every turn. One example 
will serve as an illustration. In studying the freight cars at the rail- 
road station, the trusses under the car attracted especial attention and 
called forth many inquiries. After their name had been given the ques- 
tion arose as to their purpose. A simple experiment like the one shown 
in Figure 5 soon cleared the matter up and many places where the 
truss is used were called to mind and given by different pupils. 

Working sketches of some of the models were made by pupils be- 
fore starting their problem and further completed as the work pro- 



pressed. A simple working drawing of the car was made by the teacher 
after the proportions had been determined by pupils who had previ- 
ously measured one of the freight cars at the railroad station. 

Projects of this kind do not call for accuracy of construction and 
hence aid only incidentally in acquiring skill or technique, nevertheless 
every cart, wagon or car may be made workable or complete in itself. 


Couple this fact with the thought content of the subject and it will be 
readily seen that every pupil has gained in power to think and to do. 

Many teachers of manual training undoubtedly refrain from a study 
of this kind because of the increased difficulty of conducting a class 
which is allowed to work along such original lines, for it cannot be de- 
nied that it is much more difficult to manage a class under these circum- 
stances than when they are working upon the individual model, but as 
Prof. Charles. R. Richards has so well said, "what is impracticable today 
is accomplished tomorrow." Moreover is it not true that when the 
child is given a large measure of freedom he gets the opportunity to 
exercise his originalitj' — that quality of the individual which we so 
much desire to develop? 

The interest and enthusiasm shown by members of the class in exam- 
ining works of reference for illustrations and descriptions of primitive 
carts as well as their eagerness to observe and to report concerning dif- 
ferent types of freight cars would convince the most skeptical of the 
value of a study of this kind. 


Bex Wiley Johnson. 

SOME three years ago the need arose in the fourth grade for a 
more vigorous and adaptable form of handwork than the use 
of raffia. As the children of this grade based much of their 
work upon local geography, history, and the development of native 
industries, of which lumbering is chief, the use of thin wood with sim- 
ple tools was suggested. 

We had seen children of this age use a coping saw sucessfuUy in 
Miss Langley's classes at the School of Education, Chicago University, 
and in Mr. W. J. Standley's work in the Y. M. C. A. day classes, at 
Portland, Oregon. Our problem was to devise a suitable equipment 
for the regular teacher to use with forty-eight children in the ordinary 
classroom, and a course of work, teachable in her inexperienced hands, 
of real merit, educationally, in the development of the child. After 
experimenting a term or two in different schools, the following equip- 
ment and course was devised. The unusual interest and delight of the 
children in this work, together with the success of the teacher in pre- 
senting it, led to its adoption for all the fourth-grade rooms in the 
city, about fifty in number. 

' Copyright, 1908, by B. W. Johnson. 



There is much similarity in this work to that of the Eva Rodhe Sys- 
tem, first taught in the Praktiska Arbetsskola in Gothenburg in 1891. 
The use of a fret or coping saw for most of the cutting, the use of a 
pattern or template laid on the thin wood by the child and marked 
around, and the use of toys for models are points in common. The 


course followed here, however, requires many less tools, is used in an 
ordinary school room of forty-eight pupils and not in a specially equipped 
shop with only fifteen or twenty pupils, as in Gotherburg, also less con- 
sideration is given to the sequence of model and tools and for mechan- 
ical and geometrical accuracy. 

The equipment consists of 48 coping saws, 48 saw tables, 48 iron 
clamps, 2", to hold the table on the desk, 12 small tack hammers, 12 
half-round cabinet files, 12 eagle compasses No. 576, 12 Sloyd knives, 
6 Stanley try squares, V'Yii 6 brad awls ^V"' ^"d 1 pair of Bernard's 
cutting pliers. For supplies the following is required: Wire brads 
y^" and Yi" No. 20, liquid glue j,-^ pint, soft iron wire No. 16, sand 
paper No. 1, cottonwood boards ^''' x 6" x 12". Cottonwood is used 
because the cheapest available wood for this purpose. Bass and yellow 
poplar would be better, having less stringy fibre. 

This equipment is kept in a chest ISi^'' x 18" x 30", that rolls 
easily on casters. The saws and clamps are kept in 6 tray-like boxes, 





COPING SAW WORK.— Seattle Public Schools. 


The Tools, their care. 
Saw, why it cuts, etc. 
Pencil, Ruler, Patterns. 
Laying out work, econo- 
my of material, grain of 
wood, its strength. File. 
Sandpaper — kinds to use 
on a block. 

Try-square, Knife, 

Hammer — how to use. 





Construction. "Putting to- 
gether." Awl — its use. 
Brads — sizes. Glue — 
what it is, why it holds. 

Construction. Movable 

parts — mechanical mo- 


1. Saw out animal 
forms. Bear. (Have 
pupils understand 
what they make. 


4. Stand. 



Balancing Hors». 
(Why he balances. 
Physical law — ex- 
plain ships, ice- 
bergs, circus rider, 

7. Horse and Cart. 

(Class direction in 
making wagon.) . 

8. Feeding Chicken. 

10. "Dinkey Bird." 

Accurate! 11. Pencil Sharpener. 

(Require accurate 
drawing and meas- 

13. Toy Furniture. Bench. 
Tables, Chairs, Cra- 
dles, etc. 

2 and 3. (The pupil to select ar 
to make. 


5. Make different kinds to suit 
vise a new support. 

7a. Optionals: Four- 
wheeled Cart. 

9. Wood-choppers, or 


10a. Optionals: Ath 

(Figures may be painted with watei 

(Egg crates 
work. Erki 

12. Calendar! 

(For design, consider with the class 
Different pieces may be made 

Note: Other problems may be added by teacher or pupil if suitable to the 
group. The pupil should always progress in his choosing. 



COPING SAW WORK.— Seattle Public Schools. 




nlfrom home patterns or pictures of others 

'ide Maps or Pic- 



Kind of ■ tree, its use. 


Use a large drawing to 
show just how to place 

Leaf and branch, may be the pattern on wood, 

ejsing scraps of wood. See who can de- 

6a. Pulleys. Weather- 
1 vanes (optional). 


Where does it grow? 

Brads, 3^" No. 20. 
Iron Wire, No. 16. 
Small Stone. 

Light House. 

Brass Tacks. 

llgar boxes make good material for home 
lOi: work.) 


Large drawing — pupils to 
copy by dictation on pa- 
per, then on the board. 

Large drawing to show 
the "lay out." 
Patterns used. 

Large drawing of cart. 
Pupils work from It by 
directions. Show how to 
"lav out." 

Cottonwood or Cigar Box 
Wood { red cedar). 


[ itions of real furniture and reduce in size. 
i children.) 


drawing of sup- 
Patterns for fig- 

Large drawing of parts- 
patterns as Indicated. 

Cottonwood or Cedar or Large drawing. Pupils 
Spruce. copy. 

Cottonwood or Cedar or 

Large drawing. Pupils 



and these with the saw tables can be distributed by the six monitors in 
less than two minutes and the whole room be at work in less than five 
minutes. The cost of the outfit complete is about $35. 

One period of sixty minutes per week is given for this work. The 
children ask for more time and many of them buy their own saws with 
a dozen blades for twenty-five cents at any hardware store, and make 
many interesting forms at home, using material taken from empty 
cigar, fruit and grocery boxes picked up at the corner grocerj% Home 
work of this sort is encouraged by having such work exhibited for the 
other pupils to see and comment upon. 

The course followed is shown in the diagram. The purpose of 
the work here, as in all other grades and forms of handwork, is to give 
educational direction to the child's natural constructive tendencies by 
using forms that are of interest to the pupil, and taken from his play, 
home, school and the industrial life about him. 

The effort is made to have the forms chosen come to the pupil as 
problems in construction to be solved by him, and in the solution of 
which he will acquire skill, the power to create, and a growing appre- 
ciation of the constructive work in the world about him. The skillful 
teacher will relate this work to the other school subjects whenever prac- 
ticable and teach the elements of good form and proportion, the need 
of drawing, the written language of form, the value of number in 
accurate application, and develop an awakening interest in the indus- 
tries that are founded on these materials and processes. In fact, this 
last may easily be the leading avenue of approach in placing this sub- 
ject in the curriculum. 

Referring to the diagram the first column indicates in outline what 
we are to teach. The tools and some skill in their use and a knowledge 
of the limitations of the material are pre-requisite to any individual 
power of expression or creation. For the sake of anatj'sis, the tools and 
the processes are grouped, and the sequence largely based on the idea 
of construction rather than on tool dexterity. The tools are few and are 
quickly mastered, but the possibilities in form and combinations of parts 
keeps the child mentally alert to solve the mechanical problems that 
come to him. As we have to deal with classes, and the same knowledge 
about the tools and the correct processes is necessary to every child, the 
means (given in the next column) used to "convey this knowledge is a 
class model which all the children make under the careful supervision 
of the teacher to see that every child is forming the right habit in the 




use of the tools, and understands what he is doing and why he does it. 

The next step and a very important one, and the basis, I believe, 
of any sucessful method of education, is to give the child an opportunity 
to work out individually his newly acquired ideas in a field of choice 
as free as conditions will permit. He now faces a new situation. He 
must determine how to meet it. It is this repeated experience in the 
course that will aid in developing his power of initiative, and begin to 
form a habit of successful attack. Such a habit may even have a moral 
significance in the other experiences of life, though seemingly not re- 
lated to this one technical experience. 

To accomplish this, problems for individual selection are given as 
shown in the diagram. To aid the teacher and pupil, these problems 
are divided or grouped according to their dominant interest as well as 
according to their mechanical and technical difficulty. No attempt is 
made to "split hairs" in this anaylsis, but such problems are selected as 
will emphasize what the child should know and also tax his ability in 
applying it as far as he has been taught in the process. That we may 
not forget the child, the four dominant interests — play, home, school and 
industry interests, that actuate us all in anything we do, are given and 
the problems arranged under each according to which one it seems to 
serve best. Naturally in the fourth grade the play interest is dominant. 
But we must see to it that the others are not forgotten for the sake of 
the man and woman of tomorrow. 

The remaining two colunms, as indicated, help the teacher in the 
choice of material and its use, and to know what drawing should be 
presented and executed. 

These problems for individual selection may be changed, or others 
added or substituted by both teacher and pupil, provided they are suit- 
able to the group in which they are placed. Thus the teacher is free 
to make the course meet local conditions and carry out her own initia- 
tive, untrammeled by a series of set models. Her only limitations are 
those imposed by her lack of skill, the requirements of the material and 
the best accepted processes used to embody the idea in that material. 

This plan also permits the bright pupil to work to full capacity 
unchecked by the, dullest pupil and gives the slow pupil as much oppor- 
tunity as he can use; for as soon as a pupil finishes the class piece he 
goes to work at once upon the problem of his choice. If he is bright 
and capable, wise advice wall lead him to select a problem well worth 
his ^ility. In fact, he may make several pieces before the class as a 









whole is ready to take up the next step together in the next class exer- 

The sequence followed is indicated by the figures. This sequence 
is not one of technique solely, but of a constructive idea that passes 
from simple forms to more complicated expressions, and the process 
is a means to this end. 

The writer fully appreciates the difficulties of this plan of pre- 
senting many models that may be made compared with giving a sequence 



of eight, ten or twelve models to be carefully followed. The limits of 
this paper do not permit of further detail concerning the way the point 
of view and methods of work are given to the teachers. The few of 
the teachers who do not for one reason or another get hold of this plan 
do no worse than under the old formal lock-step method, and many 
who do succeed with it are able to accomplish much more than for- 
•merly, both in the amount and quality of the work, as well as in devel- 
oping a greater interest and power on the part of the pupil. 








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This diagram course is the "chart" for the teacher "to steer by." 
The necessary direction for making these models is given by means of 
hectograph sketches, some of which are here illustrated, and by monthly 
meetings with the teachers. 

The amount of interest a child may take in any activity is not 
always a sure indication of its success, as an educational means. But 
interest is the key that unlocks the world, and the line of greatest effort 







jta(///t'/A (//y/o ^ ^ >j 







is that of deepest interest. The touchstone to life comes when the self- 
conscious mind perceives that interest awakened in one line, in the last 
analysis, touches all others, and that we may interest ourselves in any 
good thing we wish to. 

That the children, girls and boys alike, are interested one or two 
instances will illustrate : In the mid-year a room lost its regular teacher 
and a substitute took her place for the balance of the term. The cop- 



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ing saw lesson came a day or so later, before she could find out what 
and how to carry on the work of her predecessor, so she frankly told 
the children they would omit the lesson for that week. They protested, 
assuring her they could manage it all right and show her what to do. 
She was wise and anxious to learn from any source, so the hour went 
off with everyone very busy — profitable to all concerned. 

In another school meritorious conduct and attendance is rewarded 



by stars conspicuously placed, and when thirteen unbroken spots are 
covered they get a half holiday Friday. It happened the particular Fri- 
day was particular in other ways, and they would miss their coping saw 
hour, so they voted to spend the holiday in school sawing wood. 

The soul satisfying cry, "it works," the cry that opens the way to 
still greater accomplishment, startled a principal in her office, the other 
morning, as a small boy rushed in, face and eyes shining and held towards 
her his "athlete" that would "perform" as he had made it to do. There 
is great value in some of our school work having a standard of excel- 
lence that even a small boy can appreciate. 

In conclusion the writer claims no originality for this work other 
than its adaptation to this situation. Most of the models used and the 
methods of the course and its analysis are the result of observations 
made of what others have done along similar lines. It is not the end, 
but only a beginning. 

John C. Brodhead, 

A FEW years ago the writer assisted in collating facts regarding 
manual training, obtained from superintendents of large school 
systems It was noticeable how few cities had any form of 
organized hand work in the lower grades. Doubtless most of these 
cities were well supplied with kindergartens, their merit being every- 
where conceded, and the reports showed that in the upper grades, and in 
regular and special high schools, manual work was either being given 
the same place as other work or was to be inaugurated very shortly, or 
else regret was expressed that circumstances prevented its adoption. 
Little comment was made upon the lack in the lower grades and one is 
led to question why a subject so appreciated in kindergarten, upper 
grades and high schools, should be so calmly ignored in the lower 
grades, especially when we consider that the motor instincts are strong- 
est and most susceptible of training in these very grades, and that, in 
many instances, our pupils leave school before reaching the grades in 
which woodworking is offered. The answer to this question would 
seem to be that school authorities, generally, feel that it is impossible to 
afford expensive equipment and materials and special instruction in the 
numerous classes of the lower grades, and that there is no form of man- 
ual training, of educative character, suitable to these grades which does 
not require such expense. 

Most of us know, and all should know, of the interesting work done 
throughout the grades in such schools as the Horace Mann of Teachers 
College, and the School of Education, Chicago University. Their work 
has been described in these pages again and again. But its variety, and 
a knowledge of the conditions under which it is produced, may sometimes 
discourage rather than encourage the superintendent as he goes back to 
his classes of fifty children so often taught by overworked and under- 
paid teachers. Therefore because modeling is thought to be too dirty ; 
basketry, too expensive ; weaving, too individual for class work, etc., and 
because all these lines of endeavor are supposed to require the services 
of special teachers, I shall come at once to the line of work mentioned 
in the title of this paper and attempt to show how cardboard construc- 
tion is adapted for introduction in the lower grades. 



Most superintendents or supervisors of the manual arts, in looking 
over the various text-books of cardboard work, will concede that the 
subject can be taught to large classes bj' the regular teachers and with 
a small outlay for materials and equipment. The patience of the chil- 
dren is not taxed, and noise and dirt are practically eliminated. The 
objection, when any is raised, seems to be that the time spent in drawing 
and cutting out forms at the dictation of a teacher is not educative 
enough to warrant the expenditure of time. It is this objection that it 
is the purpose of this paper to meet, in the hope that more schools may 
introduce such a valuable line of manual training when they cannot 
carry on still better but much more expensive lines of work. Even if 
the choice were to lie between no manual training and cardboard work 
at its worst, I should still recommend its introduction in the lower 
grades. The facility gained, in such work, in the use of scissors, com- 
passes, triangles, and especially the rule, is of great value. It is difficult 
to induce a boy in the seventh grade to listen attentively to instructions 
in the use of the rule. However ignorant of it he may be, he is "above" 
studying it. In the fourth grade, however, this same rule is still enough 
of a mj^stery so that he is willing to take it seriously and really become 
intelligently acquainted witih it. 

Most any of the many excellent text-books on the market may be 
used successfully by the thoughtful teacher. The chief criticism that 
can be made of them is that there is lacking in them the elements of 
individuality in work, change of methods of instruction as pupils ad- 
vance, opportunity for design, etc. The writer will endeavor to make 
some very practical suggestions in the hope that they may be taken right 
into the classroom and used with any text-book to breathe new life into 
the work. 

Upon the manner in which the lessons are conducted depends the 
value of the work and attention is called to the following suggestions 
as to how the work may prove broad, interesting, educative and of in- 
dustrial value, not as leading directly to a trade, although it could do 
that, but as imparting an interest in construction and things mechanical. 

Begin the formal work in the fourth grade preceded, if possible, by paper 
folding and cutting, tablet laying, etc., in the first three grades, but the lat- 
ter is not essential. 

A year's work with a class of fifty requires about 150 sheets of bristol 
board and four balls of twine or six tubes of paste, according to the grade, 
at a total cost of about $2.00 for the class. One equipment of 8 punches, and 
4 dozen each of scissors, triangles, compass attachments, and rules, will serve 
several classes and cost about $25.00. 


At the outset the teacher should appreciate and, whenever opportunity 
offers, point out to the children the relation between cardboard work and the 
industries of the world. Such a relationship is quickly seen in the case of 
sloyd or manual training in wood in connection with house building, pattern 
making, furniture construction and cabinet-making. In the same way it 
should be noted that cardboard construction can be made illustrative of many 
of the uses of sheet materials. In the case of tinsmithing, cornice and venti- 
lating work, steel frame, bridge and elevated railway construction, the units 
are always formed from flat sheets, sometimes very thin, getting their ultimate 
strength from being shaped by bending or flanging in various ways. All this 
can be illustrated with cardboard, either by having angle irons, I-beams, 
channel irons, etc. imitated directly or incidently as other work progresses. 
The methods of paper making might be described, and mention made of the 
part they play, in causing us to cut with the grain, the strips of cardboard for 
the napkin ring, circular box, etc. 

Naturally drawing plays a large part in cardboard construction, and its 
difficulty, as each model is laid out, increases only with the difficulty of the 
model, which is not true in woodworking where the drawing of an object may 
be very simple but its construction very difficult. At first one must be satis- 
fied with the following of dictation, being sure that the dictation is logical and 
clear and that the following is exact. The drawing, to scale, should be put 
on the board exactly as the children are expected to work, one line at a time 
in their presence, putting on dimensions with proper conventions, these not 
to appear on the cardboard. The board ruler should be graduated to inches, 
halves and quarters. 

While not teaching formal definitions, care should be taken that correct 
terms are used by teacher and pupils and that the qualities of the various 
forms are recognized. A few moments should be spent, during each drawing 
lesson, in reviewing the various forms revealed by the construction lines of the 
current problem. 

There may here be introduced simple work in design, such as the appli- 
cation of borders to candle shades, and trays, or of panelling to screens, etc. 

After a few weeks, the method of instruction should occasionally call for 
the making, by the pupil, of a working drawing on paper with all dimensions 
properly added, following the work of the teacher at the board. The models 
should then be made of cardboard, with but little direction, the board work 
having been erased and the pupils working from their own drawings. 

Right here a word about accuracy — that bug-a-bear of the conscientious 
teacher. Accuracy is all a question of relativit3,\ No one of us can cut out 
a piece of cardboard exactly 6" square. All that should be attempted with 
the children is to raise their standard of accuracy. This can more effectively 
be done by the demands of the work than by any amount of preaching or 
scolding. That is, a tag %" too long does not offend a pupil, but a traj', one 
of whose sides is Vs" higher than the other at the corner, will offend him and 
he will try to avoid such results in the future; that is, his standard of accu- 
racy has been raised. 

In connection with the tying up of models, a few simple knots should be 
taught, especially the square and bow knots. About one person in ten knows 


a square knot from a "granny" and only one in one hundred can tie one the 
first time. Very few boys can tie a bow knot. These and other knots can be 
taught with great interest and no equipment. 

About at this stage, thoughtful work is induced by having pupils design 
and make working drawings for mounts for pictures, brought in by them- 
selves, or develop envelopes to contain cards of stated dimensions. 

Note the variety of thought in carrying out a lesson about as follows: 
Display a pasteboard box, such as pencils come in, with its cover. Have a 
few children at the board, and the rest at their seats, make sketches of the 
developments adding laps and dimensions of all parts. Then have over-all 
dimensions figured and area and contents of box, if possible. The box should 
tjien be made from cardboard. When this can be done without constant lead- 
ing questions on the part of the teacher, much progress has been made. 

By this time more design can be employed in the modification of the out- 
line of parts of models such as backs of match scratchers, calendar mounts, 
etc., and sides of square, hexagonal and octagonal trays, taboret models, etc. 
The best way to secure good results in this contour design, and to eliminate 
tediousness, is to have the experimentation done with paper cutting, the best 
resulting design to be traced upon the cardboard model. 

An exercise which would demand the employment of all varieties of 
previously outlined methods would be to ask the pupils each to design an 
octagonal tray not to exceed say 6" in diameter, sides to be made of pleas- 
ing proportions and contour, and to put an appropriate design in the centre 
of the tray or on the sides. Method of fastening sides, (tying, lacing or 
pasting) to be left to pupils' initiative. Preliminary sketches should be made 
and, when satisfactory', followed by working drawings before cardboard 
model is made. 

If the teacher has come to be in sympathy with his work, its culminat- 
ing value can be reached by having it illustrate other school work. Models 
of public or historic buildings can be made and there may be constructed rep- 
resentations of the Pyramids, Washington Monument, vehicles, railway cars, 
various styles of dwellings, etc., indefinitely. 

All through the course, simple lettering should be taught in connection 
with the names of models and pupils. Begin with capitals of uniform height 
established by light guide lines. Have the letters of the simplest form, the 
attention being devoted to good proportioning and spacing. Later the dis- 
tinction between upper and lower case (capital and small) letters may be 
taught and the latter introduced into the work. 

The children should know the name of each model before beginning work 
on it and should review its shape and characteristics before passing to the 

There is a difference between the line of thought used in working up a 
development or a working drawing and that used in making an object from 
such development or working drawing. This should be understood by the in- 
structor and might be brought to the attention of advanced pupils. In the one 
case, the work is all from detailed surfaces which, properly joined together, 
form the finished pattern or drawing. In the other case, one starts with the 
limiting rectangle or other figure and subdivides it as the drawing indicates. 



This distinction is easily appreciated in the respective operations of planning 
and building a house. The architect is first concerned with size and arrange- 
ment of rooms, halls, closets, etc., finally ascertaining the size of the house 
itself. The builder first lays out the frame and outer walls of the house and 
then runs up the partitions to form the rooms, halls and closets. 

While not of itself a sufficient reason for the introduction of card- 
board construction, it is well to note that the work outlined is a fine 
preparation for the woodwork so generally carried on in the upper 
grades. It gives acquaintance with the rule, with the sketch and work- 
ing drawing and starts the pupil out with a better standard of accuracy. 
All this will enable the woodworking teacher to omit such preliminary 
work and to introduce, much earlier, the more advanced and more in- 
teresting projects. 

I hope that I have indicated above that here is a form of elementary 
manual training for those schools which have felt that the choice was 
between an expensive form of work and none, that it gives a good train- 
ing to the hand and eye, calls for original, constructive thought, gives 
an acquaintance with industrial ideas and, in short, vindicates its claim 
to recogntion as a worthy form of elementary manual training. 


Louis C. Butler. 

UPON first thought an article dealing with the problem of pro- 
moting interest in manual work seems unnecessary and useless. 
We are accustomed to the assertion that "all boys love their 
manual training so," that it is the one common meeting place in the 
system where boj's good and bad shine with equal lustre, and that here 
reigns a happiness limited only by the duration of the lesson period. 
It is perfectly true, I feel, that every normal boy has a tendency towards 
an enjoyment of some form of manual expression and, as a private pupil, 
could readily be interested deeply in, and be led to work steadily at 
this particular subject. But as soon as you take this work into the 
common schools you are forced to confront the difficulty of a more or 
less rigid course of work on the one hand, and a large class on the 
other. This class, based, selectively, upon scholastic, not manual, at- 
tainments may vary in age several years, may include several who have 
failed at school and so are repeating, and may be added to or subtracted 
from during the term, as circumstances at the parent school may render 




I have, in the beginning grade from one school, two brothers almost 
three years apart in age, several sadly undersized and physically un- 
developed boys who have almost literally to be carried through their 
work, a large group of active, sturdy, healthy chaps full of life and 
willingness to express it, and a small number who, last term, most suc- 
cessfully completed all of my work of the grade and quarter, but failed 

in their studies. Yet this mixture of ages, sizes, activity, and ability 
is a class, must be handled in demonstration and practice as a class, and 
have its work laid out according to grade, quarter and class. 

Under these conditions we must admit the necessity of individual 
means and devices if we are to present our subject in its best, brightest, 
and most fruitful form to the children under our care. Too much in- 
different manual training rests upon the evident fact that boys like the 
noise, relaxation and freedom from the quiescence of the schoolroom, 
and so produce models with little friction or objection; and too little 
intelligent teaching is based upon the somewhat less evident fact that 
by judicious interest aids and individual attention the real and last- 
ing value of our work may be greatly enhanced in many and most 
interesting ways. With special and experimental schools and their 
small classes and large opportunities I have nothing to do, but speak 



for those who, like myself, have large and varied classes and a course of 
study definite in detail, rotation of models and scope of effort. 

Among the interesting devices I have found of value in my exper- 
ience are careful grading of all models, after-school work for the lag- 
gards in a class, close personal relation between boy and teacher, inter- 
est in Christmas or other special work on the boy's part, having finished 

work around the shop for observation, giving models out as soon as 
practicable after completion, and my specific topic here, individuality in 
outline and ornament as applied to the models outlined in our course. 
There is nothing startlingly new in all this, to be sure, but it is none 
the less true for all that, and it is even worth a second thought by the 
routine-driven grade joinery teacher. 

Applied design is so facinating a subject that the ever-present 
danger in our shops is the tendency to follow the form and neglect the 
substance and end by constructing for design — a thoroughly false pro- 
cedure. The instant you allow two standards in the shop, construc- 
tional accuracy and decorated beauty, you have really no standard at 
all and the bars are down for that type of careless, attractive work 
that our friends of the old school so rightly decry. To meet this 


objection, and others, and show what can be done, I shall give in brief 
detail the outline of my treatment of a very familiar model, the pen 
tray, with some illustrations of successes and failures. 

Starting the pen tray, we work out the stock, ^^ x 2%" x 12", 
gouge out the central depression, and finish everything clean; all must 
be done as demonstrated and in strict accord with our blue prints. 
This completes the "work" of the model and it is approved by me. 
Next various end outlines are discussed in class and patterns are made 
by tracing the square-end outline from the stock, folding lengthwise 
on center and cutting to shape. This is more graphic than any draw- 
ing for by unfolding the paper the boys see the actual outline, not a pic- 
ture of it. Some cut several and, by holding against the light to get 
pure outline, select the one they desire. Then both ends of the model are 
worked out to this pattern and it comes again for approval before dec- 
oration is attempted. 

Now, using this pattern, the boys attempt some applied design. 
The crude decoration of youth is wonderful and often runs to crossed 
flags, stars, hearts, shields, indefinite botanical specimens or else flour- 
ishes and scrolls without end. Then, too, the representative ability of 
the boys is so limited as to lead to results that are often wierd, as was 
shown by a boy of mine who produced a design consisting of two highly 
irregular loops of small sausage — his genuine attempt to represent a holly 
leaf design. In presenting the design problem, first have the whole 
class see samples of work completed in good, simple, space breaking; 
then let the boys have a try at it ; and finally, suggest, curtail, revamp 
and redraw entirely as seems necessary. The good results may be yours, 
and the poorest, the most genuine boy production, but each boy has had 
a try, and the next time he will do much better. Keep the used pat- 
terns and form a design library as an inspiration to the following classes. 

The design is worked out with a small — about j^ is small enough — 
gouge, painted in with soft wood tints of brown, red or green, and the 
whole is stained or oiled and shellaced as the different woods require. 
Base your grading upon the joinery of the model and make the boys 
see that the decoration is their individual gain through their satisfaction 
in a product artistic as well as accurate. 

By this method of handling the work,- the weak lad may pluck up 
courage over his design, the "repeat" improve on his former effort, the 
strong worker attempt an ambitious outline and ornament, and the 
most rapid make two widely differing pieces — all working on the 



same model. Class technique, self-expression and genuine interest — 
here is the basis of all educational manual training. 

I have selected the pen tray as a typical problem but similar 
freedom can well be employed in such models as the blotter pad, bracket- 
shelf, picture frante, book-rack, taboret, and others, in every case 
keeping stock strictly to uniform sizes and allowing directed freedom 
only — not unwise license. To illustrate, I show plates made from 
models I have at present on hand, being fully aware that some of the 
design work is sadly deficient. They are all, however, geimine grade 
work and serve to indicate possibilities that doubtless others will more 
fully develop, as indeed I hope to myself. 

In conclusion I repeat my assertion that under present public school 
conditions our grade joinery, in order to be fully effective, must base 
itself through class work upon individual interest and one of the richest, 
most valuable and practicable interest producing methods is that of 
variation of the fixed model through individual modification in outline 
or decoration or both. 



Fred D. Crawsha \v. 

IN PLANNING the arrangement of rooms and departments for a 
high school one must consider the character of the courses of 
study. The high school in which manual training has a promi- 
nent place is the one with which this article deals; hence I shall con- 
sider only such courses of study as the so-called manual training high 
school provides for its pupils. 

Herewith are shown floor plan views of three manual training high 
schools, each representing a particular type according to the method 
of caring for the work of the manual training department. The Los 
Angeles school is arranged to accommodate pupils of all grades in any 
particular department of work in one group of rooms. These rooms 
are easily accessible one from another and located on one floor. The 
Brooklyn Manual Training High School, on the other hand, has its 
rooms arranged to provide for all the work of a particular school 
grade on one floor. In this room arrangement very little attention is 
paid to the grouping of rooms in which the work of a particular depart- 
ment is done. Emphasis is laid upon the work of a particular year 
rather than the work of a department. The plans for the Manual 
Training and Commercial High School now being built in Peoria, 111., 
were made to accommodate pupils of a particular school year with as 
little passing as possible from one floor to another, and, at the same 
time, the grouping of rooms for science, manual arts, commercial work, 
etc., was carefully considered. Thus, it is hoped that in this school a 
compromise has been made between the plans of the Los Angeles, and 
Brooklyn schools named which retains the best qualities of both. 

This article aims to point out what seem to be some particularly good 
and equally bad features in the plans of these three schools, but before 
this is done let us form a mental picture of a building which will serve 
as an ideal, that we may be able to criticize the plans shown, and make 

Our ideal school should, in its construction and arrangement ful- 
fill the following conditions: 

First. It must be compact. The affiliated departments should be 
so arranged that material, apparatus and students may be handled with 
the greatest possible economy of time and labor. 



Second. It must be well lighted. This practically means that it 
must be built on the wing or central open court plan unless it is spread 
out over considerable ground, in which case the cost of ground and con- 
struction is large. 

Third. It must be large enough to accommodate the specified maxi- 
mum number of pupils and provide for all branches taught in schools of 
its grade. By this I mean that all departments should be provided for, 
in order that no one may be forced to modify his course of study simply 
to meet the conditions of the school. 

That we may have a definite idea of the breadth of work which may 
be done in our ideal school, I suggest the following rooms and depart- 

1. A power plant equipped with machines and apparatus for 
steam, electricity, water and compressed air, arranged with a view to 
student work in applied science and practical engineering. 

2. A manual arts department including shops for wood and metal, 
viz. : An elementary woodworking shop ; an elementary metahvorking 
shop ; a carpenter shop ; a pattern and furniture-making shop ; a machine 
shop; a foundry; a forge shop; and possibly a shop equipped for plumb- 
ing, steam fitting and repairing. 

3. A science department planned for courses in physiology, botany 
and biology, physics and chemistry. 

4. A domestic science department equipped for work in cooking, 
•serving, sanitation, sewing, fitting and textiles. 

5. A commercial department in which all the necessary work per- 
taining to modern business may be done. 

6. A department of drawinig where elementary' and advanced 
work in freehand and art drawing, as well as work in mechanical and 
architectural drawing will be provided for. 

7. A sufficient number of classrooms for history, mathematics and 
the languages. 

8. A large and commodious assembly hall for school and public 
gatherings which may be used as a study hall unless separate study halls 
are provided. 

9. A good gymnasium. 

10. Coat rooms and closets for both sexes on each floor. 

In each of the departments there should be lecture and recitation 
rooms so that each department may be directed by one individiual as 
the head of the department, thus making of our school building a place 
where several schools are individually managed, but affiliated for the 





— .o.Cii 









common good of all students through the management of a superintend- 
ent, director or principal. 

This idea of having the rooms of a department arranged as a unit, 
and under the supervision of one individual, is economy from the stand- 
point of school management, and, I should say, the best plan for depart- 
mental work. However, in large schools, accommodating 3,000 or 


4,000 pupils, where the passing of classes makes discipline an impor- 
tant factor in the school government, the plan of having all the sub- 
jects taught to a particular grade of pupils on one floor is possibly de- 
sirable. In this case shops and laboratories, in which the work of the 
several school years is done, must be located on different floors — all 
first year work on one floor, second year work on another floor, and so on. 
In the first part of this article general reference was made to the 
accompanying illustrations. A short detail study of them will further 



emphasize the ideas expressed in the foregoing paragraphs. Fig. 1 and 
Fig. 2, first and second floor-plan views of the Los Angeles Polytechnic 
High School, furnish excellent illustrations of the departmental group- 
ing of rooms. In Fig. 1 is shown a symmetrical arrangement of three 
groups of rooms; one for all work classed as domestic science, one for 
all mechanical work and a third for all of the pure science studies. For 
the mechanical and pure science departments the problem of light is 


so-lved by having the building occupied by these departments one 
story high, except the central part of the rear wing which is cov- 
ered by a second floor as shown in Fig. 2. A part of this central 
portion is also covered by a third floor for an observatory. The 
rooms for the domestic science department, too, are well lighted since 
there is but one series of rooms between the corridor and the outer 
walls of the building. 



Fig. 2 shows an equally well unified arrangement of rooms for the 
work of the school not requiring special laboratories or shops. The 
front part of the building (not including the wing used for an assembly 
hall and gymnasium) is three stories high; the third story is used exclu- 
sively for a commercial department. 

As the plans show, the building really consists of four separate 


buildings joined on separate floors by passage wa.vs; and in the four 
buildings, according to room arrangement, are several individual de- 
partmental schools. From the standpoint of the departmental work 
this school seems ideal, but from the standpoint of building economy 
and general school government some will argue that a more compact 
construction is desirable. 

In Fig. 3, Fig. 4 and Fig. 5 are shown the first, second and third 
floor plans of the Brooklyn Manual Training High School. It will be 



noticed at a glance that practically all the work of a particular school 
year may be done on any one floor. For example, on the first floor pro- 
vision is made for the particular freehand and mechanical drawing, 
science and shopwork, as well as regular classroom work, for first year 
pupils. Fig. 3 and Fig. 4 similarly show how second and third year 
pupils respectively are likewise cared for on one floor. Mechanical 


drawing is done in the same corner of the building on each floor. The 
shops, sewing rooms and science laboratories, also, occupy similar posi- 
tions on the different floors. On each floor, too, are a sufficient num- 
ber of classrooms for the pupils of a particular school grade. Here, 
then, is a building which evidentlv houses an entire school on each floor, 
there being as many schools as there are floors. The building is com- 
pact, well lighted and economical from the standpoint of construction. 
But from the standpoint of economy in departmental work and general 
school management we could hardly recommend such an arrangement 
except where the conditions of a dense population and high-priced land 
demand it. 

Now in Fig. 6, Fig. 7 and Fig. 8, showing three floor plan views 
of the Manual Training and Commerciail High School being built in 
Peoria, we find an arrangement of rooms differing from the arrange- 



ment in either of the other schools illustrated. Here the rooms of a 
department are in close proximity as a rule, but not all on one floor, 
necessarily. The idea of all the school work of a particular school year 
being done on one floor is not apparent in the plans, nor will it be possi- 
ble for this to be done, although a careful study of the plans will show 
that classrooms and demonstration rooms have been liberally provided 


to make this plan possible in a large measure. The designers of this 
building have tried to gain the advantage of the departmental plan of 
arrangement by the grouping of rooms so that one person may supervise 
the entire work of the shops, science laboratories or commercial depart- 
ment. They avoid duplicate rooms as in the Brooklyn school because 
the number of pupils the building will accommodate will not demand 
such a multiplication. They have endeavored to make the building as 
economical as possible from the construction side consistent with de- 
partmental and school management. In the opinion of the writer they 
have gone too far in this direction in two particulars. First: If the 
front central portion of the building had been made four stories high 
it would have added a central tower to the present plans which would 
have helped in architectural design and further made room for a light, 
airy group of rooms for all drawing work. Second : If a small two story 



power building had been placed at the rear of the present building all 
of the dirt and noise of this department could be kept away from the 
main building, besides providing room for the foundry — now in the 
corner of the basement — forge room and dry rooms. 

In contrast with these possible weak points in the design of this 
building we may mention the following strong points: 


1. A compact construction allowing good light for all rooms. 

2. A practical grouping of rooms for departmental work. 

3. A plan by which much of the work of a particular grade may be 
done with comparatively little passing from one floor to another. 

4. An adequate number of demonstration and recitation rooms 
within or immediately adjoining a departmental group of rooms. 

5. Closet and coat rooms on every floor. 

6. Stock and cutting rooms adjoining the machine and pattern shops. 


The planning of a manual training school building should be done 
by at least two men, viz. ; an architect and a teacher familiar with the 
conditions under which the school will be managed. Too often the 
teacher is not consulted until the time for equipment to be purchased 


and then it is found that the arrangement of rooms is poor and, what 
is even more deplorable, the rooms are inadequate in shape or size for 
the work to be done in them. In order to determine facts about the 
size and shape two things must be known while the building is being 
planned ; 

1. The class unit or number of pupils per class and, 

2. The equipment for each room. 

I shall attempt here only to estimate the amount of floor space 
necessary for rooms in the manual arts department. A study of the 
plans of manual training shops will reveal the fact that the average 
shop or laboratory room is about one and one-half to two times as long 
as it is wide. Where the demonstration seats are placed in and at the 
end of the shop room the length is approximately twice the width. The 
shops of the McKinley High School in St. Louis are good examples of 
this type of room. These shops are forty feet wide and eighty feet 
long. The proposed Peoria high school is planned to have all class 
demonstration and recitation work done in a room adjoining and be- 
tween two shops. The length of these shops vary from one and one- 
fifth to one and one-half their width. As in the McKinley school the 
widths are forty feet; the lengths are forty-seven and sixty-one feet. 
It is believed the width of most shop rooms should not be considerably 
less than thirty-five or forty feet. 

The class unit in the opinion of the manual training teachers should 
not exceed twenty-four. Many of us feel that the maximum number of 
pupils in a shop class should not be more than twenty. 

In such work as foundry practice and forging a class even smaller 
than this is desirable. The crowded condition of the average public 
school shop, however, demands a class unit as large as possible ; for this 
reason, and for convenience in computation, the following shop sizes are 
given for classes of twenty-four pupils managed by one instructor. 

First Year Woodworking and First Year Metal Working Rooms. 
— Twenty-four individual benches and twent3^-four individual lathes — 
2,250 square feet of floor space. This allows forty square feet of floor 
space per pupil for bench or lathe and 330 square feet of general floor 
space for cases, etc. In making this estimate three feet are allowed for 
aisles between the ends of four foot lathes and benches and the space 
allowed for aisles running the long way of the benches approximately 
three and one-half feet. It is probably true that some will criticise this 
estimate for individual floor space as too large. In no case should I 
think it could well be less than thirty-five square feet per individual. 


Where double benches are used in which locker space is provided, both 
the individual and general floor space may be reduced slightly. The 
individual space, however, would remain nearly constant because the aisle 
space must be greater as the bench space decreases to allow two pupils 
to work in each aisle instead of one. 

Carpenter or Pattern Shop. — Twenty large individual benches, three 
feet by seven feet, placed around the room. Twelve speed lathes and 
six floor machines — 2,500 or 2,600 square feet of floor space. This 
allows 1,000 square feet for benches with a three- foot working space 
in front of benches, 1,500 or 1,600 square feet for machines and for 
general floor work. The plan of having a machine room adjoining the 
general student shop is a good one for many reasons. Where this ar- 
rangement is adopted the general floor space may be reduced one-half. 

The arrangement of the machine shop in general will be similar to 
that of the pattern shop — benches around the wall and machines in the 
center. For the same class unit the floor space in a machine shop should 
exceed that of the pattern shop, unless the character of class work is 
such that considerable individual instruction is given. In this case 
benches and machines may be used by different members of a class dur- 
ing a particular shop period. 

The forge shop and foundry rooms should approximate in size the 
pattern and machine shops although the total amount of floor space 
may be a little less than that given above. 

The mechanical drawing and freehand drawing rooms should be 
about one-half the size of the first-year shops. This estimate is made 
on the basis of forty square feet of floor space per individual. 

All of this data on shop sizes may be summarized and put into the 
convenient form of formulae for architects or those designing manual 
training buildings. Using forty square feet of floor space for each in- 
dividual equipment in shops equipped with manual training benches and 
speed lathes, and one sixth of the actual floor space used by benches, 
lathes and aisles for a general floor space (not including demonstration 
seats), the formulae is as follows: 

40n-] — - — =total room area in sq. ft. 

This reduces to practically 47nr=area in sq. ft., where n is the num- 
ber of individual equipments. 

Using forty-tv\o square feet of floor space for benches and working 
space in front of the large benches placed about the room, and one and 



one-half times this amount for general floor space our formula for such 
shops as pattern, machine, forge and foundry is: 

40n+-^of 40n, or 40n+60n. which equals lOOn. 

This is the total floor space or room area in square feet. 

In this paper two things have been attempted. ( 1 ) To present 
the ideas of some of our leading manual training teachers, and archi- 
tects of manual training buildings, on curriculum, departments and 
equipment. (2) To arrive at some conclusions which may influence 
the design of new buildings. 



As Unqualified praise of one's work is usually of little value 

Others ^^ ^.j^g worker, but discriminating, sympathetic, construc- 

tive criticism is invaluable. Perhaps this statement was 
never truer than when applied to the manual training work of our 
American public schools today. We do not need the effervescent praise 
of our too zealous friends, nor any more of such sarcastic and mislead- 
ing criticism as we received two years ago at the hands of the Massa- 
chusetts Commission on Industrial Education. What we need is to be 
told how we may do better, and we like to be told by someone who 
really understands and appreciates what we are doing. Such a helpful 
criticism of manual training in American schools may be found in an 
article by Charles L. Binns in the March Number of the Manual 
Training Teacher. The article is a report on visits to American 
schools, and in an unusual degree reveals a sympathetic appreciation of 
our problems and our methods, while at the same time pointing to 
some of the chief defects in our work. Especially at the present time, 
when we are discussing "industrial education" and "industrial efficiency" 
do Mr. Binns' criticisms seem to be suggestive. After commending 
much of the handwork done in our primary and lower grammar grades 
he says: 

So far as actual benchwork results go, it may be safely said that our [Eng- 
lish] manual training work is quite up to the best work in the American schools. 
From the point of view of accuracy it is much superior. The lack of exactness 
is the main defect of American manual training. But there are many com- 
pensations to be balanced against this, and these arise chiefly, in my opinion, 
from the fact that the teacher is allowed more liberty to follow his own judg- 
ment in teaching the subject than is the case here. He has more scope for 
exercising his initiative, with the result that he retains the freshness of interest 
and enthusiasm for his work that our own stereotyped and restricted schemes 
do much to quell. There is a fine spirit of free activity, eager interest, and 
industry permeating most of the manual classrooms. Even the inferior work is 
done with a happy glow of achievement that half excuses it. We English are 
so afraid of being thought frivolous that we often forget to be buoyant. * * * 

To emphasize unduly the aim of rigid mechanical accuracy generally means 
a sacrifice of the thought side of the work. Those qualities which lead even- 
tually to the realization of the pupils' highest powers — such qualities as intel- 
ligent self-direction ; an alert resourceful attitude of mind ; and power to plan 



means to an end — are too valuable to lose for such an aim. Accuracy comes 
naturally and as a matter of course when the boy begins to "find himself," if 
the instruction be of the right kind. 

At the same time a system of handwork that ignores a reasonable standard 
of accuracy does not count for much. In the course of my visits I fojnd more 
than once not only an almost entire disregard for exactness in the work of the 
boys, but also an almost entire neglect on the teacher's part to strive for it. 
Something may be said for a method which grants the pupils liberty to express 
themselves freely in their work, if the results are critically examined and 
errors pointed out, but to accept and pass complacently work manifestly inferior 
is quite inexcusable. There is an element of haste about some of the work which 
may partly account for this. The desire to get through with things, whether it 
be work or meals, is characteristic. And while quick work may be less harmful 
in its effects than quick lunches, to make haste slowly would be clear gain. 

Surely this is sympathetic criticism and we ought to profit by it. 
Concerning the shopwork in our manual training high schools Mr. 
Binns says: 

1 found the work invariably good, and, in most cases, marked with a thor- 
oughness and high standard of excellence that reflect greai: credit on the teach- 
ers. — '^• 

National The Alanual Training Department of the National Edu- 

Education cation Association has had a significant development. 
-- . The early meetings, following its organization, were small 

and comparatively unimportant, but with the increase of 
interest in the manual arts as a factor in education they have come to 
be considered as among the most important and best attended meetings 
of the Association. 

The Cleveland meeting of this department will be particularly 
significant because of the unusual interest at the present time in the 
problem of industrial education. It will be in a sense a culmination of 
two great meetings held within this year: The meeting of the National 
Society for the Promotion of Industrial Education in Chicago and the 
meeting of the Department of Superintendence in Washington at which 
an entire session was devoted to industrial education. 

The program is devoted entirely to this problem under the general 
topic, "The Place of Industries in Education." There will be three 
sessions of the department, one a joint session with the department ot 
Women's Organizations, at which the general topic will be presented 
under sub-topics — "Democracy in Education," "The Industries as a 
Factor in Education," and "A Program of Industrial Education." 
Every phase of the subject is treated in the seven formal addresses which 


make up the program and in the formal discussions. In its complete- 
ness and unitj^ the program is exceptional. Much credit is due Dr. 
J. D. Burks, president of the department, for his thoughtful analysis 
of the industrial problem in education. The speakers are well-known 
educators, distinguished in their respective departments. — R. 

The The value of the summer school to the manual training 

Summer teacher is evidenced by the rapidly increasing number and 

importance of courses offered to teachers of this depart- 
ment of educational work. The constantly changing aims and methods in 
manual training and the consequent inadequacy of its literature make 
it the most practical and efficient means of keeping in touch with the 
work. It is a vital means of growth to the teacher whose experience 
carries him back to the da3'S when careful preparation and training were 
not demanded. But the value of the summer school is not alone in the 
courses of study which it offers. Widely divergent methods and prob- 
lems make the association with teachers from all parts of the country 
of inestimable value, and it is the only way that the worker in the field 
has of coming under the direct influence of the specialist. 

A part of a vacation spent in the pursuit of a congenial course is 
not necessarily arduous. As a matter of experience, it is oftener recre- 
ative and there is always the after-feeling of satisfaction of something 
accomplished. Moreover, simply as a commercial enterprise the sum- 
mer school is a safe investment of time and money with practically sure 
returns, in proportion to the interest and effort of the student. It is 
from the ranks of earnest workers who are abreast of the times, and 
constantly seeking the aids to professional attainment that vacancies are 
filled and promotions are made. — R- 



AViLLiAM T. Bawden, Editor. 

The Department of Superintendence held its annual meeting at Washing- 
ton, D. C, February 25-27, 1908. It was the largest and most successful meet- 
ing the department has ever held. 

The problem of Industrial Education seemed to be the pressing one and 
there were few speakers in anj' of the meetings that did not refer to it in some 
of its phases. 

The Tuesday morning session was opened with an address of welcome by 
the Honorable Joseph Cannon, Speaker of the House of Representatives. He 
was followed by Willett M. Hayes, Assistant Secretary of Agriculture, who 
spoke on the close relation of the department of agriculture to our educational 
institutions, and the increasing importance of the study of agriculture in our 
public schools. 

The next speaker was United States Commissioner of Education, Elmer 
E. Brown, who said : 

"The questions we are to discuss here, and the things we are to do in our 
several fields when this meeting is over are all matters of national concern. 
There are two great ends in particular which we hope will be furthered by 
our meeting of the year 1908, in the city of Washington. In the first place, it 
ma\' bring about a more perfect union between the forces that make for cillture 
and the forces that make for industrial training. In the second place, it may 
strengthen the bonds which make of our man}- State systems of education one 
national system of education." 

Supt. S. L. Heeter of St. Paul, Minn., speaking on "The Saving of Time 
and Energy in Public School Work," said, in substance: "We must simplify the 
academic subject matter of the first six grades of the elementary- schools; intro- 
duce into the first six grades a comprehensive system of primary industrial 
training; socialize and industrialize our so-called grammar schools; rearrange 
school hours for those forced by circumstances to go early to work, and estab- 
lish a closely articulated elementary system of apprenticeship between the gram- 
mar schools and leading industrial enterprises. In addition to this we should 
have night schools and half-day continuation schools; the abolition of the old- 
time classical high school, as such, and the introduction of general manual 
training and commercial courses in all high schools, with the establishment of at 
least one secondary industrial school in every citj'. 

The afternoon session was devoted to a symposium on "The Place of Indus- 
tries in Public Education," which was arranged by Dr. Jesse D. Burks, of 

Dean Russell of Teachers College, Columbia University, led the discus- 
sion with a plea for a system of schools that will give the laboring man as 



good an opportunity to learn his business as we give the professional man, in 
the professional schools, to learn his business. He insisted that what we do in 
this way must be as a supplement to what we have and not a substitute for it. 

Professor Elliott of the University of Wisconsin spoke of the necessity of 
careful investigations of conditions and requirements in order that we may 
proceed wisely in organizing the work. In the discussion which followed Mr. 
Brundage of the Stout Training School, Menomonie, Wis., said : 

"I claim that the pupil in the industrial school must be an intelligent and 
real worker who produces the goods. He must be a vital factor in the work, a 
transformer, a positive not a negative force, and have an active, not passive, 
interest in his surroundings, where he is being prepared for life's work. The 
time has come in the life of this nation when immediate steps must be taken 
by its body of educators to meet the urgent demands of its citizens in making 
adequate provision for this great social and industrial need." 

This was followed by a paper by James F. McElroy, president of the Con- 
solidated Car Heating Co. This paper is of special interest because it pre- 
sented the subject to the convention from the point of view of the manufac- 
turers. His theme was, "The most urgent need of our educational system is an 
adequate provision for the vocational needs of children destined for industrial 
and domestic pursuits." 

He showed that in the city of Albany, N. Y., there was a falling off in 
the attendance from 1,551 the first year to 551 in the eighth year. He claimed 
that this falling off was due mainly to the fact that a large proportion of the 
children in the schools are either forced by circumstances to leave school before 
they have graduated from the grammar grades, or they leave through want of 
interest. A close investigation of the manufacturing industries of Albany, the 
speaker said, developed two facts: That out of all the men employed in the 
mechanical departments less than 1 per cent ever attended a high school, and 
only about 7 per cent had completed courses in the grammar schools. 

"The ordinary mechanic in our manufacturing institutions is indebted to 
our school system for teaching him how to read and write and for some instruc- 
tion in mathematics, but outside of these elements of education, the schools 
furnish him practically nothing that is of value or helpful in the struggle which 
he must maintain the rest of his life. The course of study in our schools is 
based upon the theory that the student will continue throughout the entire 
course and graduate from the high school, and this course is designed to pre- 
pare the student for admission to college. This course of study, it seems to me, 
is unjust, unfair and unreasonable, so far as it relates to over 65 per cent of 
the total school population. 

"At the age of boys in the grammar schools, they are fascinated with the 
study of mechanics and all kinds of machines for generating and applying 
power. At this age a boy is much more impressed by doing things himself than 
by being told by other people how things are done. 

"If our schools furnished him the opportunity that he longs for, there 
would be little tendency to shirk his duties, and the services of the truant 
officer would not be required. There would also be no temptation on the part 
of parents to take the boys out of schools in order that they might learn some- 
thing practical elsewhere. 


"Young men destined for industrial pursuits, not only do not receive in 
the schools a proper education for their life work, but after leaving school, 
they find no place in which they can receive instruction in the trades which they 
may select. Our manufacturers can not afford to maintain industrial or trade 
schools, and it is not their business to do so, even if they could afford it. This 
is a work that properly belongs to the public schools." 

The speaker insisted that this training should be done in the grammar 
schools rather than the high schools. 

Miss Langley of Chicago University read a paper in which she empha- 
sized the necessity of constructive handwork from the kindergarten through all 
the grades. 

During the discussion Professor Hanus of Harvard said: "Manual training 
has become academized. There is no attempt to teach a trade. Business 
courses in our schools are inferior. The industrial courses in our schools are 
not fundamental, but incidental. The leading motive is culture, whereas in 
industrial education, it should be training for proficiency." 

Wednesday morning the annual election of officers was held and resulted 
as follows: W. H. Elson of Cleveland, president; David B. Johnson of Rock 
Hill, S. C, first vice-president; Miss Ida Bender of Buffalo, N. Y., second 
vice-president; A. C. Nelson of Salt Lake City, Utah, secretary. Oklahoma City 
was chosen as the next meeting place. 

The feature of the day was the reception at the White House by President 
Roosevelt. In the course of the President's address he said : "I trust that more 
and more our people will see to it that the schools train toward and not away 
from the farm and workshop. We have spoken a great deal about the dignity 
of labor in this country, but we have not acted up to our spoken words, for in 
our education we have tended to proceed upon the assumption that the educated 
man was to be educated away from and not toward labor. 

"Teach the boy that he is to be expected to earn his own livelihood, that 
it is a shame and scandal for him not to be self-dependent, not to be able to 
hold his own in the rough work of actual life. Teach the girl that so far 
from its being her duty to try to avoid all labor, all effort, that it should be a 
matter of pride to her to be as good a housewife as her mother was before her." 

Thursday morning was given over to conferences of the various departments 
of education represented. The afternoon discussion was on "The School as an 
Instrument of Character Building." In the evening the Board of Education 
of Washington, D. C, gave a reception at the Corcoran Art Gallery. 

R. W. Selvidge, Teachers College, N. Y. 


The fifteenth annual meeting of the Western Drawing and Manual Train- 
ing Association was held at Shortridge High School, Indianapolis, Indiana, 
April 7 to 10, 1908. Visits to the Indianapolis schools and to the Winona 
Technical Institute were arranged for the early part of Tuesday and in the 
late afternoon there was held an informal reception by the Indianapolis art and 
manual training teachers. The reception was preceded by informal talks on the 
work in the manual arts in the Indianapolis schools by Miss Wilhelmina Seeg- 


miller, director of art, and Louis A. Bacon, director of manual training. These 
talks took the form of a practical exposition of the conditions under which the 
work is being done and were very suggestive. A brief summary of these con- 
ditions would include: a sympathetic and progressive superintendent; liberal 
appropriations; for example, for the first four grades, $3,000 per year for 
handwork and $1,500 for art work; frequent conferences of supervisors and 
teachers during regular school hours instead of after school or Saturdays; a 
systematic plan of preserving samples of pupils' work; above third grade all 
handwork in the hands of special teachers. 

The formal program began at eight o'clock Tuesday evening in the Caleb 
Mills Hall, Shortridge High School. After music and the invocation addresses 
of welcome were delivered by Hon. Charles A. Bookwalter, Mayor of India- 
napolis, Charles W. Moores, president of the Board of Education, Calvin N. 
Kendall, superintendent of public schools, and John A. Hollett, president of the 
Commercial Club. 

The annual President's address was delivered by Charles A. Bennett, who 
took for his subject: '"A Cycle of Development.'' "During the past year as 
I have listened to urgent demands for industrial training in our public schools 
I have been reminded of similar demands made nearly forty years ago, and 
I have come to realize that the teaching of the manual arts has completed a cycle 
of development in our schools. The same arguments put forward today were 
used by the advocates of industrial drawing just preceding the passage of the 
act of 1870 in the State of Massachusetts, which provided for free instruction in 
drawing in cities of 10,000 or more inhabitants." The speaker reviewed the 
history of the development of drawing in our public schools and the introduction 
of manual training. The change of motive indicated by the use of the term 
"art education" and the contributions made b}' students of psychology and the 
rise of the Arts and Crafts movement were considered. In view of the stages 
of development through which we have passed, we should see the present demand 
from a viewpoint different from that of forty years ago. "Making a hasty 
inventory of our teaching inheritance, it might read as follows: 1. Drawing and 
manual training for the development of technic; 2. Analytical study of proc- 
esses with reference to the elementary school; 3. A striving for the beautiful; 4. 
Drawing and construction as a means of expression in the primary grades; 5. 
The adequate representation of form and color in the upper grades and in the 
high school; 6. The marriage of art and craftsmanship and the new life that 
has come to design on account of it. With such an experience behind them the 
teachers of the manual arts may look forward with confidence." 

Next came the address by President William L. Bryan, Indiana State Uni- 
versity, on the subject: "Moral Education Through Art and Manual Training." 
"Art is not the only means for instruction in morals — perhaps not the chief 
means. * * * It has been recognized that the school exerts its greatest 
moral influence not through any specific instruction." If a child demands some- 
thing which he does not deserve, as when he asks to be promoted when he has 
not made the necessary grades, or asks to be allowed to play on the team when 
he is not carrying the prescribed amount of work, "the school is confronted with 
the paramount question in moral education." "If, in such a case, the right and 


just thing is not done a deadly wound is inflicted which cannot be cured by a 
sermon or by a picture of the Sistine Madonna." Referring to the plan of art 
instruction outlined in the "Republic" of Plato, the speaker urged the import- 
ance of the task of selecting works of art to be placed at the disposition of the 
child. "Cast out the second rate and the commonplace; burn up all the pic- 
tures that are not eternally good. * * ♦ The same thing holds true of all 
the arts. In singing, for example, when we sing second rate music we are 
filling our minds with something that takes the place of the best." 

The Wednesday morning session opened with music by a chorus of chil- 
dren from School No. 27. The principal address of this session was made by 
Miss Mary S. Snow, Pratt Institute, Brooklyn, N. Y., on "Household Economics 
in the Course of Study." Miss Snow dwelt upon the insecurity of the place 
which this work has in the public schools as yet, and urged upon all interested 
the necessity of organizing and conducting the work so as to establish it upon 
a firmer basis in the curriculum. The opinion erroneously held by some that 
the domestic science work is largely empirical and of little disciplinary value was 
ably refuted. 

Reports of progress in the work to date were presented by the chairmen of 
two committees: Miss E. E. Langley, School of Education, Chicago, for the 
committee on "Handicrafts in the Public Schools"; and John S. Ankeny, Jr., 
University of Missouri, for the committee on "Art Work in the Universities." 

At the afternoon session Frederick L. Burnham, State Agent for the Pro- 
motion of the Manual Arts, Massachusetts, spoke on "The Need of the Power 
to Visualize in the Manual Arts," illustrating his remarks by blackboard sketches. 
"I believe that the majority of people can so clearly understand this subject of 
drawing that they will be able to do in a way work similar to that which they 
do along other lines. They are not all orators who learn to read. All people 
who can add and subtract are not wonderful mathematicians, but they can use this 
knowledge daily in their work." 

Wednesday evening was very pleasantly spent at the John Herron Art 
Institute, where the members of the Association were received by the Art Insti- 
tute and the Commercial Club. An exhibit of canvases by several prominent 
Indiana artists had been arranged for the occasion. 

One especially enjoyable event that occurred on Wednesday was the dinner 
given to the officers of the Association and a few invited guests, twenty-four 
in all, by sixteen negro boys from the cooking classes of the McCoy School. 
The table was spread in one of the long corridors of the building, which was 
made quite attractive with rugs and decorative plants. The supper was planned 
and served by the boys under the direction of Miss Elizabeth Rinehart. Dur- 
ing the serving of the supper the guests were entertained by a chorus of 7th 
and 8th grade pupils from the school, directed by Mrs. Lillian Brown, who 
gave a number of negro melodies and folk-songs. The officers of the Associa- 
tion were so much pleased with the singing that by special request the chorus 
appeared as an extra number on Thursday's program. 

The Thursday morning session was devoted to a series of four round table 
discussions. The general topic of the first was: "The Relation of Art and Man- 
ual Training in the Elementary Schools." The leaders in the discussion were 




Fred C. Whitcomb, Miami University, Oxford, O. ; George W. Eggers, Chicago 
Normal School; Mary Alice Wright, Bloomington, Ind. ; and Milton J. Clau- 
son, Denver, Colo. It seemed to be generally agreed that in the elementary 
school there should be one central line of work with an art side and a con- 
struction side, although there were those present who contended for two distinct 

Another group discussed "The Course of Study in High School Art." The 
leaders were Edwin J. Lake, University of Illinois; William H. Varnum, James 
Millikin University, Decatur, 111.; Antoinette P. Taylor, Yeatman High School, 
St. Louis. Attention was directed to ready-mixed colors and harmonies that 
can be used thoughtlessly, drawing slates, the working over of ready-made 
designs and other "royal roads that end in vanity." One speaker made a plea 
for the establishment of a show room where the work of advanced and capable 
students could be not only exhibited but offered for sale. 

Probably the most enthusiastic group was the one that assembled to discuss 
"The Place of Domestic Economy in the Public Schools." The leaders in the 
discussion were Elizabeth Rinehart, Indianapolis, and Mary S. Snow, Pratt 
Institute, Brooklyn, N. Y. The far-reaching influence of domestic science work 
and the importance of conducting the work on a thoroughly practical and eco- 
nomic basis were among the points brought out. 

The fourth group considered "Manual Training in the High Schools.'' 
The leaders in discussion were James F. Barker, Technical High School, Cleve- 
land; E. G. Allen, M. T. H. S., Indianapolis; and E. P. Chapin, M. T. H. S., 
Louisville, Ky. 

In the afternoon Walter S. Perry, Director of Fine Arts, Pratt Institute, 
spoke on "The Exhibits." He suggested the advantages of series of exhibits made 
up in such a way as to set forth the courses of work being taught. He ex- 
pressed the belief that some schools were being carried away by fads and that 
many teachers were teaching things because they saw them in exhibitions 
or because others were teaching them or simply because they were the latest 
things. He was of the opinion that many teachers are trying to do too much, 
at the expense of accuracy and thoroughness. "Let us stick to the fundamentals 
and a few things and do those things well." 

At the close of this address a schedule of arrangements was announced 
according to which exhibitors were present to explain their exhibits at certain 
times during the remainder of the afternoon. The exhibits were very conveni- 
ently arranged in the three buildings of the high school, practically all 
under one roof. In most cases each city or school system had its exhibit in a 
room by itself. Visitors were supplied with copies of a diagram showing the 
floor plans of the building with numbering of the rooms and a list of exhibitors. 

An innovation that seemed to please all concerned was an arrangement 
worked out by the Exhibit Committee and the .Editorial Board in co-operation 
providing convenient space for commercial exhibits. 

Thursday evening an illustrated address was delivered by Arthur W. Dow, 
Teachers College, New York, on "The Teaching of Art to Children." With the 
aid of a number of slides he showed how art slowly but surely influences a people 
and how the artistic sense is developed. He took occasion to criticize the ten- 




dency to accept art work because it is Japanese or German or French, and 
showed that there is much poor work among the examples we are asked to 

On Friday morning President William O. Thompson, Ohio State Univer- 
sity, spoke on "The Place of Manual Arts in the School." The following ex- 
tracts may give some idea of this address: "There is always danger that a 
person may use so many tools for so brief a time that he is really not proficient 
in the use of any of them. * * * It was necessary for subjects like the 
Manual Arts to prove two or three things, namely, that they would not destroy 
existing means of education, that they would not overburden the pupil, and that 
they furnished a means of education that profitably supplanted existing courses 
of study. * * * There is no necessary conflict between what we may term 
the intellectual phases of education and the manual phase. * * * There is 
a common fallacy concerning the desire to make mechanics out of our school 
children among people who feel and recognize that what these children need as 
children is not a trade but an inspiraiton. * * * From the standpoint of 
the working man or mechanic it may be said that society is interested quite as 
much in his citizenship as in his efficiency as a mechanic." 

The Committee on Traveling Manual Training Exhibits recommended a- 
more extensive use of photographs for this purpose and gave specifications as 
to dimensions and mounting. 

Probably the most significant and important event of the four days' meet- 
ing was the report of the Committee on College Entrance Credits. This Com- 
mittee reported the action of the North Central Association of Colleges and 
Secondary Schools in making a credit allowance of ten units for high school 
work in the manual arts, as follows: Four units for shopwork, two units for 
mechanical drawing, two units for sewing and millinery, and two units for 
cooking. Reprints of the report, containing outlines of courses in these sub- 
jects, are to be published by the printing classes at the Hackley Manual Train- 
ing School, Muskegon, Mich., and distrtibuted by the Editorial Board. 

At the business meeting the reports of the various officers and committees 
showed the business affairs of the Association to be in excellent condition. The 
Committee on Place of Meeting unanimously recommended the selection of Cedar 
Rapids, Iowa, in view of the great interest shown all through that State in 
the work of the Association. But the handful of members present voted for 
St. Louis, rejecting the committee's report, and thus for the fourth consecutive 
time, Iowa's cordial invitation. 

A proposition to hold another joint meeting with the Eastern Association 
in 1909 was voted down informally on the ground that once in five years is 
probably often enough for the combined meeting. 

The report of the Nominating Committee was adopted and the following 
officers elected: President, Carl N. Werntz, Academy of Fine Arts, Chicago; 
vice-president, Mary M. Saams, St. Louis; secretary, James F. Barker, Technical 
High School, Cleveland; treasurer, Harry E. Wood, Indianapolis; auditor, 
George M. Brace, Duluth. 

The meeting closed on Friday afternoon with an illustrated address on 
"Pictures for Children" by Mrs. Lucy Fitch Perkins, Chicago. The speaker 


showed that children live and think in a world different from that of grown-ups. 
Many of the characteristics of this child-world were set forth in the selections 
from the "Goose Girl" and other poems and pictures drawn to illustrate the 

Just before adjournment President Bennett announced a committee to 
investigate the status of the Manual Arts in Normal Schools, as follows: E. E. 
Meyer, Marshall College, Huntington, West Va.; F. C. Whitcomb, Miami Uni- 
versity, Oxford, O.; M. L. Laubach, State Normal School, Terre Haute, Ind.; 
William T. Bawden, State Normal University, Normal, 111.; and one other 
member to be announced later. vv. T. B. 


A permanent organization of teachers and others interested in the depart- 
ments of drawing, manual training, domestic science and art, and agriculture 
was effected at Sedalia, February 28-29. This movement is largely due to the 
initiative of August Ahrens, director of manual training, Warrensburg Normal 

The opening event was a reception on Friday evening, followed by a ban- 
quet, at which plates were laid for thirty guests. August Ahrens was master 
of ceremonies. After the address of welcome by George V. Buchanan, superin- 
tendent of schools, Sedalia, the principal address of the evening was delivered 
by Jesse H. Coursault, University of Missouri, on "The Educational Importance 
of Manual Training." The program closed with general discussion. 

The morning session opened with a round table discussion, led by M. C. 
Watson, University of Missouri, of the following topics: "1. The need for 
organized activity in promoting the manual arts in general education. How 
best effected; 2. Manual arts in rural and elementary schools; 3. Manual training 
'versus industrial training in the high school." The discussions were full of 
interest, several business men of Sedalia being present and participating in the 

The business meeting consisted principally of the reports of the various 
committees that had been appointed by the chairman the evening before. A 
constitution was adopted providing for an active membership consisting of 
"teachers of manual training, art education, domestic science and art, agri- 
culture and any other form of applied arts and sciences," and an associate 
membership consisting of "all others in sympathey. with our aims who wish to 
unite with us." 

The officers of the Association were elected, as follows: President, August 
Ahrens, State Normal School, Warrensburg; vice-president, manual training 
section, S. E. Elliott, St. Joseph; vice-president, drawing section, Alice Murphy, 
Manual Training High School, Kansas City; vice-president, domestic science 
section, Edna Day, University of Missouri, Columbia; vice-president, domestic 
art section, Ethel Snoddy, Sedalia ; vice-president, agriculture section, Lucius F. 
Childers, State Normal School, Maryville; secretary-treasurer, M. Bertha 
Fletcher, State Normal School, Warrensburg. 

The constitution provides that officers shall be elected for a term of office 
of one year, that the election shall be by ballot, "and more than one name 
must be submitted for each office." The annual membership dues are one dollar. 



The first year in the history of the Chicago Teachers' Manual and Art 
Association closed May 23rd. This association was organized in September, 
1907, under the auspices of the superintendent of schools, and is the first teachers' 
organization other than the pension and relief societies to be officially recognized 
by the Board of Education. Its expressed purpose is the unifying of the graphic 
and manual arts in all grades of the city schools. The plan of organization 
provides for an executive committee to be appointed by the superintendent (of 
which the superintendent himself shall be a member ex-officio), sub-committees 
to report in detail on the various branches of graphic and manual art suitable for 
the schools, and four public meetings a year at which these various lines of work 
shall be considered in turn. 

The committee on weaving presented the program for the first regular 
meeting which was held at Fullerton Hall in January, at which Mrs. Kate H. 
Watson, a well known practical dytv and weaver of Chicago, gave an inter- 
esting talk, illustrated by many examples of her own and her pupils' work. Dr. 
Emerson, of the Art Institute, read a paper on "Ancient Greek and Roman De- 
signs in Weaving," and Miss Jean Hutchinson, of the Chicago Normal School, 
gave an account of some of the work she has been doing with primary children. 

The bookbinding committee took charge of the second meeting, which was 
held in April, and presented Mr. Ralph Fletcher Seymour, curator of the Cax- 
ton Club, who spoke on "The Printing and Decoration of Books," and Miss 
Gertrude Stiles, who read a paper on "Bookbinding as an Art," both of these 
illustrated with the stereoptlcon. An excellent exhibit was also arranged by 
this committee in the corridors of the Art Institute on the day of the meeting, 
and under their direction a summary of the different varieties of books, together 
with processes, materials and equipment belonging to each, was prepared, printed 
and distributed at this meeting. So interesting did this subject prove that it 
was voted to continue the consideration of it at the next meeting. 

Other sub-committees, from whom interesting reports and programs are 
expected in the future, are the committees on "sewing," on "modeling," on "ap- 
paratus making," on "furniture making and technical construction," and on 
"representative art." 

The members of these committees are selected from among those actively 
engaged in these lines of work, both in public and in private schools, and they 
have enlisted also the help of the leading artists and craft workers of the city. 
It is proposed that each committee thoroughly study the field assigned to it in 
relation to both manual and graphic expression, and report from time to time 
to the executive committee. This central committee, consisting of specialists in 
various departments from the normal, high and elementary schools, and of 
the officers of the association, ex-officio, directs the activities of the association 
in general and has power to suggest changes and modifications in the course 
of study in the interests of unification. 

The officers of the association are, president, Edward F. Worst; vice pres- 
ident, George W. Eggers ; secretary, Lucy S. Silke. 

The new association seems to have thoroughly interested teachers in all 
departments of the graphic and manual arts from kindergarten to normal, both 


■within and outside of the schools. The attendance at all meetings, which are 
held in Fullerton Hall, is gratlf\ing. The various committees have taken up their 
work with enthusiasm, and although it is too soon as yet to speak of results, 
the outlook is encouraging for better design in hand work and closer correla- 
tion between the graphic and constructive arts in all the grades. 


At the round table of the superintendents of Southern Ohio, held at Dayton 
the first of April, one entire session was devoted to the discussion of manual 
arts problems. ConsideraI)!e interest was manifested by the superintendents in 
what would be the probable effect of the trade school agitation on the manual 
training work of the schools. They were a unit in recognizing the great value of 
manual training in the curriculum, but the value and practicability of the intro- 
duction of trade teaching was questioned by many. 

The teaching of elementary agriculture in the rural schools is meeting 
with considerable favor by school men in this section of the state. Several 
schools are doing considerable profitable work along this line. 

The Ohio Art and Manual Training Teachers' Association has voted to 
meet with the Central Ohio Teachers' Association. The meeting will be early 
in November and probably at either Dayton or Cincinnati. This association 
is growing and it is expected that there will be a membership of one hundred 
by the time of the next meeting. All teachers of drawing, manual training, 
domestic art or domestic science are eligible to membership. Every teacher 
of one of these subjects in Ohio is urged to join at once, and plan to attend 
the next meeting in November. Send the membership fee of fifty cents to Miss 
Maude L. Collins, secretary-treasurer, Celina, Ohio. Do this at once and help 
boom the November meeting. — fred c. whitco.mb. 

The Manual Training Teachers' Association of Maryland held its regular 
spring meeting at Annapolis on March 11 and 12, in the room of the Depart- 
ment of Education. The meeting was attended by manual training teachers 
from all over the state. The program for Thursday afternoon was a discus- 
sion of the following subjects: ''Mechanical Drawing," by E. H. Hidey, of 
Westminster; "Woodworking for the Girls in the High School Grades," by 
Albert L. Farver, of Cambridge; "The Relation of Manual Training Teachers 
to the Other Teachers of the School," by Carroll Edgar, of Elkton. The fol- 
lowing officers were elected for the ensuing year: President, Luther Forsyth, of 
Hagerstown; vice-president, Ralph W. Strawbridge, of Havre de Grace; 
secretary and treasurer, James G. Boss, Jr., of Laurel.— -V //a ////f Educational 


George A. Seaton, Editor. 



Electricity is a subject of never-failing interest to boys, and the 25-watt 
motor from the designs of R. L. Southworth of Minneapolis will be appre- 
ciated by many. During its construction opportunity will be found to study 
many of the more important factors entering into the commercial use of elec- 
tricity, which is a point quite as worthy of consideration as the fact that the 
motor will go when it is entirely completed. 

The motor field is made from a strip of ^- 
inch wrought iron, ^-inch wide and 12J^ inches 
long. This can be bent into shape by hand with 
the aid of a vise and metal clamps over an oak 
form as shown in the sketch. When shaped it is 
held in place by being screwed into oak distance 
strips with round—head screws. In putting these 
in, care must be taken to avoid interference with 
those coming from the opposite side. The distance strips are the supports for side 
pieces which carry small babbitt bearings for the shaft, which is made from a 
5^-inch rod of Bessemer steel 4 inches 
long. The armature, composed of 40 
discs of 27 gauge sheet iron, is held 
upon the shaft by a wire staple passing 
through a groove filed in the surface 
of the armature and through two 
holes bored through the shaft, and 
clinched on the opposite side. The commutator is made from an inch disc of 
oak, upon which three equal-lengthed pieces of 27 gauge brass have been screwed. 
The outside end of the wire from each pole of the armature is held beneath the 
corresponding piece of brass on the commutator, while the other ends are twisted 
together. The brushes are made from 2-inch strips of brass gauze. The 
metal parts which are to be covered with windings are first insulated by the aid 
of muslin sewed on with needle and thread. For the armature 2 ounces of No. 24 
double cotton covered wire will be needed, while the field will require 4 ounces 
of No. 19. The windings and connections can be followed from the diagram 
of electrical construction. The needed current can be supplied from three or 
four bichromate batteries or the same number of dry cells or from a compound 
wound 30-watt dynamo. 

Any number of toys may be operated with the motor, and the sketches 
which are given are merely suggestive. The small glass bottle with screw top 
which is hung in its frame by the aid of pivot bearings makes a small but 
practical churn. By providing an arrangement for reducing the speed a sim- 
ple cable railway can also be put into operation. 








The water motor furnishes a school problem which brings the students into 
an understanding of a number of projects that are constantly being worked out 
in industrial life. It will in addition furnish a cheap and efficient source of 
power for carrying out a number of physical experiments in the schoolroom and 
is equally satisfactory for the amateur's home shop. R. L. Southworth, of 




Minneapolis, who furnishes the drawings for this motor, recommends it as a 
class project and divides his students into three groups, one to construct the 
housing, one the nozzle, and one, a larger group than the others, to build the 

cup wheel with its cups. The remaining 

motor parts are assigned to those finishing 
their work before the others. Each group 
elects a foreman and a substitute who con- 
duct the task under the supervision of the 
consulting engineer, the teacher. The 
shop idea can still further be carried out 
if the teacher will take care to provide a 
full-size assembly drawing and the nec- 
essary sheets of details, all in the form of 

Before actual construction is begun an 
excellent opportunity is afforded of bring- 
ing before the students by pictures and 
other data something of the principles in- 
volved in the operation of the Pelton 
wheel power plants, such as water fall, 
water pressure, the conducting and con- 
trol of the water and the use of the nozzle and the jet. 

As the construction proceeds, the topics discussed by the consulting engineer 
should run somewhat as follows: The construction of the cups so as to reverse 
the direction of the flow, compare this with the paddle wheel, under what condi- 
tions certain types of water wheels are used, the economy of water power com- 
pared with steam power, discussion of method of attaching wheel to the shaft by 
strap keys, bearings, why babibtt is suitable for this machine, the making of a 
simple mold of wood or in sand, the size of the pulley and its speed, the trans- 
mission of power by belt, the construction of a housing which will allow the ac- 


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tion of the wheel to be studied, the need of a waterproof and rust proof covering 
for wood and metal, asphaltum varnish, its source and preparation, the care of 
machinery, as lubrication, turning the water on slowly at first, and a simple 
spring balance dynamometer test. 

If a constant water pressure of from forty to one hundred pounds is avail- 
able this motor will operate a small dynamo, an emery wheel, a sewing machine, 
a fan or any very light machinery. 


The design for a plate rack is exceedingly simple, but very satisfactory, 

especially when the cross strip of the 
back has been enriched with some pleas- 
ing border decoration. Walter M. Mohr, 
who submitted the drawing, suggests a 
couple of ways in which the model can 
be still further simplified. Instead of 
housing the back strip into the ends, the 
recess can be cut clear through. This, 
'^ ^.^ -O^ 1 1 1 however, allows the end grain of the 

^iiiir - ' I back strip to show and is not so desir- 

able. Where it is wished to simplify 
the making of the pegs which hold the 
rack together, they can be made from 
;/2-inch dowel rods, a long flat surface 
being chiseled on one of the sides as in- 
dicated in the small sketch. The hole for such a peg is simply bored with a 
J/2-inch auger, which is tipped to cause the hole to slant slightly Inward. The 
center of this hole, is taken somewhat less than ]A, inch from the end piece, 
giving the necessary allowance for the tightening of the shelf. This same 
allowance, of course, must be made in case rectangular pegs are used. 


For a year all the shop tools at Indianapolis were ground on a 4-incb 
emery wheel running at 2,200 revolutions with power supplied by the water 
motor shown. The drawing is from the design of Philip S. Hasty of the Isadore 
Newman Manual Training School of New Orleans. 

The buckets may be made either of galvanized iron or 15-pound copper, 
though the latter is much to be preferred. After the buckets are cut to shape, 
the hollow in the end is made by cutting a cup-shaped depression of the size 
indicated in the end of a hardwood block and then driving the metal Into it 
by means of a ball-pene hammer or an ordinary hammer and a piece of ^-Inch 
or 3^-inch dowel rod 3 or 4 Inches long and rounded at one end. After shap- 
ing the cup the sides are bent down on the dotted lines and the buckets are 
slipped into the ^-Inch saw cuts in the hub and held in place by small brads 
driven into the hub. The hub, which Is of J/s-Inch whitewood, is held m 
position on the i^ij-Inch brass shaft by two small plates of galvanized iron or 



copper nailed to the hub and soldered to the shaft. The bearings are pieces of 
brass tubing slightly larger than the shaft, and inserted in the sides of the box. 
Of course it is extremely important that these bearings be exactly in line. 
Side play may be regulated by driving the bearings against the plates on the 
sides of the hub. In order to connect with the water pressure an ordinary hose 
coupling is inserted in the top of the box 
with its center directly over the center line 
of buckets when in a horizontal position. 
For a nozzle the top of a small oil can is 
used. The thread is cut off even with the 
large flange and the small end is cut off 
so as to leave an opening t^ inch in diam- 
eter. This is now placed in the hose coup- 
ling with a washer on top. When every- 
thing is coupled up there should be no leak- 
age. The wheel is contained within a box 

with J^-inch whitewood sides held apart by ^^-inch blocks, two at the bottom and 
one at the top. The open edge of the box is covered with a strip of galvanized 
iron or zinc, which is the last thing to be put in place. In order to observe the 
action of the jet a piece of glass may be inserted in the side near the jet. 

All wooden parts should be given two or three coats of paint before putting 
together to prevent their being aflPected by the water. It is best to finish the 
entire machine with the exception of the glass and galvanized iron or zinc 
covering and then take apart for painting. Just before it is put together for 
the last time the joints should be given an additional coat of paint and ^ut 
together while wet. The glass should be set in putty and painted well around 
the edges. 


The drawing of the oil cup is given as a piece that can well be worked out 
as a problem in pattern making on the lathe. The hexagonal shape of the lower 
part gives just a touch of bench work, while the model is interesting from the 
standpoint of pattern making because of the balanced core necessary. 


Those who are interested in metal-turning on the ordinary wood-turning lathe 
will appreciate the pewter candlestick shown in the photograph, which was made 
by a boy in the second-year high school. The description of the making which 
follows is that of Charles Wm. Weick of Columbia University, who sent in 
the model. 

A model cast from pewter is easily worked and can be readily turned and 
finished with the ordinary wood-turning tools. Moreover, it can be beautifully 
polished and as it will not tarnish easily it makes an excellent exercise for a 
class in turning. 

The pattern shown in the picture was turned in halves, an allowance of 
T^-inch being made over all for finish. This is more than is absolutely neces- 








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sary, but will insure plenty of room for irregularities in molding and in cen- 
tering in the lathe. 

The pattern and core boxes are made in the usual way, as are the molds 
and cores. The pewter, which fuses at a very 
low temperature, can be melted on a gas stove 
without difficulty. After the casting is made and 
the sprue cut off, all loose sand should be re- 
moved from the surface and the core sand dug 
out of the hole. The opening for holding the 
candle should be drilled to the proper size and 
a half-inch drill run through the full length of 
the model. This drilling can best be done by 
holding a drill in a drill chuck in the live spindle 
and feeding with the tailstock spindle. To pre- 
vent the turning of the model a handscrew can 
be used to hold it. To hold the candlestick in 
the lathe while it is being turned a piece of hard- 
wood is turned down to fit the taper in the head- 
stock spindle and long enough to project about 
two inches after it is driven in. This projection 
is now turned down so that it will fit tight in the 
large hole of the model, and the other end is 
steadied with the tailstock center. The surface 
must first be turned off at slow speed with the round-nosed tool. The scale on 
the casting contains more or less sand and it will take off the edge of the tool 
in a very few minutes if a high speed is used. After this scale is removed 


the shaping and turning to size may be done at a higher speed with the ordinary 
turning tools without much injury to the edge. 

But two tools are needed in the turning of the candlestick, the round-nosed 





tool and the sizing chisel. After the turning is completed, the model is 
smoothed down with sandpaper and oil. Coarse sandpaper is first used to 
take out all tool marks, after which a finer grade is applied with ordinary 
machine oil. This will give a fair polish, but will not eliminate the minute 
scratches. With some polishing material such as chalk or tripoli with oil and a 
little patience an excellent finish can be obtained which has all the appearance 
of polished silver. The turnings can, of course, be remelted, so that there need 
be no waste of material. 


H. C. Mohler of Galva, Illinois, has submitted the drawing of a pencil 
holder which would be very convenient for the schoolroom to hold the drawing 
pencils of the class. If desired both the pencils and the holes may be numbered. 
Mr. Mohler has used the problem both in the seventh and the eighth grades. 


E. D. Lemmerman of South High School, Cleveland, has discovered a 
simple hinge that is particularly suited to manual training work. In its sim- 
plest form it is nothing but a triangular plate of metal, held in place by three 
round-headed screws. Its adaptation to a box with an overhanging cover is 
also shown, while a hint is given as to how it may form a part of the scheme 
of applied decoration. 


Clinton S. Van Deusen, Editor. 

The Educational Club of Springfield, Mass., of which the men teachers of 
the city schools are members, indorsed at its meeting on the sixth of April the 
establishment of an industrial school in connection with the upper grammar 
grades, such as had been described by Charles H. Morse in a previous lecture 
before the club. The committee appointed to prepare a report on the subject 
consisted of William Orr, principal of the Central High School; Charles F. 
Warner, principal of the Technical High School; John L. Riley, principal of 
the Central Street School; M. W. Murray, supervisor of manual training, and 
Burton A. Adams of the Technical High School faculty. The report of this 
committee states that in the city of Springfield over 700 boys and girls are 
losing the benefits of training and discipline and are drifting out into life with 
no definite aim and no special skill for any vocation. 

It further appears that the high schools do not reach a large element of 
the youth of the city, for an examination of the school returns for the last five 
years shows that out of a given group of children entering the elementary 
course only one-third of the number reach the high schools. In other words, 70 
per cent, finish their schooling in the ninth grade or lower. 

Until the city meets more adequately the needs of this body of her children, 
our educational system cannot be considered in any way complete. An indus- 
trial school, so well described by Charles H. Morse of the state industrial 
commission in his recent address before this club, promises well for the solution 
of this problem. Such a school organized in connection with upper gram- 
mar grades, with courses in industrial training and the rudiments of trades 
for the boys, and practical studies pertaining to the home and the industries 
open to women, for the girls, with academic branches in mathematics, English, 
science and history, taught in simple, direct fashion, and so far as possible in 
relation to actual conditions in life, would appeal to the interest of many who 
have little aptitude or liking for books and theories. This school would aim 
to give its pupils good training, would tide them over the critical years from 
14 to 18, and provide the rudiments, at least, of useful trades, with a view to the 
capacity and trend of each pupil. Such an institution ought to justify itself by 
saving boys and girls for useful lives, and should be a means of furnishing 
trained and skilled workmen for our factories and industries. ^ 

The city of Boston now has forty-seven grammar grade manual training 
rooms. The latest one of these to be opened is in the Quincy School. 

^Reporting changes in location of manual training teachers will be a 
special feature of this department in the October number. Each reader is 
invited to send us a postal card, not later than August 25th, giving details of 
changes that have come to his attention. — Ed. 



A party of manual training teachers leaves Boston on June 24th for an 
extended European tour, visiting the exhibit of the International Congress of 
Drawing Teachers in London. The party numbers twenty-two and includes 
the following manual training teachers: Frank M. Leavitt, assistant director of 
drawing and manual training; John C. Brodhead, assistant to the director in 
manual training; Miss Florence P. Donelson, Miss Cornelia D. Burbank, Miss 
Jessie L. Burns, Miss Edna L. Allen, Miss Sarah M, Aldrich, Miss Olive I. 
Harris, Miss Florence O. Bean, Miss Sarah I. Wilson, Miss Grace J. Freeman 
and Miss Sheba E. Berry — all these of the Boston schools. Miss Martha E. 
Hall, of Taunton, also goes with this party. 

The University of Texas has recently revised its entrance requirements so 
as to allow either one or two elective units in manual training. 

The manual training department of the schools at Bath, Maine, has received 
a bequest of $40,000. 

Daniel Upton, principal of the Technical High School of Buffalo, will spend 
this summer abroad. He will visit the various industrial and business schools 
of Belgium and Germany, also their manufacturing centers. He will thus have 
an opportunity to see how the school work Is given a practical demonstration 
in the foreign manufactories. 

The evening work of the Technical High School at Buifalo is proving so 
attractive that it has been decided to open a second annex. It Is to be In 
grammar school No. 20, which Is In the Black Rock district. The Black Rock 
Manufacturing Association have voted, unanimously, to take measures to secure 
the attendance of their employes at this school next year. Draughting, arithmetic, 
applied mechanics and electricity are to be taught in this annex. 

Miss Anna S. Lagergren has returned to her former position In the School 
for the Blind at Jacksonville, 111. 

Several years ago Mr. L. L. Wells, a retired farmer of Watseka, Illinois, 
left a sum of money at his death to be used in founding a school for poor boys 
in the state of Illinois between the ages of twelve and eighteen 5-ears. Nothing 
was done about the matter, except to allow the money to accumulate, until about 
four years ago, when the people of Watseka began to urge the trustees of the 
fund to take further action. To satisfy this demand, the trustees built a small 
two-story brick building, but without any definite idea as to the sort of school 
It was to be used for. 

After more waiting and further discussion, the trustees finally came to the 
conclusion that they could not do more for the poor boys than the public 
schools were doing unless they were to organize a manual training school. Co- 
operating with the superintendent of public schools, they have arranged for the 
boys of the seventh and eighth grades and the high school of Watseka to spend 
a part of their time In this school of manual training. It will also be opened 
to boys of nearby towns who may wish to attend. 

To take charge of this school, the trustees have appointed Joseph W. Paul, 
formerly Instructor In manual training at Rockford, Illinois, a graduate of both 




the engineering and the normal manual training courses at Bradley Polytechnic 
Institute. Equipment for woodworking and drawing will be installed during the 
summer and the school will open early in September. 

Crookston, Minn., is to introduce manual training in the schools the coming 
year. A large room equipped with twenty benches will be devoted to this 
work, accommodating boys from the sixth grade through the high school. Me- 
chanical drawing will also be given in the course. J. H. Powers, who has had 
charge of manual training at Hutchinson, Minn., the past two years, will intro- 
duce the work at Crookston. 

A course in handicrafts has been given this year for the first time at 
Stanford University to major students in the department of drawing. The 
subjects given were textiles, block-printing and stencilling, plaster modeling, 
tiles in wax, casting plaster and coloring with oil colors. Some elementary 
work in wood-carving and metal-work was also given. A. B. Clark and 
Robt. B. Harshe were in charge of the work. 

The State Normal School at Maryville, Mo., has a new building in process 
of erection that will be one of the largest school buildings in the state. Strong 
departments along all lines of handwork are being planned for. Considerable 
floor space will be devoted to manuel training. A fine equipment for the work 
will be installed in the new building. The department will be under the 
direction of Albert F. Siepert of Bradley Polytechnic Institute, formerly instruc- 
tor in manual training at Iowa City. Miss Bigley, Pratt Institute, will teach 
the classes in elementary manual training. 


The progress of manual training and domestic science in Cincinnati is 
quite remarkable, as is shown by the recent report of Superintendent Dyer. The 
subjects were introduced in September, 1905. Work was begun in the seventh 
and eighth grades. It has been extended to include the first year of high school 
and the sixth grade in the grammar schools. One and a half hours a week 
are given in the grades; and six hours a week are given in the high schools. 
The work is required in all the grades, but it is an option with botany and 
zoology in the high school. 

The introduction of the work has met with no opposition. On the other 
hand, there has been considerable pressure to extend the work more rapidly, 
especially in the high schools. As a result the two new high schools are being 
provided with ample facilities for this work. The equivalent of a whole floor, 
200 feet square, is given to shops in each building, and about half this amount 
of space to household science and art. Mechanical drawing, joinery, wood- 
turning, pattern-making, forging, foundry work, and machine shop practice are 
being provided for boys, and additional space for the development of other work. 
Sewing, cutting, dressmaking, millinery, household decoration, home hygiene, 
cooking, chemistry of foods and physiology are provided for girls. New gram- 
mar school buildings are planned with the best accommodations for manual 
training and domestic science. There are now 22 centers for boys and 18 for 


girls. The average cost of equipment for each is about $500. Frank H. Ball, 
supervisor of manual training, and Miss Ullrich, the supervisor of domestic 
science, each has eleven assistants. 

Besides the regular day work these departments are developing industrial 
work in evening classes which is meeting a popular demand. 


Last fall a manual arts club was organized at Seattle. The membership is 
limited to the thirty-four special teachers in the department of manual arts. 

The purpose of the club is to promote a professional and social spirit by 
knowing what the "other fellow" is doing and how he does it. Monthly meet- 
ings are held, at which a program is given and business transacted. Talks 
have been given by different members and by invited speakers from the business 
and professional world, on art, educational and industrial topics. Several trips 
to local industries have been profitably made. Good work has been accomplished 
by the committees on "College credit for manual arts," "Why more high school 
pupils do not elect manual training," "The fireless cooker," "Handy knowledge 
and how to apply it for boys and girls." Other lines of activity are under 
consideration. A number of the ward schools had Christmas exhibits to display 
the work of the pupils made for gifts. The club spent an afternoon at one of 
the exhibits, passing through the rooms from the first to the eighth grade, 
examining the exhibits, which were explained by the supervisors in charge of 
the different kinds of work. 

A successful correlation of the drawing and sewing in the making of 
stencils and applying them to curtains, covers, folios, etc., has been accomplished 
in the seventh grade. In the eighth grade wood block printing has been very 
successful. The designs were cut on the blocks in the manual training center, 
and the fabrics prepared by the girls in sewing were thus decorated with 
appropriate design and color. 

At one of the centers the girls asked permission to work at benchwork at 
noon. Now there is a waiting list and every bench is taken for most of the noon 
period. The work the girls do is equal to that of their brothers. The boys 
became interested in this seeming encroachment upon their activity and now 
have an equally enthusiastic class in cooking at the noon hour also. This is 

The junior and senior girls in the high school domestic science courses are 
having some practical application of their art in serving luncheons to the 
different women's clubs in their practice dining room. The ladies pay all the 
bills and the girls plan, purchase and prepare and serve the menu. This is not 
only valuable for the girls, but is another means for acquainting the public 
with the school and its purpose. 

The subject of industrial education is being considered by The Seattle 
Principals' Association in a series of meetings. Indications are that the dis- 
cussion will result in definite recommendations for changes in the existing 
courses of the schools, beneficial to the further extension of manual training. 

The schools of Olympia, Wash., now have in operation an energetic manual 
arts department. The work in drawing, domestic science and manual training 


Includes the seventh and eighth grades and high school. It is compulsory in 
the grades and optional in the high school. Altogether about 100 boys and 125 
girls are taking the courses. The high school is used as a grade center and the 
grade pupils come in once a week for an hour and a half's work. The work 
in the high school consists of five periods of an hour and a half each a week. 
In domestic science two periods are devoted to designing and drawing, one to 
sewing, and two to cooking. The boys are given two periods of mechanical 
drawing and three periods of shopwork a week. It is aimed as much as pos- 
sible to make the drawing help out the other courses. Drawing for the girls 
is designed to cultivate appreciation and taste. The work is closely connected 
with domestic science. In the boys' work the connection is still closer. The boy 
who wants to make a table, for instance, is first required to make a freehand 
sketch of it, then a mechanical or plan drawing, and if these are satisfactory 
he is then allowed to start work in the shop. 

No boards are planed for the sake of planing, and no joints are made for 
joint's sake. In other words, the students' efforts are exerted in making useful 
objects. Many pieces of furniture about the building, such as a piano bench, 
wall clock, tables and cabinets for the science and domestic economy depart- 
ments, picture frames, etc., have been made by the pupils. Their motto is "Made 
in Our Own Shop," and this has been carried so far that the hot water and 
gas plants were installed by boys without the assistance of plumbers or steam 
fitters. In addition to the articles made for the school many taborets, writing 
desks, Morris chairs, tables, music cabinets, etc., are made, and these may be 
taken home by the students if they pay for the material used. 

The value of manual training is not valued by the completed pieces, for 
the making of such pieces involves the use of the mind and hand in a manner 
that means a decided development in the student's power to do and be, which will 
mean much in his after life. 


At Toledo the work in manual arts is growing. There are five centers and 
six regular teachers of manual training in the upper grades. Each of these 
five centers has one regular teacher and a sixth teacher assists one day a week 
in the center. On that day the three largest classes come to the center so, with 
the aid of the extra teacher, the large classes receive as thorough instruction 
as the small classes. There is no regular supervisor of manual training, but 
Charles E. Collins, one of the manual training teachers, devotes what time he 
can spare from his heavy duties as teacher to some general supervising of the 
work. In addition to the shopwork, handwork in the lower grades, knife work, 
sewing and domestic science receive considerable attention in the Toledo schools. 
The work in domestic science in the grammar grades is especially to be com- 

The Toledo Museum of Art very kindly opens its doors to the work of the 
public school pupils in art and manual training. At this institution from April 
27 to May 10, an exhibition of public school work was held. This was thrown 
open to the public. 



Manual training was introduced at Eaton and St. Marys this year. O. P. 
Kimmel, at the former place, and E. L. Steenrod at the latter, have worked 
hard and the results are very encouraging. Recently each city has had an 
exhibition and excellent work was shown. In St. Marys, at least, the work 
will be extended next year. 

Hamilton is making plans to extend manual training into the high school 
next year. An additional teacher will be employed as assistant to Supervisor 




The Manual Training Teacher, the journal of the National Association of 
Manual Training Teachers, is publishing month by month a series of articles 
under the general title, "Makers of Manual Training." These articles are 
biographical sketches written in such a way as to give the reader many glimpses 
of the interesting events connected with the early development of manual train- 
ing. The series has already included the following titles: Sir Philip Magnus, 
Herr Otto Salomon, Professor Calvin M. Woodward, Mr. Solomon Barter, Dr. 
Alwin Pabst and Professor W. Ripper. 

Another series of thought-stimulating articles in which each writer seems to 
speak with perfect freedom and frankness is entitled "Manual Training Falla- 
cies." The first fallacy is "that a scheme of work should be rigidly adhered to," 
the second "that drawing should always be associated with, and should precede, 
handwork," the third "that machine tools are out of place in the handicraft 
room," and fourth "that mechanical perfection is synthetic with educational 
attainment." These are not flavorless productions, but each is well spiced to 
suit the individual taste. Here are a few samples: 

"Those nicely arranged, duly numbered models on that big board look 
very impressive and precise." 

"Fit your scheme to the boys, and not your boys to the scheme." 

"There were toys to play with, and utensils and apparatus for games long 
before sixteenths of an inch were thought of." 

"The 'educational value' of any model lies in the interest which it develops 
in a boy, because through interest and through interest only can you ever hope 
to get eventually accuracy, perseverance, knowledge of tools, love of work, 
carefulness, patience, and all the rest of the scheme-maker's list." 

Educational Handiuork is the name of a new publication to be issued three 
times a year by the Educational Handwork Association. Volume 1, number 1, 
appeared in February. The journal is intended chiefly as a means of communi- 
cation between the executive officers of the Association and the branches and 
individual teachers working under the influence of the Association. The first 
number begins a strong article on "The New Basis of Method," by Professor 
David S. Snedden of Teachers College, New York. It also contains an appre- 
ciation of Herr Otto Salomon. We are glad to welcome this new journal. 

Trade Schools, by Andrew S. Draper, commissioner of education in the 
state of New York. C. W. Bardeen, Syracuse, 1908. 5x7 in. pp. 136, price 
50 cents. 

This extract from Commissioner Draper's report entitled "Our Children, 
Our Schools and Our Industries," has been printed by the New York State 
Education Department and by several educational journals either in full or in 
part, and now appears in book form. Probably nothing on industrial education 



since the report of the Massachusetts Commission has attracted half so much 
attention as this vigorous arraignment of the public schools. "From the bottom 
to the top of the school system," says Dr. Draper, "the eye is on the school 
above, and the school above leads to a professional or a managing employment 
rather than to a trade vocation." He recommends the establishment of public 
trade schools to begin at the end of the elementary school course, and then run 
parallel to the first three years of the high school. He would shorten the time 
of the elementary school work to seven years, would push the child along so 
that he would finish the elementary school in his fourteenth year, and when 
he is fifteen he would send him to the trades school luhether he has finished the 
elementary school or not. Moreover, he would have the public schools keep 
track of every boy until he is eighteen years old. If he leaves school to work 
in a factory, he would expect him to come to a continuation school till his seven- 
teenth year is completed. 

From beginning to end the book is stimulating and timely. It should be 
read and re-read by educators who are shaping the work of the public schools. 

Die Knabenhandarbeit in der heutlgen Erziehung (Manual Training for 
Boys in the Education of the Present Day), by Dr. Alwin Pabst. B. G. Taubner, 
Leipsic, 1907. 5x7 in. pp. 118; illustrated with photographs taken in German, 
English and American schools. 

The announcement of any book an education by Dr. Pabst would be sure 
to attract the attention of manual training teachers everj'where, but this one 
is destined to receive even much wider attention, since it deals with the broader 
aspects of the subject and is written by one whose experience and observation 
especially qualify him to speak with authority. Such a survey of the whole field 
is certainly of great value at this time. 

Dr. Pabst begins his book with a discussion of the human hand and the 
tool, motor sensations and exercise of the muscles, the sociological importance 
of manual training and its value as a means in general education. He then 
considers instruction in manual training in the history of pedagogy and in the 
light of modern pedagogic tendencies. This is followed by a consideration of 
the kinds of work included in manual training, and various attempts to include 
such instruction in the course of the public schools. In the fifth and final 
chapter he discusses the systems of manual training in different countries, 
including Sweden, France, England, North America and Japan. The volume 
closes with brief consideration of the manual training exhibits at Paris in 
1900 and St. Louis in 1904. 

Paper Toys and How to Make Them. By Fritz Koch. Koch Paper Toy 
Co., 1239 Spring Garden St., Philadelphia, Pa. This pamphlet is sent out with 
the printed patterns for some remarkably well designed toy furniture and uten- 
sils. As stated by the author, it seems almost incredible that each of these 
toys can be constructed out of a single flat piece of paper. Then, too, they are 
so much stronger than most paper toys. This is due to the fact that they utilize 
"angle strength," or the principle of the angle iron so extensively applied in 
steel construction. From an artistic point of view, also, they are excellent. 
Whether one wishes to have the children use the printed patterns as intended 


by the author or have the chidren make a part or all of their own patterns, a 
full set of "Koch toys" is certainly suggestive and ought to stimulate the con- 
struction of a higher grade of furniture for doll houses. — B. 

The following have been received: 

Occupations and Industrial Work for Primary Grades. Four booklets c 
lining the handwork for the first, second, third and fourth grades of the schools 
of Louisville, Ky. These have been prepared for the use of the grade teachers 
of Louisville by Miss Sarah Logan Rogers, primary supervisor. 

Annual Report of the Inspector of Technical Education, Ontario, by Albert 
H. Leake. A 250-page report containing nearly 100 full-page illustrations of 
almost every type of school handwork for both boys and girls, also plans and per- 
spective views of buildings, and photographs of interiors of workrooms. 

Manual and Industrial Training, by B. C. Wooster, Superintendent of 
Schools, Bergen County, N. J. An address before the Bergen County Principals* 
Association, Jan. 25, 1908. 

The Industrial Improvement Schools of JVurttemberg, by Albert A. Snow- 
den. Teachers College Record for November, 1907. Price, 30 cents. 

Industrial School Exhibition. An illustrated book on American industrial 
and trade schools prepared for use in connection with the Chicago meeting of 
the National Society for the Promotion of Industrial Education under the direc- 
tion of Charles H. Morse, secretary of the Massachusetts Commission on Indus- 
trial Education. Price, 50 cents. 

Regulation and Syllabus of the Board of Examinations for Educational 
Handwork, London, England. John Cooke, secretary. 

The Cleveland Technical High School, Cleveland, Ohio. James F. Barker, 
principal. Descriptive circular, with illustrations of plans of the new building, 
also outline of course of study. 

The Winona Normal Bulletin, January, 1908, Winona, Minnesota. Contains 
an illustrated article on "Cardboard-Raffia Weaving" by J. H. Sandt. 

Annual Report of the Public Schools of Cincinnati. 1907. Contains floor plans 
and perspective views of several new buildings in which manual training is 
given a place. 

Inventions, Hoiv to Protect, Sell and Buy Them, by Frederick B. Wright. 
Spon & Chamberlain, New York, 1908. 5x7 in., pp. 108; price, paper covers, 
25 cents. "Of value to every inventor, whether he be a tyro with a wonderful 
first idea, or one who has been through the mill several times." 

Report of the Director of Technical Education and Manual Training, Auk- 
land Province, Nevj Zealand. By George George. A very interesting report cov- 
ering handwork in the primary grades, agricultural education, cookery and wood- 
work at the manual training schools, technical training of teachers, continuation 
and technical classes in the country centers, and the Aukland Technical College. 
Looking over this report one is sure to be impressed with the comprehensiveness, 
thorough organization and the technical excellence of the work of this province. 

Marienfeld. Announcement of Dr. C. Hanford Henderson's summer camp 
for boys at Chesham, New Hampshire, and his "winter school" to be opened 
next fall near Riverside, California.